Los temas a discusión en este portal ya han sido analizados por múltiples actores. En este repositorio la SG/OEA reúne algunos de ellos, como una contribución más a la discusión. Este repositorio tiene dos secciones: En la de Políticas integraremos información sobre políticas relevantes a los temas a debate que estén siendo implementadas por los Estados Miembros, Estados Observadores y otros Estados del mundo. En la de Estudios incluiremos análisis, informes y reportes publicados por instituciones académicas, centros de pensamiento, organizaciones internacionales y multilaterales, organizaciones no gubernamentales y entes privados, todos ellos de reconocido prestigio, que sean relevantes para la conversación. La OEA publicará estos artículos e informes en su idioma original.

Tax and fiscal policy: Strengthening confidence and resilience

  • 19 mayo 2020

This report focuses on how tax policy can aid governments in dealing with the COVID-19 crisis. The report finds that governments have taken decisive action to contain and mitigate the spread of the virus and to limit the adverse impacts on their citizens and their economies. Through various measures, countries are helping businesses stay afloat, supporting households and helping preserve employment. This readiness to act helps boost confidence. However, further action, with broader and stronger measures, is needed. Policies will need to be adapted to the evolving health and economic challenges. Containment measures may only be removed gradually, so recovery may be uneven. Where recovery is weak, fiscal action can strengthen it. In this context, multilateral collaboration will be vital for recovery and to strengthen the global economy’s resilience to future shocks. The report finds that specific support will be necessary for developing countries, including through international coordination, financial support and adaptation of tax rules that benefit all countries. Public finances will eventually need to be restored. All options should be explored, including revamping old tools, introducing new ones, and bolstering ongoing efforts to address the international tax challenges posed by the digitalisation of the economy. Tax and Fiscal Policy in Response to the Coronavirus Crisis: Strengthening Confidence and Resilience

Tax and Fiscal Policy in Response to the Coronavirus Crisis: Strengthening Confidence and Resilience

  • 19 mayo 2020

This report takes stock of the emergency tax and fiscal policy measures introduced by countries worldwide in response to the Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. It discusses how tax and fiscal policy can cushion the impact of continued containment and mitigation policies and subsequently support economic recovery. It also outlines the major policy reforms that will be needed to prepare for restoration of public finances.

Why open science is critical to combatting COVID-19

  • 12 mayo 2020

In  global  emergencies  like  the  coronavirus  (COVID-19)  pandemic,  open  science  policies  can  remove obstacles to the free flow of research data and ideas, and thus accelerate the pace of research critical to combating the disease.• While global sharing and collaboration of research data has reached unprecedented levels, challenges remain. Trust in at least some of the data is relatively low, and outstanding issues include the lack of specific standards, co-ordination and interoperability, as well as data quality and interpretation. •To strengthen the contribution of open science to the COVID-19 response, policy makers need to ensure adequate data governance models, interoperable standards, sustainable data sharing agreements involving public sector, private sector and civil society, incentives for researchers, sustainable infrastructures, human and institutional capabilities and mechanisms for access to data across borders

What steps are youth organisations taking to mitigate the COVID-19 Crisis?

  • 7 mayo 2020

The COVID-19 crisis is severely disrupting youth’s access to education, employment and participation in public life. While it may be too early to fully anticipate the long-term impact of the crisis, increasing levels of youth unemployment and other repercussions may significantly delay their transition to an autonomous life. At the same time, the crisis may encourage unexpected innovation and new opportunities to boost intergenerational solidarity.

Keeping the Internet up and running in times of crisis

  • 4 mayo 2020

Since  the  start  of  the  COVID-19  crisis,  demand  for  broadband  communication  services  has  soared, with some operators experiencing as much as a 60% increase in Internet traffic compared to before the crisis. •Network  operators  and  content  providers  have  to  date  successfully  maintained  services  and  efficiently utilized pre-existing capacity, and in certain cases expanded this capacity. •Additional short term measures are important to further enhance network stability and resilience, and to reduce the digital divide: for example, ensuring access for network operators and content providers to communication equipment, data centres, and mobility of technicians to customers’ homes. •Policy makers and regulators can alleviate congestion in mobile networks by releasing additional spectrum on a temporary basis, or by approving temporary commercial spectrum transactions between providers that put unused spectrum into service. •In the medium term, regulators could stimulate broadband providers to deploy more deeper into  the  networks  and  gradually  phase  out  xDSL  technologies,  where  possible,  and  alleviate  administrative burdens to ease network deployment. Keeping the Internet up and running in times of crisis

COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean: An overview of government responses to the crisis

  • 4 mayo 2020

LAC country governments have reacted swiftly and preventatively to protect their citizens and contain COVID-19’s spread, which is likely to face its most difficult period in the region duringthe first weeks of May. Suchapreventative reactionis very important due to a number of particular regional challenges that LAC countries face in response to this pandemic, such as less equippedhealthcare systems and fragmented social safety nets. Yet, the region is alreadyfacingan economic crisis with less fiscal space than in 2008 to mitigate the deeper recession that will result. Focusing on the 15 countries that are a part of the Steering Group of the OECD LAC Regional Programme, this note providesan overview of the measures being enacted to mitigate the public health situation, including its social, economic, and governance dimensions

