Repository

The topics for discussion on this portal have already been analyzed by multiple actors. In this repository, the GS / OAS brings together some of them, as one more contribution to the discussion. This repository has two sections: In the Policy section, we will integrate information on policies relevant to the issues under discussion that are being implemented by Member States, Observer States and other States of the world. In Studies we will include analyzes, reports and reports published by academic institutions, think tanks, international and multilateral organizations, non-governmental organizations and private entities, all of them of recognized prestige, which are relevant to the conversation. The OAS will publish these articles and reports in their original language.

Tracking and Tracing Covid: Protecting privacy and data while using apps and biometrics

  • 23 April 2020

Digital  technologies,  in  particular  mobile  and  biometric  applications,  are  being  adopted  in innovative ways to improve the effectiveness of government front-line responses to COVID-19.·The resulting information and trends are invaluable for governments seeking to track the COVID-19outbreak, warn vulnerable communities, and understand the impact of policies such as social distancing and confinement.· Disclosures of personal information can allow the public to better identify potential COVID-19 infections and track the spread over time. However, current digital solutions for monitoring and containment have varying implications for privacy and data protection. ·Fully transparent and accountable privacy-preserving solutions should be embedded by design to  balance  the  benefits  and  the  risks  associated  with  personal  data  collection,  process  and sharing. Data should be retained only for so long as is necessary to serve the specific purpose for which it was collected

Using artificial intelligence to help combat COVID-19

  • 23 April 2020

Today, AI technologies and tools play a key role in every aspect of the COVID-19 crisis response: o    understanding the virus and accelerating medical research on drugs and treatments    detecting and diagnosing the virus, and predicting its evolution    assisting in preventing or slowing the virus' spread through surveillance and contact tracing    responding to the health crisis through personalized information and learning    monitoring the recovery and improving early warning tools.  •To help facilitate the use of AI throughout the crisis, policy makers should encourage the sharing of medical, molecular, and scientific datasets and models on collaborative platforms to help AI researchers build effective tools for the medical community, and should ensure that researchers have access to the necessary computing capacity. •To realize the full promise of AI to combat COVID-19, policy makers must ensure that AI systems are trustworthy and aligned with the OECD AI Principles: they should respect human rights and privacy;  be  transparent,  explainable,  robust,  secure  and  safe;  and  actors  involved  in  their  development and use should remain accountable

Tracking and tracing Covid: protecting privacy and data while using apps and biometrics

  • 23 April 2020

Digital technologies, in particular mobile and biometric applications, are being adopted in innovative ways to improve the effectiveness of government front-line responses to COVID-19.·The resulting information and trends are invaluable for governments seeking to track the COVID-19outbreak, warn vulnerable communities, and understand the impact of policies such as social distancing and confinement. ·Disclosures of personal information can allow the public to better identify potential COVID-19 infections andtrack the spread over time. However, current digital solutions for monitoring and containment have varying implications for privacy and data protection. ·Fully transparent and accountable privacy-preserving solutions should be embedded by design to balance the benefits and the risks associated with personal data collection, process and sharing. Data should be retained only for so long as is necessary to serve the specific purpose for which it was collected

Trade Facilitation and the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • 22 April 2020

Trade facilitation is critical in the current crisis to ensure the swift movement of essential medical, food and IT supplies. Implementing reforms in the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement can help. In particular, governments can do three things: First, they can ensure that all formalities are transparent and accessible to all traders, especially Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises; Second, they can expedite standard formalities to leave room for necessary additional COVID-19 related controls;  Third, they can digitize all possible processes as much as their infrastructure allows to speed up processing and reduce the need for physical contact between border agencies and traders

Salud ambiental y resiliencia ante las pandemias

  • 21 April 2020

La pandemia decoronavirus (COVID-19) pone de relieve la necesidad de desarrollar una estrategia global e integrada para proteger la salud humana. El mejoramiento de la salud ambiental a través de una buena calidad del aire, del agua, de los servicios de saneamiento y de la gestión de los residuos, junto con la protección dela biodiversidad, reducirá el grado de vulnerabilidad de las comunidades en caso de pandemia y, en consecuencia, aumentará el bienestar general de la sociedad, al tiempo que reforzará nuestra resiliencia frente a futuras pandemias. La exposición a la contaminación atmosférica (exterior) y del aire (interior) en espacios cerrados y viviendas aumenta el riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares, respiratorias y trastornos del desarrollo, aparte del riesgo de muerte prematura, acentuando la vulnerabilidad de la población frente al COVID-19. El acceso al agua corriente, la eficacia de los servicios de saneamiento y la conservación de la vida silvestre en su hábitat natural son fundamentales en la lucha contra la propagación de las pandemias; la gestión eficaz de los residuos se revela igualmente imprescindible para minimizar posibles efectos colaterales en la salud y el medio ambiente

Environmental health and strengthening resilience to pandemics

  • 21 April 2020

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the need for a comprehensive and integrated approach to human health. Enhancing environmental health through better air quality, water and sanitation, waste management, along with efforts to safeguard biodiversity, will reduce the vulnerability of communities to pandemics and thus improve overall societal well-being and resilience. Exposure to ambient and indoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular, respiratory and developmental diseases, as well as premature death, and makes individuals more vulnerable to COVID-19. Water access and quality and biodiversity protection are key to battling the spread of pandemics, while effective waste management is essential to minimise possible secondary impacts upon health and the environment.

