Resolution No. 43/22
PM 433-22 - M.A.C. , Haiti

On August 30, 2022, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures in favor of M.A.C. According to the request, the beneficiary –who identifies herself as a defender of women’s human rights in Haiti– is at risk due to threats and harassment against her in the context of her search for justice for acts of sexual violence that she allegedly suffered. Having analyzed the submissions of fact and law provided by the applicants, the Commission considers that the information presented shows prima facie that there is a serious and urgent risk of irreparable harm to the rights to life and personal integrity of Ms. M.A.C., in accordance with Article 25 of its Rules of Procedure. Consequently, the Commission requests that Haiti:

  1. adopt the necessary measures, with a gender perspective, to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of M.A.C.;
  2. take the necessary measures to ensure that M.A.C. can carry out her activities as a human rights defender without being subjected to acts of intimidation, harassment, threats, or violence in the exercise of her work;
  3. consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and her representative; and
  4. report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Resolution No. 24/22
PM 449-22 - Bruno Araújo Pereira and Dom Phillips, Brazil

On June 11, 2022, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures in favor of indigenist and defender of the rights of indigenous peoples Bruno Araújo Pereira and British journalist Dom Phillips. The request for precautionary measures indicates that the proposed beneficiaries have been missing since June 5, 2022, when they were traveling through the Vale do Javari Indigenous Land towards the city of Atalaia do Norte, in order to visit the team of the Indigenous Surveillance at the premises and conduct interviews. After analyzing the allegations of fact and law provided by the applicants, the Commission considered that the beneficiaries are in a serious and urgent situation, since their rights face a risk of irreparable damage, based on the applicable prima facie standard. Therefore, based on Article 25 of its Rules of Procedure, the Commission requested the State of Brazil redouble its efforts to determine the situation and whereabouts of Bruno Araújo Pereira and Dom Phillips, in order to protect their rights to life and personal integrity, and that they may continue to carry out their human rights defense work or journalistic activities, as appropriate. Also, report on the actions taken to investigate with due diligence the alleged facts that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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2009

PM 319/09 – League of Displaced Women – Cartagena, Colombia

On November 18, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Doris Berrio Palomino and her family, in Colombia. The request for precautionary measures alleges that on August 31, 2009, Jair Pantoja Berrio, Doris Berrio Palomino's son and the founder of the Youth League of the League of Displaced Women (LMD), was killed in Cartagena. The request indicates that the murder took place even though the family of Doris Berrio Palomino has security measures in place provided by the State of Colombia. It adds that the Constitutional Court on three occasions had pronounced itself on the situation of risk faced by members of the LMD and that members of the League had informed the Ministry of the Interior about the inadequacy of the security measures, but it alleges that the Colombian State had not acted with diligence to ensure that the security schemes were effective. The request indicates as well that in 2009, various leaders of nongovernmental organizations that work to protect the rights of the displaced population in Cartagena had allegedly been killed and that beginning in March 2001, members of the LMD were victims of acts of violence and threats, allegedly perpetrated by armed groups operating outside of the law. The Commission asked the government of Colombia to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Doris Berrio Palomino and her family, and to report on the actions taken to judicially clarify the facts that warrant the adoption of precautionary measures.

PM 240/09 – Mauricio Meza - Colombia

On November 18, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures to protect the life and physical integrity of Mauricio Meza Blanco, in Colombia. The request for precautionary measures alleges that the human rights defender and environmentalist Mauricio Meza resumed his efforts in September 2009 after having moved away from his family and his job in order to reduce the level of risk he was facing. The request states that it is unknown what progress has been made in the investigations into the kidnapping attempt of March 2009 and the threats that were reported to the appropriate authorities, and that the protection system granted by the Ministry of the Interior continues to be temporary, since the evaluation of the risk level was given as "ordinary." The request adds that in a public environmental hearing held on October 23, 2009, security guards allegedly followed Mr. Meza and took photographs of him, and that an automobile assigned to the Judicial Investigation Section (SIJIN) had tailed him. It is also alleged that on October 25, 2009, an unknown individual shot at his house with a firearm and that on October 31, 2009, he had been subject to harassment, allegedly on the part of intelligence agents. The Inter-American Commission asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Mauricio Meza Blanco and to inform the IACHR about actions taken to investigate the facts that led to the adoption of precautionary measures.

PM 196/09 – (Amplification) - Republic of Honduras

On November 17, 2009, the IACHR extended precautionary measure PM 196-09, to protect Antonia Damary Coello Mendoza and the 17 members of the Committee for Family Members of the Detained and Disappeared in Honduras and their families.  The IACHR requested information about the implementation of the precautionary measures in a period of 20 days.

PM 242/09 - Members of the Consultancy on Human Rights and Displacement (CODHES) Colombia

On November 16, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Enrique Rojas Rodríguez, Marco Romero Silva, and Edna Bibiana Ortiz, members of the Consultancy on Human Rights and Displacement (Consultoría para los Derechos Humanos el Desplazamiento, CODHES), in Colombia. The request for precautionary measures alleges that these three individuals had had their telephones tapped, had been tailed, and had been subject to other intelligence activities on the part of agents of the Administrative Department of Security (DAS). It adds that the proposed beneficiaries would seem to be at risk in light of the fact that high-level public officials had made speeches against their activities in defense of people who had been subject to forced displacement. In addition, it reports that on October 30, 2009, Edna Bibiana Ortiz was part of a humanitarian mission verifying the situation of displaced populations in the Upper Sinú and Upper San Jorge. The mission was attacked with firearms, allegedly by paramilitary groups, leaving a teacher dead and a nurse hospitalized. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Colombia to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries; provide a nexus and/or protection system for members of CODHES who travel to conflict zones in the course of their work; provide protection around the perimeter of CODHES headquarters; and guarantee access to any information in intelligence files that may be necessary to protect their personal security.

PM 276-09 – R.S., A.B. and others, Haiti

On October 14, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for R.S. and her 12-year old child, A.B., as well as five members of a human rights organization in Haiti, whose identity is kept under seal at the request of the applicants. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that A.B. was raped in January 2009 by a school employee, and that A.B. and her mother are being subjected to threats and violent acts as a result of the complaints they filed. On their part, the five members of the human rights organization mentioned above have also been subjected to telephone threats and harassment in the last few months, as a result of the psychological and legal support offered to A.B and her mother. It is also alleged that on April 25, 2009, R.S.’s residence was set on fire by heavily armed individuals. According to the petitioners, the acts of violence they are being subjected to have been conducted by a local police officer, who allegedly is the brother of the professor they accuse of having raped A.B. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Haiti to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and inform the IACHR about actions taken to investigate through the Judiciary the facts that led to the adoption of precautionary measures.

