Around 1 AD, several maize-based civilizations developed in the Andean
region, particularly around the Patagonia area of modern-day
Argentina. In 1480, the Inca Empire under the rule of emperor
Pachacutec launched an offensive and conquered present-day
northwestern Argentina. European explorers arrived in 1516. Spain
established a permanent colony in present day Buenos Aires in 1580;
the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata was created in 1776.
history is characterized in the large portions of Spanish immigrants
and their descendants, known as creoles, in addition to a significant
number of afro-descendants. In 1806 and 1807, the British Empire
launched two invasions, but the creole population repelled both
attempts. On May 25, 1810, the citizens of Buenos Aires created the
First Government Junta (May Revolution). Formal Independence from
Spain was declared on July 9, 1816 in Tucuman.