Parity as a democratic principle

Women's political participation has made significant progress over the last few decades. However, and independently of the commitments adopted on women's political rights, States have made limited efforts to put these commitments into practice.

Since the 1990s, the majority of Latin American countries have addressed this issue through the adoption of gender quotas.

In recent years, and specifically in Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua (2008 through 2014), the debate has begun to revolve around the idea of parity between women and men in public life.

Parity is a measure of justice that touches on three dimensions:

  1. equal participation of women and men (50/50) in decision-making positions in the public and private sectors, from the international to the local level;
  2. exercise of power under conditions of equality, that is, free from discrimination and violence based on gender and/or sex;
  3. the incorporation of the agenda for women's rights and gender equality


Portada Paridad MEX-NIC

Democratic Parity in Latin America: The cases of Mexico and Nicaragua

This publication is a new achievement of the joint work that the CIM and International IDEA have been developing over the last decade to strengthen the political rights of women in democracies. In 2013, the CIM and International IDEA made a first effort to document the processes that led to the approval of parity in three countries: Ecuador, Bolivia and Costa Rica. In this new edition, the scope of the initial study has been extended to the analysis of two important experiences: Mexico and Nicaragua.

Download the full publication in: Spanish (not available in English)

Portada Paridad

Banking on parity: Democratizing the political system in Latin America

This series of analytical case studies explores the adoption and preliminary implementation of parity in Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador as a sustainable and institutionalized alternative to quotas or other affirmative action measures.

Download the full publication in: Spanish (not available in English)

Portada Paridad

Quota Laws: State of the Art, Good Practices and Persistent Challenges in the Andean Region

The aim of this study is to highlight the current state women's political representation in Latin America and the Caribbean, with a specific focus on the Andean region, as well as the state of the art in electoral gender quota laws in the eleven countries that have adopted them.

Download the full publication in: Spanish (not available in English)

Portada Paridad

Special session of the Andean Parliament on the implementation of quota laws
(May 6th and 7th 2010, Lima)