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Around 1 AD, several maize-based civilizations developed in the Andean region, particularly around the Patagonia area of modern-day Argentina. In 1480, the Inca Empire under the rule of emperor Pachacutec launched an offensive and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina. European explorers arrived in 1516. Spain established a permanent colony in present day Buenos Aires in 1580; the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata was created in 1776.

Early Argentine history is characterized in the large portions of Spanish immigrants and their descendants, known as creoles, in addition to a significant number of afro-descendants. In 1806 and 1807, the British Empire launched two invasions, but the creole population repelled both attempts. On May 25, 1810, the citizens of Buenos Aires created the First Government Junta (May Revolution). Formal Independence from Spain was declared on July 9, 1816 in Tucuman.


Updated: 29 February 2008

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