PM 239/09 – Héctor Antonio García Berríos and others, El Salvador

On October 7, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for the members of the Association of Friends of San Isidro (Asociación Amigos de San Isidro, ASIC), Héctor Antonio García Berríos, Alirio Napoleón Hernández Leiva and Miguel Ángel Rivera Moreno; for the members of the community radio Victoria, Alexander Beltrán Castillo, Ludwin Iraheta and Vladimir Abarca, and for the priest Luis Alberto Quintanilla, in El Salvador. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that the beneficiaries have been the target of threats in the last few months, allegedly as a result of their activism in defense of the environment in the San Isidro county, department of Cabañas, and of complaints filed against the local public administration. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of El Salvador to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, and to inform the IACHR about any actions taken to investigate the facts.

PM 290/09 – Jesús Tecú Osorio and his family, Guatemala

On October 6, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Mr. Jesus Tecu Osorio and his family, in Guatemala. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that Mr. Jesus Tecu Osorio received death threats and that on September 14, 2009, he received several telephone calls with death threats for his family. The request also alleges that these threats could be linked to the activities of Mr. Osorio as a human rights defender in Guatemala. Mr. Tecu Osorio allegedly requested protection to several instances of the National Civilian Police, which offered him protection to the perimeter of his house, but the request says that this would not be adequate for the situation of risk of the beneficiaries. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Guatemala to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to inform the IACHR about any actions taken to investigate these facts.

PM 192/09 – Lydia Cacho and others, Mexico

On August 10, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Ms. Lydia Cacho, her family and employees of the Integral Center for the Attention of Women (CIAM) of Cancun, Mexico. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that between July 17 and 30, 2009, strangers had been around her residence and had taken pictures, and that on August 5, 2009, Ms. Cacho received death threats. It adds that CIAM employees have recently received death threats and that Lydia Cacho had refrained from adding comments to her personal blog due to the threats received through it. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Mexico to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to inform the IACHR about actions taken to investigate the facts that led to the adoption of precautionary measures.

PM 196/09 – Amplification of Precautionary Measures, Honduras

On August 7, 2009, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) decided a new amplification of precautionary measures PM 196-09, in order to safeguard the life and personal integrity of persons in Honduras, who, according to information received, are at risk. The following persons are now included in the framework of precautionary measures 196-09:

  • Norma Estela Mejía, vice president of the Sitrajerzeesh union, which is affiliated with the Central General de Trabajadores (CGT), has received death threats because of her opposition to the coup d’état.
  • Daniel Durón, national leader of the Central General de Trabajadores (CGT), has received death threats.  These threats have included text messages sent to his mobile phone.
  • Evangelina Argueta leader of the Central General de Trabajadores (CGT), has received threats via telephone because of her opposition to the coup d’état.  

The IACHR set a 48 hour deadline to receive information about the implementation of the required measures. This list of protected persons complements lists transmitted via communications dated June 28 and 29 as well as communications dated July 2, 3, 10, 15, 24 and 30, 2009.

Request for information within the framework of PM 196/09:

The IACHR also requested information about the situation of other persons within the framework of PM 196/09. The Commission requested this information in order to evaluate several requests for precautionary measures received in regards to the situation described bellow:

  • The situation of Mr. Albencio Fernández Pineda, member of CIPRODEH. Mr. Pineda has reported that since the coup d’état, shots have been fired in front of his home on multiple occasions to intimidate him. This intimidation is reportedly aimed at stopping him from publicly denouncing the human rights abuses that have in Honduras since the coup d’état. According to information received, Mr. Pineda has been accompanying some of the aforementioned Honduran representatives to Washington. The Commission requires information about the aforementioned facts as well as the measures that have been adopted to secure the safe return of Mr. Pineda and the other members of the delegation to Honduras.

PM 196-09 Amplification of Precautionary Measures, Honduras

On July 24, 2009, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) decided a new amplification of precautionary measures PM 196-09, in order to safeguard the life and personal integrity of persons in Honduras, who, according to information received, are at risk. This list of protected persons complements the lists that were transmitted through press releases issued on June 28, June 29, July 2, July 3, July 10 and July 15, 2009.

The IACHR requested that the necessary measures be adopted to ensure the life and personal integrity of all of the beneficiaries. Through today’s decision by the IACHR, the following individuals are now included in the framework of precautionary measures 196-09:

  • Gladys Lanza, Coordinator for the Committee for Peace Visitation Padilla;
  • Elsy Benegas, President of the National Agrarian Institute Workers’ Union and leader of the Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations of Aguán (COPA);
  • Manuel Montoya, leader of the National Electric Energy Corporation Workers’ Union;
  • Kenia Irias, Technical Director of the National Women’s Institute (INAM) and her children Kimberly Nairoby Hernández Irias (16 years old) and Jancarlos Emanuel Velásquez Irias (5 years old);
  • Lilibeth Reyes Cartagena, Lídice Isabel Ortega Reyes, Keyla Amador and Isis Gabriela Arriaga Hernández, members of Center for Women’s Studies-Honduras (CEM-H)

The IACHR requested that it receive information about the implementation of the required measures before July 29, 2009.

PM 196-09 Amplification of Precautionary Measures, Honduras

On July 10, 2009, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) decided a new amplification of precautionary measures PM 196-09, in order to safeguard the life and personal integrity of persons in Honduras, who, according to information received, are at risk. This list of protected persons complement the lists that were transmitted through press releases issued on June 28, June 29 and July 2, 2009.

The IACHR requests that the necessary measures be adopted to ensure the life and personal integrity of all of the beneficiaries.  In respect to those who have been arbitrarily detained and/or whose whereabouts remain unknown, the Commission requested to be informed of their whereabouts immediately. In the case of those arbitrarily detained, the Commission requested that these individuals be freed immediately. The IACHR requests that it receive information about the implementation of these required measures no later than July 15, 2009.

Through the amplification decided on July 10, 2009 by the IACHR, the following person is now included in precautionary measures 196-09:

  • Andrés Tamayo, president of the Olancho Environmental Movement, who was the subject of threats and aggression by troops from the Police Forces during a protest on July 3, 2009;

The IACHR also requests information regarding the situation of the following persons. The Commission received information indicating that they are at risk because of their roles as union leaders:

  • Daniel Durón;
  • Eliseo Hernández;
  • Hilario Espinoza;
  • Idalmi Cárcamo;
  • Jaime Vallecillo Turcios;
  • Javier Alonso Valladares Aciego;
  • José Marcial Zúñiga Rodríguez;
  • José Zuñiga;
  • Luis Alonzo Mayorga Galvez;
  • Marco Tulio Sanchez del Cid;
  • Mauro Enrique Soto Gómez;
  • Roque García Solórzano;
  • Rufino García Espinoza;
  • Víctor Arita Petit;
  • Víctor Manuel Izaguirre Varela; and
  • Vladimiro Santos Espinal.