Testing for Covid: A way to lift confinement restrictions

  • 4 mayo 2020

This policy brief discusses the role of testing for COVID-19 as part of any plan to lift confinement restrictions and prepare for a possible new wave of viral infections. If all confinement restrictions are lifted before a vaccine or effective treatments are developed without other measures to suppress new infections, the infection rate is expected to rebound rapidly. Crucially, quick suppression of infections requires testing more people to identify who is infected; tracking them to make sure they do not spread the disease further; and tracing with whom they have been in contact. This brief discusses how testing strategies can be used to achieve three main goals: 1)suppressing the resurgence of local outbreaks; 2)identifying people who have developed some form of immunity and can safely return to work; and 3)gaining intelligence on the evolution of the epidemic, including on when a threshold for herd immunity has been reached. The brief discusses what testscan be used for each goal, as well as practical implementation issues with testing strategies, including the opportunities and risks of using digital tools in this context.

Social partnership in the times of the Covid-19 pandemic

  • 30 abril 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic and the social distancing measures taken in response raise the prospect of a steep downturn for numerous economies. A key concern is to prevent this initial shock from turning into an even deeper and prolonged recession. This brief stresses that social dialogue has the capacity to help. For example by shaping compromises whereby employers maintain jobs, workers accept shorter working hours while governments provide compensation, social dialogue functions as a crisis “circuit breaker”. Social dialogue can do so because it has both the capacity to coordinate different actors and because it tends to build trust. The brief illustrates this by referring to several recent cases where social partners, in collaboration with government, have quickly stepped up to the challenge by expanding short time work systems. The Global Deal partnership is pleased to offer its initial contribution to the struggle to address the COVID-19 crisis in the form of this short brief and the best practice examples of social dialogue that it showcases.

Measuring Multinational Enterprises

  • 30 abril 2020

Understanding where Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are, how they operate, and where they pay taxes is crucial for sound policy making and sound macro-economic statistics. However, surprisingly little official statistics are currently available on individual MNEs. To fill this gap the OECD has begun to develop a new database – the Analytical Database on Individual Multinationals and Affiliates (ADIMA) – using a number of open big data sources that can provide new insights on individual MNEs and their global profiles. 

COVID-19 and the Food and Agriculture Sector: Issues and Policy Responses

  • 29 abril 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that is already having devastating impacts on the world economy –both directly and through necessary measures to contain the spread of the disease. These impacts are also being felt by the food and agriculture sector. While the supply of food has held up well to date, in many countries, the measures put in place to contain the spread of the virus are starting to disrupt the supply of agro-food products to markets and consumers, both within and across borders. The sector is also experiencing a substantial shift in the composition and –for some commodities –the level of demand.

Equity injections and unforeseen state ownership of enterprises during the COVID-19 crisis

  • 29 abril 2020

The COVID-19 outbreak and its containment measures including the lockdown of much of the world's population has put corporate balance sheets under tremendous pressure. As observed during the financial crisis 12 years ago, governments are finding it necessary to engage in multiple rescue operations involving companies deemed to be systemically important. Unlike the previous crisis where government interventions mostly concerned ailing banks, interventions relating to COVID-19 have so far mostly focused on insolvency and illiquidity in industry sectors hard hit by the virus, such as aviation and tourism. Other sectors seem bound to follow as the fallout from the crisis spills over into the second half of the year.

Regulatory Quality and COVID-19: Managing the Risks and Supporting the Recovery

  • 29 abril 2020

Co-ordinating  government policies will make crisis response more effective. A wide array of international regulatory co-operation approaches can be used to align government responses, including international evidence gathering and sharing to aid in the design of emergency rules, aligning regulations or using mutual recognition to expedite administrative processes and facilitate the trade of essential products, such as protective equipment, for example. International organisations provide essential platforms to promote such co-operation

Integridad pública para una respuesta y recuperación efectivas ante el COVID-19

  • 29 abril 2020

La integridad pública es clave para responder de forma contundente a lacrisis delCOVID-19, asegurandoque la accióngubernamentalbeneficiaa quienes lonecesitan. Esta crisis crea oportunidades para diversastrasgresionesa laintegridad y podría intensificar el fraude y la corrupción, particularmente en la contratación pública, en los paquetes de estímulo económico y en las organizaciones públicas. Esto podría socavar significativamente la acción gubernamental. Se necesitan medidas de corto y largo plazo para abordar estos riesgos, centrándose enestrategiasde contratación, los recursos de las funcionesde auditoría interna y las estrategias de integridad de las organizaciones públicas, entre otroselementos. Este documento analizalos principales desafíos a la integridad y recomienda medidas que pueden ayudar a los gobiernos a garantizar una respuesta y recuperación efectivas antela crisisdel COVID-19. Integridad pública para una respuesta y recuperaciónefectivasante el COVID-19

COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regional socio-economic implications and policy priorities

  • 29 abril 2020

Most Latin American and Caribbean countries have been hit by the Covid-19crisis in the context of low potential growth, high inequalities and rising social discontent. Policy reactions to the crisis have been bold, but further measures will be needed. In the immediate term, the priority must be to prevent contagion and support most vulnerable families, workers and firms. In the phasing out of the containment and lockdown measures, continued income support to stimulate consumption and support inclusiveness, as well as investment efforts to promote activity are fundamental to spur a swift economic recovery. In the medium term, the aftermath of this crisis must be turned into an opportunity to redefine the social pact, putting well-being at the center, based on stronger social protection systems, better healthcare, more robust and inclusive public finances and implementing inclusive development strategies. Co-coordinating a global response to address the impact of the Covid-19 crisis in the region remains vital.

Covid-19, Crises and Fragility

  • 29 abril 2020

Fragile contexts are beginning to be hit by the Covid-19 pandemic. Most of these countries are insufficiently prepared to cope with the spread of the disease and its consequences across the multiple dimensions of fragility. The most vulnerable have difficulty in accessing hospitals and rely on poor public services. Confinement measures are hardly applicable and the mobilization of security actors to enforce them creates further risks. The crisis highlights social inequalities and governance issues in many contexts. While the pandemic has created new peace dynamics, most conflicts continue unabated as peace keeping missions and humanitarian response are extremely constrained

A systemic resilience approach to dealing with Covid-19 and future shocks

  • 28 abril 2020

Policymakers often have a linear view of the world, where pulling the right levers will get the economy and society back on track after shocks and crises. This paper argues that such an approach ignores how systems interact and how their systemic properties shape this interaction, leading to an over-emphasis on a limited set of characteristics, notably efficiency. The emphasis on efficiency in the operation, management and outcomes of various economic and social systems was not a conscious collective choice, but rather the response of the whole system to the incentives that individual components face. This has brought much of the world to rely upon complex, nested, and interconnected systems to deliver goods and services around the globe. While this approach has many benefits, the Covid-19 crisis shows how it has also reduced the resilience of key systems to shocks, and allowed failures to cascade from one system to others. A systems approach based on resilience is proposed to prepare socioeconomic systems for future shocks

Public employment services in the frontline for jobseekers, workers and employers

  • 28 abril 2020

The consequences of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic for the labour market are likely to be severe. Many firms are struggling to stay afloat during the often strict confinement measures, and large numbers of workers have already either been involved in various forms of short-time work schemes or laid off. Public and private employment services (PES) will play a crucial role in preventing the labour market from seizing up during the crisis and in promoting a fast recovery once confinement measures start to be lifted. They will need to provide support on an increasingly virtual (i.e. not face to face) basis to an unparalleled inflow of job seekers. This will include ensuring that benefits are paid out without delay, providing information, and seekers to stay active even if there are fewer vacancies. In the short-term, the economic impact of the pandemic is shifting labour demand across sectors and regions, and it remains to be seen if this will lead to more permanent re-allocation of labour across sectors and regions. Therefore, the PES in each country will not only be facing a surge in the number of jobseekers but also the need to potentially reallocate many of them across occupations, sectors and regions. This requires providing them with good labour market information and support for skills development. In order to fulfil these particularly challenging tasks, PES need to be agile and quickly adapt to the new situation. This policy brief provides guidance on how this can be done

Coronavirus (COVID-19) From pandemic to recovery: Local employment and economic development

  • 27 abril 2020

This note provides evidence on the importance of local action to help address the short-term and long-term consequences of the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. It estimates that the share of jobs potentially at risk during confinement ranges from 15% to 35% across regions within 30OECD and 4non-OECD European countries. It explains why the local role is essential for the recovery, and explores the potential game changing nature of this outbreak for local development going forward

Del confinamiento a la recuperación: Respuestas medioambientales a la pandemia delCOVID-19

  • 27 abril 2020

El presente análisis se centra en las accionesinmediatas que pueden adoptar los distintos gobiernos con el fin de asegurarse de que las medidas excepcionales implementadas antela crisis causadapor el coronavirus (COVID-19) no echen por tierrasus esfuerzos porencontrar una solución eficaz a los problemas medioambientales másapremiantes, si no por el contrario mejoren la salud ambientaly laresilienciade las sociedades

OECD competition policy responses to COVID-19

  • 27 abril 2020

This policy brief discusses how competition policy can help address the immediate challenges raised by the COVID-19 crisis whilst looking to the post-pandemic future and the contribution of markets to medium and long-term economic recovery. It describes competition principles that governments can follow when designing support measures for the economy, including exit strategies. The note also outlines actions competition authorities can take to address the practical, theoretical and evidentiary challenges of the current crisis