COVID-19 and fiscal relations across levels of government

  • 21 April 2020

The focus of this brief is on the policy responses that governments can and are taking through the channel of inter-governmental relations to tackle the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. Sub-national governments are playing a crucial role in the current crisis, and past experience suggests they will need sufficient support to ensure they can confront the risks. Co-ordinated action across different levels of government is essential to ensuring that responses to the crisis are effective across all regions within countries

Public Integrity for an Effective COVID-19 Response and Recovery

  • 19 April 2020

Public integrity is key to a resilient response to the COVID-19 crisis, ensuring that government action benefits those in need. This crisis creates opportunities for many integrity violations and could intensify fraud and corruption, particularly in public procurement, economic stimulus packages and public organisations. This could significantly undermine government action. Both short-and long-term measures are needed to address these risks, focusing on procurement strategies, the resources of internal audit functions, and integrity strategies in public organisations, among others. This policy brief discusses the key integrity challenges and recommends measures that can help governments ensure an effective response and recovery from the COVID-19 crisis

Financial consumer protection

  • 17 April 2020

The COVID-19 emergency will affect the lives of many people around the globe. There are a number of ways that policy makers, public authorities and financial services providers can safeguard the interest of financial consumers who may be experiencing financial difficulties and help them to manage their personal finances. These options are not recommendations but can assist policy makers in their consideration of appropriate measures to help financial consumers, depending on the contexts and circumstances of individual jurisdictions, during this difficult period. These options are consistent with the G20/OECD High Level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection that set out the foundations for a comprehensive financial consumer protection framework

Beyond Containment: Health systems responses to COVID-19 in the OECD

  • 16 April 2020

Health systems are facing the most serious global pandemic crisis in a century. Containing and mitigating the spread and infection rate of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2isthe first priority of public health authorities to distribute the number of infections over time and, if possible, reduce the incidence of the disease it causes (COVID-19). However, beyond containment, additional measures –operational, financial, and R&D –are needed to provide effective patient care and reduce the pressure on health systems to manageable levels. The main focus of this brief is on the policiesaimed at providing effective care and managing the pressure on health systems. Four key measures health systems are putting in place in response to the epidemic are considered: 1)ensuring access of the vulnerable to diagnostics and treatment; 2)strengthening and optimising health system capacity to respond to the rapid increase in caseloads; 3)how to leverage digital solutions and data to improve surveillance and care; and 4)how to improve R&D for accelerated development of diagnostics, treatments and vaccines. Access our COVID-19 OECD Health System Response Trackerto learn more about the latest in OECD countries' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.Beyond Containment: Health systems responses to COVID-19 in the OECD

Statistical Insights: Small, Medium and Vulnerable

  • 15 April 2020

An increasing number of countries have begun to impose containment measures in order to curb the spread of COVID-19 infections and, in turn, introduce significant financial support packages to mitigate the impact on firms and people.
Many of the firms are Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)1, which are particularly vulnerable to a prolonged lockdown. A 10 March survey by the business finance platform MarketFinance2, before the UK introduced containment measures, revealed that two-thirds of SMEs in the UK were already reporting severe cash-flow problems and one-third claimed they were likely to fold within weeks without support.

Ensuring data privacy as we battle covid-19

  • 14 April 2020

Many governments are taking unprecedented measures to track, trace and contain the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), by turning to digital technologies and advanced analytics to collect, process and share data for effective front-line responses.  •While the exceptional measures implemented or envisaged in some countries may ultimately prove effective in limiting the spread of the virus, some approaches have proven controversial in  terms  of  their  risk  of  violating  privacy  and  other  fundamental  rights  of  citizens,  particularly  when such measures lack transparency and public consultation. •Privacy enforcement authorities have generally endorsed a pragmatic and contextual approach at times of crisis or a state of emergency, and exercised enforcement discretion recalling that respect  for  fundamental  data  protection  and  privacy  principles  do  not  stand  in  the  way  of  necessary and proportionate front-line responses to COVID-19.•Policy makers, in consultation with privacy enforcement authorities, must assess the possible trade-offs in data utilization during this crisis (reconciling the risks and benefits), but must ensure that  any  extraordinary  measures  are proportionate  to  the  risks  and  are  implemented with  full  transparency,  accountability  and  a commitment  to  immediately cease  or  reverse  exceptional  uses of data when the crisis is over.

COVID-19 GLOBAL PANDEMIC: Joint Statement by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD

  • 9 April 2020

Tackling CORONA Virus, contributing to a global effort

Sistemas de salud resilientes: Aprendizajes de la crisis del COVID-19

  • 7 April 2020

Este artículo forma parte de una serie en la que expertos de la OCDE y líderes de pensamiento de todo el mundo y sectores de la sociedad, abordan la crisis del coronavirus (COVID-19), debatiendo y desarrollando soluciones para el momento actual y el futuro. 