Likewise, in the exercise of the attributions offered by Article 41 of the Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, the Commission requests information about the situation of the following people and events:

People:

  • Paula Durán, teacher, former municipal human rights commissioner and leader of a local women’s organization, about whom information has been received that there is a warrant for her arrest in the city of Olanchito, in the department of Yoro;

PM 196-09 Amplification of Precautionary Measures, Honduras

Letter sent by the de facto authorities in Honduras to the IACHR in response to PM 196-09

On July 3, 2009, the IACHR decided to further expand precautionary measures PM 196-09 in order to safeguard the life and personal integrity of the following individuals who have been indicated to be at risk. This list of protected persons complements the lists included in communiqués on June 28 and 29 and July 2, 2009.

In its letter, the Inter-American Commission also reiterated that, in accordance with the provisions of the American Convention on Human Rights, all necessary measures must be adopted to ensure the life and personal integrity of human rights defenders, journalists, relatives of President Zelaya, and international observers who are in Honduras.

MC 196-09 - Amplification of Precautionary Measures, Honduras

On July 2, 2009, the IACHR decided a new amplification of precautionary measures PM 196-09 in order to safeguard the life and personal integrity of persons in Honduras who, according to the information received, are at risk. The IACHR requested that necessary measures be adopted to assure the life and personal integrity of all of the beneficiaries. In respect to those who have been arbitrarily detained and/or whose whereabouts remain unknown, the Commission requested to be informed of their whereabouts immediately. In the case of those arbitrarily detained, the Commission requested that these individuals be freed immediately. The IACHR set a deadline of 48 hours to receive information about the implementation of these required measures. Through this amplification, the following persons are now included in precautionary measures 196-09:

  • Andrés Pavón Uribe, member of the Honduran Human Rights Committee;
  • Bertha Oliva de Nativí, member of the Committee for Family Members of the Detained and Disappeared in Honduras;
  • Danny Reyes, director of the LGTB Rainbow Association of Honduras; According to information received by the Commission, he was taken to a political station on June 29, 2009;
  • Doris García, leader of the National Women’s Institute;
  • Edward Yeferí Lobo Sánchez, defender of the rights of children and youth;
  • Guillermo de Jesús Mayen Jiménez, defender of the rights of children and youth, and member of the political party Union Democratica; According to information received by the Commission, he was pursued and hounded by security forces because of his association with Union Democratica;
  • Hector Licona, employee of the LGTB Rainbow Association of Honduras; According to information received by the Commission, he was taken to a political station on June 29, 2009;
  • Israel Salinas, member of the Majority Union;
  • Matilde Durón Ochoa, defender of the rights of children and youth;
  • Rafael Alegría, national director of the Via Campesina;
  • Salvador Zúñiga; member of the Consejo Cívico de Organizaciones Populares e Indígenas de Honduras;
  • Sara Elisa Rosales, member of the Las Lolas and Feminist Movement;
  • Tomás Andino Mencía; defender of the rights of children and youth

MC 196-09 - Amplification of Precautionary Measures, Honduras

On June 29, 2009, the IACHR amplified the precautionary measures in favor of Bertha Cáceres. According to information received by the IACHR, military forces have been surrounding the house of Bertha Cáceres, member of the Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras (Consejo Cívico de Organizaciones Populares e Indígenas de Honduras). The IACHR requested that the necessary measures be adopted to guarantee the life and personal integrity of the beneficiary. The IACHR asked that information regarding the implementation of this amplified measure be transmitted urgently, no later than July 1, 2009.

PM 136/09 – Iduvina Hernández and 12 members of the SEDEM, Guatemala

On May 21, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Ms. Iduvina Hernández, director of the Association for the Study and Promotion of Security in Democracy (Asociación para el Estudio y la Promoción de la Seguridad en Democracia, SEDEM) of Guatemala, and other 12 members of the organization. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that Ms. Iduvina Hernández and the other members of SEDEM have been targets of threats in April and May 2009, through messages and anonymous telephone calls. It adds that no security measures were implemented, although complaints have been filed to the public authorities. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Guatemala to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to inform the IACHR about any actions taken to eliminate the risk factors to the beneficiaries.

PM 120/09 – Marcelino Coache Verano y familia, Mexico

On May 8, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Mr. Marcelino Coache Verano and his family, in Mexico. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that Mr. Coache Verano, a social leader and member of the union Sindicato Libre de Empleados y Trabajadores al Servicio del Municipio de Oaxaca de Juárez, as well as his family, have been targets of threats and harassment since 2007. It adds that in March 2009, Mr. Coache Verano was intercepted by strangers, who led him to an unknown place, where they burned him with cigars in sensitive parts of his body. Moreover, the request alleges that the family of Mr. Coache Verano has received threats by telephone in April 2009. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Mexico to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to inform the IACHR about any actions taken to eliminate the risk factors to the beneficiaries.

PM 91/08 – Federación Agrominera del Sur de Bolívar (FEDEAGROMISBOL), Colombia

On May 1, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for the leaders of Federación Agrominera del Sur de Bolívar (FEDEAGROMISBOL), in Colombia. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that the leaders of FEDEAGROMISBOL have been the target of threats since April 2008, and that on April 22, 2009, a leader of the Federation, Mr. Edgar Martínez Ruiz, was killed. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Colombia to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to inform the IACHR about any actions taken to eliminate the risk factors to the beneficiaries.

PM 63/09 – Raúl Santiago Monzón Fuentes, Gladys Monterroso Velásquez de Morales et al., Guatemala

On April 8, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Raúl Santiago Monzón Fuentes, Director of the Prosecution Department of the Office of the Human Rights Prosecutor of Guatemala; Gladys Monterroso Velásquez de Morales, wife of the Human Rights Prosecutor of Guatemala; and employees of the Office of the Human Rights Prosecutor in Guatemala. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that these individuals were victims of various acts of violence as a result of actions undertaken by the Office of the Prosecutor with regard to the publication of historical archives of the Guatemalan National Police. The acts of violence specified include the kidnapping of Mrs. Gladys Monterroso Velásquez de Morales and a series of threats targeting Mr. Raúl Santiago Monzón Fuentes. The request also indicates that unidentified individuals had tailed employees and conducted surveillance on the buildings of the Office of the Human Rights Prosecutor. The Inter-American Commission requested that the State of Guatemala adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Raúl Santiago Monzón Fuentes and Gladys Monterroso Velásquez de Morales; assign protection to the perimeter of the buildings of the Office of the Human Rights Prosecutor of Guatemala, so as to protect the life and physical integrity of the employees; and inform the IACHR about actions taken to investigate the facts that led to the adoption of precautionary measures.

PM 69/09—Inés Yadira Cubero González, Honduras

On April 6, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Inés Yadira Cubero González, in Honduras. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that Mrs. Inés Yadira Cubero González had been the target of an attempted shooting on March 16, 2009, allegedly due to her work as President of the Transparency and Anti-Corruption Commission of the Municipal Corporation of San Pedro Sula. The request further indicates that these acts were reported to the Office of the Public Prosecutor for Common Crimes in San Pedro Sula, but that Mrs. Inés Yadira Cubero had not been informed of the results of the investigation and had not been given any protection measures. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Honduras to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiary, and to inform the IACHR about any actions taken t o investigate the facts.

PM 301/08—Leaders of the Indigenous Regional Council of Cauca (CRIC) and their Advisers, Colombia

On January 14, 2009, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of 32 leaders and advisers of the Indigenous Regional Council of Cauca (Consejo Regional Indígena del Cauca, CRIC), in Colombia. The petition for precautionary measures alleges that the CRIC leaders and advisers have been the targets of acts of violence, threats, and stigmatization as a result of their activities as indigenous leaders. It also alleges that murders, threats, and acts of harassment against the CRIC leadership have increased since August 2008 and refers to, among others, the death of Edwin Legarda Vásquez, husband of the CRIC Senior Counselor Aída Marina Quilcué Vivas. The Inter-American Commission requested that the State of Colombia adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, as well as report on the actions taken to remove the risk factors that justify the adoption of these precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

2008

PM 269/07 Iván Velásquez Gómez, Colombia

On December 22, 2008, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of an Auxiliary Justice in the Criminal Chamber of the Colombian Supreme Court, Iván Velásquez Gómez, who was serving as coordinator of an “Investigative Support Commission” to establish the possible links between members of Colombia’s National Congress and paramilitary organizations.  The request seeking precautionary measures states, inter alia, that state agents were alleged to be targeting Justice Velásquez, who was allegedly being threatened because of his role in the so-called “parapolitics” trials, and that the protective measures previously established for him were not sufficient.  On February 22, 2008, the IACHR instituted the process of requesting information from the State concerning the degree of the threat facing Justice Iván Velásquez and the security measures arranged for him.  After examining the information supplied by the parties on the circumstances under which Auxiliary Supreme Court Justice Iván Velásquez Gómez must perform his functions, the Commission decided to grant precautionary measures and asked the State to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Iván Velásquez Gómez, to arrange, jointly with the beneficiary and the petitioners, the measures to be taken, and to report the steps intended to remove the threat factors that warrant enforcement of precautionary measures.

PM 277/08 Vilma Núñez de Escorcia, Nicaragua

On November 11, 2008, the IACHR granted a request for precautionary measures for human rights defender Vilma Núñez de Escorcia and the members of the Centro Nicaragüense de Derechos Humanos (CENIDH) [Nicaraguan Human Rights Center].  The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that Mrs. Núñez de Escorcia and the members of the CENIDH are targets of public accusations and harassment by public officials because of their work as defenders of human rights.  The Commission asked the Nicaraguan state to take the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report what steps it has taken to conduct a judicial inquiry into the facts that necessitated the adoption of precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 117/08 Hugo Antonio Combariza Rodríguez, Colombia

On September 24, 2008, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Hugo Antonio Combariza Rodríguez.  The request seeking precautionary measures alleges, inter alia, that Mr. Combariza Rodríguez had received threats because of his representation of victims of the armed conflict in proceedings being conducted under the Justice and Peace Law in the city of Cúcuta and that he was shot on April 25, 2008.  On May 28, 2008, the Commission requested the State to provide information on the situation in question.  After examining the information supplied by both parties, the Commission decided to grant precautionary measures in which it asks the Colombian state to adopt the measures needed to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiary and to report the measures taken to conduct a judicial inquiry into the events that prompted the adoption of precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 228/07 Rafael Marulanda López and other members of the Red de Apoyo en Derechos Humanos y Defensoría Social , Colombia

On September 4, 2008, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Rafael Marulanda López, Diego Fernando Meneses García and Jairo Ortega Osorio, members of the Red de Apoyo en Derechos Humanos y Defensoría Social [Human Rights Support Network and People’s Ombudsman’s Office] in Colombia.  The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that the members of this organization had received death threats and that on July 16, 2008, the lifeless body of Guillermo Rivera was found, showing signs of torture.  Mr. Rivera had been an advisor to the organized labor groups on whose behalf the Red de Apoyo.  The Commission requested that the Colombian state adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries of the provisional measures, and report the measures taken to conduct a judicial inquiry into the events that warrant enforcement of precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 210/08 Marlon Cardoza and other members of the CEPRES Association, Honduras

On August 27, 2008, the IACHR granted a request for precautionary measures for Marlon Cardoza, Dennis Castillo and Josué Hernández Cardona, members of the Asociación Centro de Educación y Prevención en Salud, Sexualidad y Sida (CEPRES) [Center for Education in Health, Sexuality and AIDS Prevention Association].  The request for precautionary measures alleged that Messrs. Cardoza, Castillo and Hernández Cardona were the targets of threats and harassment.  It also alleged that on June 10, 2008, Martín Girón, a founding member of the organization, was murdered.  It also asserted that during that year, 27 persons from Honduras’ lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community had been murdered.  The Commission asked the Honduran state to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report the measures taken to conduct a judicial inquiry into the events that warrant enforcement of precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 141/08 Yolanda María Velásquez Osorio, her family, the Corporación Social, and the Asociación de Mujeres por la Equidad y el Género Semillas de Paz [Association of Women for Gender Equity, Seeds of Peace], Colombia

On June 19, 2008, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Yolanda María Velásquez Osorio, her family, members of the Corporación Social and members of the Asociación de Mujeres por la Equidad y el Género Semillas de Paz [Association of Women for Gender Equity, Seeds of Peace]. The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that Mrs. Velásquez Osorio was the victim of death threats and kidnapping attempts and that members of the “Semillas de Paz” organization had been victims of violence, harassment and threats.  The Commission asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report the measures taken to conduct a judicial inquiry into the facts that prompted the adoption of precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 147/08 Luz Estela Castro Rodríguez et al, México

On June 13, 2008, the IACHR granted the request seeking precautionary measures for Marisela Ortiz Rivera, María Luisa García Andrade, Karla Michell and David Peña, members of the organization called  “Nuestras Hijas de Regreso a Casa” [Our Daughters Home Again], for Luz Estela Castro Rodríguez, Alma Gómez Caballero, Rossina Urgana Barri, Gabino Gómez Escárcega, Adriana Carmona López, Minerva Maesse, Monserrat González, Irma Villanueva, Flor Gómez, Alberto Rodríguez, Beatriz Gómez, Consuelo Ramos, Ema Martínez, Flor Gómez, Imelda Ruiz, Inti Gómez, Ivonne Gómez, José A. Hernández, Karim Rivera, Laura Aragón, Leonilla Gómez, Luz María Reyes, María de la Luz Nájera, Manuel E. Gómez, María Elena Estevané, Pablo E. Gómez, Rosa Ema Carmona, Norma Ledezma, Silvia Madrigal, Verónica Nava, Yolanda Gómez and Zoila Espino, all members of the “Centro de Derechos Humanos de la Mujer” [Women’s Human Rights Center] and for their immediate families.  On June 9, 2008, the Commission received a communication from the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the OAS in which the Mexican State reports that a number of human rights organizations are concerned over threats made against those on whose behalf they work and asks the Commission to consider implementation of precautionary measures.  In response, the Commission granted precautionary measures with a view to guaranteeing the lives and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and asked the State to report the measures taken to shed light on the facts.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 103/08 Francisco Soberón Garrido and other members of APRODEH, Perú