Tax treaties and the impact of the COVID-19 crisis

  • 3 April 2020

The  COVID-19  pandemic  has  forced  governments  to  take  unprecedented  measures  such  as restricting  travel  and  implementing  strict  quarantine  requirements.  In  this  difficult  context,  most countries are putting stimulus packages in place, including measures to support employment, for example, taking  on  the  burden  of  unpaid  salaries  on  behalf  of  companies  suffering  from  the economic  effects  ofCOVID-19  pandemic.  As  a  result  of  these  restrictions,  many  cross-border workers  are  unable  to  physically  perform  their  duties  in  their  country  of  employment.  They  may have  to  stay  at  home  and  telework,  or  may  be  laid  off  because  of  the  exceptional  economic circumstances. 2.This unprecedented situation is raising many tax issues, especially where there are cross-border elements in the equation; for example, cross-border workers, or individuals who are stranded in a country  that  is  not  their  country  of  residence.  These  issues  have  an  impact  on  the  right  to  tax between countries, which is currently governed by international tax treaty rules that delineate taxing rights.3.At the request of concerned countries, the OECD Secretariat has issued this guidance on these issues based on a careful analysis of the international tax treaty rules

Dealing with digital security risk during covid-19

  • 3 April 2020

Digital security risk is increasing as malicious actors take advantage of the coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic. Coronavirus-related scams and phishing campaigns are on the rise. There are also cases of ransomware and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks targeting hospitals. •Individuals and businesses should exercise caution when they receive coronavirus-related communications, and use appropriate digital security “hygiene” measures (e.g. patching, use of strong and different passwords, regular backups, etc.). •It is essential that governments raise awareness, monitor the threat landscape and publish easily accessible guidelines for digital security hygiene, in particular to vulnerable groups such as the elderly and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Governments should also co-operate with all relevant stakeholders, including to provide assistance to operators of critical activities such as hospitals, as appropriate

COVID-19: Protecting people and societies

  • 1 April 2020

In only a few weeks, COVID-19 has profoundly changed our lives, causing tremendous human suffering and challenging the most basic foundations of societal well-being. Beyond the immediate impacts on health, jobs and incomes, the epidemic is increasing people’s anxiety and worry, affecting their social relations, their trust in other people and in institutions, their personal security and sense of belonging. The short and medium-term impacts of COVID-19 will be particularly severe for the most disadvantaged and risk compounding existing socio-economic divides. This policy brief looks at the broad range of effects that COVID-19 will have on different aspects of people’s lives, with a focus on specific population groups such as children, women and the elderly. It calls for rapid and decisive action by governments in order to support the most vulnerable people highlighting the importance of a broad and coordinated policy response that includes strengthened social protection, education, health care, housing support and specific interventions to enhance personal security of women and children, as well as actions supporting vulnerable workers, small businesses, communities and regions left behind.

Public debt management responses

  • 31 March 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic poses significant challenges for public debt management offices (DMOs). Some of these challenges include i) sudden and significant increases in borrowing needs; ii) volatile market conditions; iii) health and safety risks in workplaces; and iv) temporary mismatches in fiscal cash flows. Debt management preparedness to help respond to these operational, liquidity and funding challenges is critical for supporting both the efficacy of each government’s emergency response and the smooth functioning of financial markets. This note will assist debt management offices worldwide in their consideration of appropriate measures to prepare and strengthen the capacity of their debt management operations to respond to these challenges

Global financial markets policy responses

  • 31 March 2020

In early March 2020, the OECD’s Interim Economic Outlook highlighted that the coronavirus outbreak had already caused a sharp decline in economic growth in China, and subsequent outbreaks in other countries were eroding prospects for economic growth. Since that time, the increasing spread of the coronavirus across countries has prompted many governments to introduce unprecedented measures to contain the epidemic. While necessary to contain the virus, these measures have led to many businesses being shut down temporarily, widespread restrictions on travel and mobility, financial market turmoil, an erosion of confidence and heighted uncertainty. This approach suggests that the shutdowns could lead to sharp declines in the level of output in many economies, with consumers’ expenditure potentially dropping by around one-third. Changes of this magnitude would far outweigh the economic recession during the global financial crisis

Containment & mitigation measures

  • 24 March 2020

COVID-19 cases have grown rapidly in a growing number of countries, triggering bold policy responses. This document focuses on containment and mitigation measures to flatten the peak of COVID-19and thus decrease as much as possible its huge strain on health care systems. The brief explains what containment and mitigation measures are, why there is a need to adopt a package of measures to enhance their overall impact, and then presents evidence on the relative effectiveness of each main measure, drawing from previous episodes of epidemic outbursts, largely to inform on a possible exit strategy once the virus is under control. Access the Country Policy Tracker to navigate the global response

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