On May 21, 2008, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for human rights defenders Francisco Soberón Garrido, Juan Miguel Jugo Viera and other members of APRODEH.  The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that various state agencies had made statements and taken measures intended to intimidate APRODEH, particularly Francisco Soberón Garrido and Juan Miguel Jugo Viera, the executives of that institution.  The request also states that, starting in April 2008, a number of APRODEH members had been the target of threats and other forms of harassment.  The Commission asked the Peruvian state to take the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report on the measures taken to prevent administrative and judicial means from being used to obstruct the human rights work done by APRODEH.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PC 61/08 Alberto López Pérez, Víctor Manuel Gómez Mendoza and their familias, Guatemala

On April 3, 2008, the IACHR granted the request for precautionary measures for Messrs. Alberto López Pérez, Víctor Manuel Gómez Mendoza and their respective families.  The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that Messrs. López Pérez and Gómez Mendoza had been the targets of threats, acts of intimidation and attacks as a result of their union activities.  The Commission requested that the State of Guatemala adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and their families, and report on the measures adopted to conduct a judicial inquiry into the events that prompted the adoption of precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 113/07 Corporación para la Paz y el Desarrollo Social (CORPADES) [Corporation for Peace and Social Development], Colombia

On March 14, 2008, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Fernando Quijano, Carlos Mario Arenas, Teresa Muñoz Lopera, Alberto Manzo Monsalve, Dillier Fernando Vásquez Rúa, Santiago Quijano, and Marín Alonso Velásquez, members of the Corporacion para la Paz y el Desarrollo Social (CORPADES).  The request seeking precautionary measures alleges that the members of this organization are targets of threats and assaults, allegedly committed by illegal groups.  The Commission asked the Colombian state to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report the measures taken to conduct a judicial inquiry into the facts that necessitated the adoption of precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation.

PM 181/07 Lovinsky Pierre-Antoine, Haití

On February 28, 2008, the IACHR granted a request seeking precautionary measures for human rights defender Lovinsky Pierre-Antoine.  The request alleges that on August 12, 2007, Mr. Lovinsky Pierre-Antoine was stopped as he was returning from a meeting with a foreign delegation conducting an investigation in Haiti.  Since then, his whereabouts are unknown.  On September 21, 2007, the Commission requested information from the State concerning the situation of Mr. Lovinsky Pierre-Antoine and repeated its request on December 31, 2007.  In view of the situation and since the deadlines for submitting the requested information had passed, the Commission decided to grant the requested precautionary measures and asked the Haitian state to take the measures necessary to establish Lovinsky Pierre-Antoine’s whereabouts, guarantee his life and physical integrity, and report the measures taken to conduct a judicial inquiry into the facts that prompted the adoption of precautionary measures.

2007

María Juárez, Guatemala

On October 26, 2007, the IACHR ordered precautionary measures in favor of Maria Juarez, a functionary of the Survivors Foundation, which is dedicated to bringing juridical and psychological assistance to women victims of violence in Guatemala. The available information indicates that the beneficiary received threats and harassment due to her activities with the Survivors Foundation. The information indicates that such threats occurred more frequently after the organization began investigating the disappearance of children in Chiquimula Department and in the Capital. The applicants alleged that the Public Ministry had not responded to complaints regarding the threats. The Commission requested that the State of Guatemala adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Maria Juarez and report on the measures adopted with the goal of judicially clarifying the facts that justified the adoption of precautionary measures. The Commission continues to follow the beneficiary’s situation.

Trade unionists at the Empresa Portuaria Quetzal, Guatemala

On August 31, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Messrs. Lázaro Noe Reys Matta, Eulogio Obispo Monzón Mérida, Arturo Granados Hernández, Miguel Antonio Madrid Hernández, Max Alberto Estrada Linares, and Oscar Giovanni González Dorado, all members of the Sindicato de Trabajadores de la Empresa Portuaria Quetzal (STEPQ, Trade Union of Workers of the Empresa Portuaria Quetzal).  The information available indicates that as of January 2007 members of the board of the STEPQ have been subject to intimidation and threats by unknown persons. In January 2007 the then-secretary general of the union, Pedro Zamora Álvarez, was assassinated when taken to his residence accompanied by his children, one of whom suffered a serious injury. It is indicated that the next day the beneficiaries received several phone threats, and that in February 2007 Lázaro Noe Reyes and Eulogio Obispo were intimidated by hooded persons who circulate in a vehicle with polarized glass, and with no rear tags. It was also indicated that in July 2007, one witness to the death of Mr. Zamora Álvarez was assassinated while the STEPQ was taking steps for the witness to be able to give testimony without fearing retaliatory acts. The Commission asked the Guatemalan State to take the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to report on the actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.

Rigoberto Jiménez and members of the Corporación Jurídica Yira Castro, Colombia

On August 21, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Rigoberto Jiménez, president of the National Coordinating Body of Displaced (CND: Coordinación Nacional de Desplazados), and of the members of the Corporación Jurídica Yira Castro, which provides legal assistance to victims of forced displacement in Colombia. The information available indicates that the beneficiaries have been the target of threats and harassment because of their work as human rights defenders.  It is indicated that in July 2007, the CND received an email signed by an illegal armed group calling itself “AUC Águilas Negras de Bosa” that declared the beneficiaries to be an immediate military objective.  It is also indicated that on June 22, 2007, unknown persons invaded the headquarters of the Corporación Jurídica Yira Castro, located in the city of Bogotá, and confiscated equipment and documents used in judicial proceedings in which the organization represents victims of forced displacement. The IACHR asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report on the actions taken to judicial clarify the facts that are the subject of the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Alejandro Noyola et al, Mexico

On July 26, 2007, the IACHR issued precautionary measures in favor of Alejandro Noyola, Jesús Manuel Grijalva Mejía, Alba Gabriela Cruz Ramos, Alma Delia Gómez Soto, César Grijalva, Flora Gutiérrez, and Jesús Alfredo López García, all attorneys members of the Comité de Liberación 25 de Noviembre, devoted to providing psychological care for and legal assistance to members of the Movimiento Popular of Oaxaca detained in November 2006. The information available indicates that the beneficiaries have been subject to attacks, threats, and harassment because of their work in that organization.  It is indicated that from December 2006 to July 2007, the beneficiaries and some of their family members received threats by telephone and were victims of persecution and assaults promoted by private persons and members of the police of the state of Oaxaca. The most serious attacks were said to have taken place on July 16, 2006, in the context of the traditional festivity known as the “Guelaguetza Popular” in the city of Oaxaca. The Commission asked the Mexican State to adopt the measures needed to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to report on the actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.

Leaders of the COPDICONC, Colombia

On July 24, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of José Emery Álvarez Patiño, Marlene Cisneros, José Gildardo Ortega, José Arcos, Alfredo Quiñones, Arcediano Pialejo Micolta, Claudio Esterilla Montaño, Gonzalo Caicedo Esterilla, José Rogelio Montaño, Maritza Caicedo Ordoñez, Marianita Montilla Cobo, Fanny Caicedo, and José Pablo Estrada Perlaza, all of them leaders of the Council of Black Communities of the Western Cordillera of Nariño (COPDICONC: Concejo de Comunidades Negras de la Cordillera Occidental de Nariño). The information available indicates that residents of six communities in the department of Nariño, and particularly the leaders of COPDICONC, have been victims of acts of harassment, death threats, and detentions (retenciones) by illegal armed groups and government forces.  It is also alleged that the leaders of COPDICONC are generally subject to hostile acts by members of both paramilitary and guerrilla groups, who accuse them of cooperating with the opposing force. The Commission asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to report on the actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

John Fredy Posso Moreno, Colombia

On July 6, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Mr. John Fredy Posso Moreno, a former worker of the Comité de Derechos Humanos (Human Rights Committee) of the city of Tulúa, and his family. The information provided indicates that an illegal armed group known as “AUC Águilas Negras” had declared Mr. Posso Moreno to be a military objective after he denounced the participation of paramilitaries in crimes that occurred in the city of Tulúa. It is also indicated that Mr. Posso Moreno has received death threats because of his activities as a human rights defender, and that his wife, Ms. Cecilia Bohórquez Santiago, has been kidnapped, persecuted, and threatened. The Commission asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Mr. Posso Moreno and his family, and to report on the actions adopted to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries. 

Corporación Jurídica Libertad, Colombia

On June 14, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of the members of the Corporación Jurídica Libertad (CJL), based in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The information provided indicates that members of that organization had been targeted by death threats as a consequence of their activity in the defense of human rights. Allegedly, the beneficiaries were investigated by intelligence agencies of the State and the Office of the Attorney General had issued arrest warrants for some of its members based on information manipulated by those agencies and by members of the armed forces.  The Commission asked that the Colombian State adopt the measures necessary to ensure the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and that it report on the actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.

Marco Arana, Mirtha Vásquez, et al, Peru

On April 23, 2007, the Commission granted precautionary measures in favor of priest Marco Arana and attorney Mirtha Vásquez and other members of the organization “Group of Integral Education for Sustainable Development” (GRUFIDES: Grupo de Formación Integral para el Desarrollo Sostenible), an institution devoted to defense of the environment, training, and legal assistance for peasant communities around the city of Cajamarca. The information available indicates that the beneficiaries have been subjected to intimidation and threats by individuals who support mining in the region, and that some persons were assassinated in confrontations between the sectors that support mining and those who protest mining activities. The Commission asked the Peruvian State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, verify the effective implementation of the measures of protection by the competent authorities, provide perimeter surveillance for the headquarters of the NGO GRUFIDES, provide police accompaniment to the GRUFIDES personnel who must travel to the peasant communities, and report on the actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.

Castulo Benavides and other members of the FLOC, Mexico

On April 19, 2007, the IACHR issued precautionary measures in favor of Messrs. Castulo Benavides Rodríguez, Baldemar Velásquez, Ken Barrer, and Davis Castillo Nuñez, all members of the Foro Laboral Obrero Campesino (FLOC) in Monterrey. The information available indicates that since May 2005, the beneficiaries have been subject to harassment because of their work as defenders of the rights of migrant workers. It is also indicated that in September 2006, the offices of the FLOC were broken into; documents and lists of affiliated workers were taken. On April 9, 2007, the corpse of the coordinator of the offices, Mr. Santiago Rafael Cruz, was found with his hands and feet bound, and with signs of torture. The Commission asked the Mexican State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, to adopt security measures at the offices of the FLOC, and to report on the actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.

Daniel Joseph Vogt et al, Guatemala

On March 30, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Messrs. Daniel Joseph Vogt, Arnoldo Yat Coc, and Juan Antonio Chen Dubon, human rights defenders. The Commission’s decision is based on information according to which then beneficiaries have been subjected to threats and intimidation for defending the rights of the Maya Q’eqchi communities in the municipality of El Estor and offering them legal counsel in the dispute over property rights over land claimed by a local mining company.  In addition, the IACHR was informed that on February 13, 2007, an unknown person was said to have broken into the Sagrado Corazón de Jesús church in Puerto Barrios, where the beneficiary Vogt is the priest, and to have stolen personal items used in their activities as human rights defenders. The Commission asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to report on the actions adopted to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.  

Five members of a family and members of a human rights organization, Ecuador

On February 28, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of five members of a family that resides along the Ecuadoran border with Colombia and the members of a human rights organization active in the same region. The persons who requested the precautionary measures asked that the identity of the persons protected be kept under seal. The information available alleges that members of that organization are subject to constant threats and persecution due to their activities to defend and promote human rights; that the children of the person who founded the organization have been victims of an attempted kidnapping; and that since late 2006 his wife and two siblings have received threats. The Commission asked the Ecuadorian State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report on the actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures.  In addition,  the Commission asked the Ecuadorian State for information on the situation of risk of another three persons.  On July 19, 2007, during its 128th regular period of sessions, the IACHR held a working meeting with the members and the State regarding implementation of the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.

Marc-Arthur Mésidort and family, Haití

On January 25, 2007, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Marc-Arthur Mésidort, president of the Groupe d`Action pour la Défense des Droits Humains (GADH) and members of his family. The information available indicates that the beneficiary has been the target of threats and harassment since January 2005, and that he is impeded from lodging a complaint due to the fact that persons associated with the assailants are said to have influence among the local police and judicial authorities. It is indicated that Mr. Mésidort’s wife and children took to sleeping away from his residence due to the threats. The Commission asked the Haitian State to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries, and to report on actions taken to investigate judicially the facts that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.

Carlos Albacete Rosales and Piedad Espinosa Albacete, Guatemala

On January 22, 2007, the IACHR issued precautionary measures in favor of Carlos Albacete Rosales and Piedad Espinosa Albacete, co-directors of the environmentalist organization Trópico Verde, devoted to defending the Maya Biosphere Reserve in the Petén region, in northern Guatemala. The information available indicates that on September 12, 2006, the beneficiaries’ house was machine-gunned and that since late 2006 they have been subjected to persecution and threats.  It is also indicated that after a series of threats, the office of Trópico Verde in the Petén region was forced to close, so that it could reopen in a safer place. On January 10, 2007, four uniformed persons were said to have shot at the beneficiaries when they were traveling in a taxi from the La Aurora National Airport. Finally, it is indicated that Carlos Albacete and Piedad Espinosa had to leave the country due to the threats and attacks directed against them, and that they would attempt to return to Guatemala to resume their activities in defense of the environment.  The Commission asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries from the moment they return to Guatemala and to investigate the facts gave rise to the  precautionary measures, so as to identify the persons responsible and impose the respective sanctions on them.  On February 28, 2007, the IACHR decided to expand the precautionary measures to include Ms. Rut Delmira Catalán Rangel, who was said to have been the target of threats and harassment because of her work with the organization Trópico Verde. The Commission continues to monitor the beneficiaries’ situation.  

2006

Padre Andrés Tamayo et al, Honduras

On December 22, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Father Andrés Tamayo, Elvin Noe Lanza, Santos Efraín Paguada, Víctor Manuel Ochoa, René Wilfredo Gradiz, Macario Zelaya, and Pedro Amado Acosta, who are members of MAO (the Olancho Environmental Movement). Members of this organization are affected by the threatening atmosphere surrounding environmental activists in Honduras. On June 9, 2006, the IACHR requested  information from the State regarding the situation of these persons in order to evaluate the need to activate the precautionary measures mechanism. Although the State’s responses of June 16, August 3, and October 12, 2006 refer to certain protective measures activated on behalf of Father Tamayo, no information was provided regarding any steps taken to provide effective protection to the members of MAO. On December 20, 2006, Mr. Heraldo Zúñiga was murdered, for whom, and for his companion, Roger Murillo, precautionary measures had also been requested. In view of this, the Commission requested that the Government of Honduras adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and report on action taken to investigate judicially the events that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The IACHR is monitoring the beneficiaries’ situation.

Evel Fan Fan, Haití

On November 8, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of the human rights activist Evel Fan Fan, president of AUMOHD (the Association of University Students in Favor of a Haiti with Rights), and the members of the association. AUMOHD provides legal support for low-income persons and works on behalf of victims of human rights violations in Port-au-Prince. The information available states that Mr. Fan Fan received numerous death threats and was subjected to acts of intimidation because of public denunciations he made regarding the activity of armed groups and mass murders of civilians in the communities of Grand Ravine and Martissant. In particular, members of AUMOHD actively denounced the impunity of the gangs responsible for acts of violence and many of the deaths of civilians in the community. In view of this situation, the IACHR requested that the Government of Haiti adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and physical integrity of Mr. Fan Fan, and the members of AUMOHD, as well as inform the IACHR on the measures taken. The IACHR was informed by the petitioner that following the lodging of this request, national police officers are protecting Mr. Fan Fan. The IACHR is monitoring the beneficiaries´ situation.

Members of the National Movement for Victims, Sucre Chapter, Colombia

On November 8, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Juan David Díaz Chamorro, Ana Verónica Montaño Chamorro, Malena Mariet Martínez, Ingrid Vergara Chavez, Arnol Gómez Anaya, Adil Meléndez Márquez, Carmelo Agames Berrío, Luis Bautista Gómez Gómez, Ever José Mosquera Salazar, Domingo Banquets Wilches, Omar Enrique Julio Blanco, Jackeline Moguea Berrío, Roberto Serpa, Pedro Nel Mejía Uparela, Franklin Torres, Adolfo Berbel, and Amauri Bidual, members of the National Movement for Victims of State Crimes, who denounced human rights violations committed in the regions of Sucre, Bolívar, Sur de Bolívar, and Montes de María, in the Republic of Colombia. The information available states that the human rights defenders were subjected to threats and harassment that put at risk their lives and physical integrity. In view of the background to the matter, the Commission requested that the Government of Colombia adopt the necessary measures to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and the continuity of their work and report on action taken to judicially investigate the events that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission is monitoring the beneficiaries’ situation.

Alejandro Cerezo Contreras and other members of the Cerezo Committee, Mexico

On October 30, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Alejandro, Francisco, and Emiliana Cerezo Contreras, all members of the Cerezo Committee in Mexico. The available information states that these human rights activists were subjected to email death threats, were followed and spied upon. In view of this, the Commission requested that the Government of Mexico adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and report on action taken to investigate judicially the events that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The IACHR is monitoring the beneficiaries’ situation.

Marta Cecilia Díaz Suárez and María Mancilla Gamboa-ASTEMP, Colombia

On September 22, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor or Marta Cecilia Díaz Suárez and María Paz Mancilla Gamboa, President and Vice President, respectively, of ASTDEMP (the Santander Association of Public Servants) in the Republic of Colombia. The information available indicates that Mrs. Marta Cecilia Díaz Suárez and Mrs. María Paz Mancilla were both subjected to threats, harassment, abduction, and serious physical assault because of their union work on behalf of state workers. In view of this, the Commission requested that the Government of Colombia adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and report on the action taken to investigate judicially the events that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission is monitoring the beneficiaries’ situation.

Margarita Pérez Anchiraico et al. (San Mateo de Huanchor Community), Peru

On August 11, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Margarita Pérez Anchiraico, Chair of the Committee for those Affected by Mining in Mayoc, Peru. The available information states that Mrs. Pérez Anchiraico has been the target of harassment because of her activism concerning the situation in the San Mateo de Huanchor Community, a matter that is the subject of a petition awaiting final judgment by the IACHR. It is stated that on the night of July 16, 2006, Margarita Pérez was threatened with death: she was told that she would be blown up if she continued to oppose the re-opening of the mine. In view of the information, the Commission requested that the Government of Peru adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and report on action taken to investigate judicially the events that gave rise to the precautionary measures.

Iván Cepeda Castro, Claudia Girón, and Emberth Barrios Guzmán, Colombia

On June 26, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Iván Cepeda Castro, Claudia Girón, and Emberth Barrios Guzmán, all members of the Manuel Cepeda Vargas Foundation, an organization which, amongst other activities, represents victims of human rights violations before the Inter-American Commission. The Commission’s decision was based on information that indicates that the beneficiaries have received threats and been followed increasing the risk to their lives given the context of comments and other violent acts against members of the Patriotic Union, and that Mr. Emberth Barrios Guzmán, who is part of the protection plan granted, has been the victim of an attack. The Commission requested that the State, inter alia, adopt the necessary measures to protect the life and physical integrity of Iván Cepeda Castro, Claudia Girón, and Emberth Barrios Guzmán, and in view of the threats against members of the group, strengthen the protective measures already in force; and report on the action it has taken to investigate the alleged involvement of state employees in the harassment inflicted on the beneficiaries, as well as the measures adopted to put an end to the threats against his life. The Commission is monitoring the beneficiaries’ situation.

Martín Amaru Barrios Hernández et al, Mexico

On February 21, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Martín Amaru Barrios Hernández and other members of CDHLVT (the Commission for Human and Labor Rights in the Tehuacán Valley) in Mexico. The available information states that Martín Amaru Barrios, Chairman of CDHLVT was spied upon and threatened. In addition, information has circulated indicating that a hired assassin has been employed to murder him. In view of the fact, the Commission requested that the Government of Mexico adopt the measures necessary to protect the lives and personal integrity of the beneficiaries and report on action taken to investigate judicially the events that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The IACHR is monitoring the beneficiaries’ situation.

The Colombian Association of Democratic Lawyers, Colombia

On February 3, 2006, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Ernesto Moreno Gordillo, María Restrepo Vélez, Miguel Ángel González Reyes, and Alberto Acevedo, all members of the Colombian Association of Democratic Lawyers, an organization which, inter alia, is dedicated to the legal defense of community and civic leaders, mayors, ex mayors, councilors, leftwing members of parliament, trades people, all of whom have been affected by so-called “mass arrests.” The information states that after denouncing the violations of the right to due process of its defenders, the members of the association were followed, harassed, and became the objects of death threats, and on November 17, 2005, there was an attack against the lawyer Moreno Gordillo in which he was shot five times. The Commission requested that the State, inter alia, adopted the necessary measures to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and report on actions taken to judicially investigate the events that gave rise to the precautionary measures. The Commission is monitoring the beneficiaries’ situation.

2005

Alejandro Ponce Villacís et al, Ecuador

On December 22, 2005, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of the lawyers and human rights defenders Alejandro Ponce Villacís, Ermel Chávez, Pablo Fajardo, and Luis Yanza. The information available indicates that the beneficiaries had suffered acts of harassment and threats, and that their office had been broken into and robbed due to their professional work on one high-profile case. Given the risks facing the beneficiaries, the Commission asked the Ecuadorian Government to adopt the measures necessary to protect the lives and personal integrity of Alejandro Ponce Villacís, Ermel Chávez, Pablo Fajardo, and Luis Yanza, and to inform the Commission of the steps taken to investigate the incidents that gave rise to the adoption of precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Aura Lolita Chávez Ixcaquic et al, Guatemala

On November 7, 2005, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Aura Lolita Chávez Ixcaquic, the representative in El Quiché department of women’s organizations to the Departmental Development Council, Pedro Chávez Terrasa, Auxiliary Mayor of Xemamatze village and representative of the local authorities of Nebaj, José Raymundo Cedillo, a member of the Heath Commission of Saquil Grande village, Andrés Hermoso De León, a representative of traders from Santa María Nebaj, Manuela Cedillo Brito, a member of the women’s organization of Nebaj, Diego Rivera Santiago, a representative of the “Integral Victims Movement” association in northern Quiché (municipalities of Nebaj, Cotzal, Chajul), Pedro Brito Guzaro, an evangelical pastor, Domingo Brito Raymundo, a member of the Security, Justice, and Human Rights Commission in El Quiché department, Teresa Santiago De León, a member of the indigenous women’s organization of Nebaj, Tomás Ceto López, president and legal representative of the Ixil Civil Association for Community Social Development, and Francisco Raymundo Hernández, president and legal representative of the Maya Defense Office. The information available indicates that on September 21, 2005, the eleven beneficiaries were traveling to Guatemala City in order to discuss the situation in Nebaj municipality with judicial authorities and the Public Prosecution Service. Subsequently and by various means, the Mayor of Nebaj municipality began to make a series of threats, some of which targeted the beneficiaries’ lives and personal integrity, in order to dissuade them from continuing to publicize a number of alleged irregularities in the municipal administration. Given the risks facing the beneficiaries, the Commission asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures necessary to protect the lives and personal integrity of Aura Lolita Chávez Ixcaquic, Pedro Chávez Terrasa, José Raymundo Cedillo, Andrés Hermoso de León, Manuela Cedillo Brito, Dieto Rivera Santiago, Pedro Brito Guzaro, Domingo Brito Raymundo, Teresa Santiago de León, Tomás Ceto López, and Francisco Raymundo Hernández, and to investigate the incidents that led to the adoption of the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Members of the Madreselva Collective, Guatemala

On October 31, 2005, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of the members of the Madreselva Collective in Guatemala. The information available indicates that the members of this group have been slandered, intimidated, threatened, and attacked on account of their activities in defending and protecting the environment. Given the risks facing the beneficiaries, the Commission asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures necessary to protect the lives and personal integrity of the members of the Madreselva Collective, including the assignment of police officers to guard their headquarters, and to investigate threats and harassment reported in the request for precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Members of the Collectif des Notables de Cité Soleil, Haití

On August 12, 2005, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of six human rights defenders, Mr. Jean Enock Joseph, General Coordinator, Mr. Jean Ronald Registre, Assistant Coordinator, Mrs. Marie Guenine Noel, Assistant Secretary General, Mr. Michel Ange Louisus, Public Relations, Mr. Jean Hislain Frederic, and Mr. Donald Regis Fils, all of whom are members of the human rights organization Collectif des Notables de Cite Soleil (CONOCS). CONOCS is a human rights group working with the community of Cite Soleil, one of the largest slum areas in Port-au-Prince that has also witnessed an acute rise in violent crimes by armed gunmen who have assumed control over this neighborhood in the absence of state security forces. Available information indicates that CONOCS members have been the target of death threats and intimidation by gang members due to CONOCS public criticism of gang violence in Cite Soleil. CONOCS members alleged that they were being persecuted and actively pursued by gang members and they further alleged that they have been forced to abandon their homes in Cite Soleil and seek refuge in a town outside of the city. In view of the situation of the beneficiaries, the Commission asked the Haitian Government to take measures to guarantee the life and personal integrity of CONOCS members and to inform the Commission on the measures taken by the government. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Nery Roberto Barrios de León et al, Guatemala

On July 19, 2005, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Nery Roberto Barrios de León, the president and legal representative of the Popular and Trade-Union Action Unit, UASP, Jovial Acevedo Ayala, a representative of the Union of Education Workers of Guatemala, STEG, and Walter Robles, an attorney-at-law and legal advisor to the UASP. The information available indicates that Messrs. Nery Roberto Barrios de León, Jovial Acevedo Ayala, and Walter Robles had been harassed and had received a series of threats to their lives and physical integrity. Additionally, the headquarters of the Union of Education Workers of Guatemala was raided by unidentified persons between June 25 and 26, 2005. During that raid, information concerning the organized teachers’ movement in Guatemala, which had been stored on computers since 1989, was removed from the premises. Given the risks facing the beneficiaries, the IACHR asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures necessary to protect the lives and personal integrity of Nery Roberto Barrios de León, Jovial Acevedo Ayala, and Walter Robles, and to inform the Commission of the steps taken to clarify the incident through judicial mechanisms. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Members of the Macizo Integration Committee (CIMA), Colombia

On May 5, 2005, the Commission granted precautionary measures to protect the offices of the Macizo Integration Committee (CIMA) in the municipality of Popayán, in order to ensure the safety of workers employed on those premises. The information available indicates that the CIMA’s members have been singled out and threatened due to their work in support of rural communities. Particular emphasis was placed on the security situation of one of the members, Mr. Miguel Fernández, who received death threats on several occasions during March and April 2005 at the CIMA’s offices in Popayán, and to whom the State provided a personal security system. Given the risks facing the beneficiaries, the Commission asked the Colombian Government to adopt the measures necessary to ensure the safety of the CIMA’s facilities in Popayán and to inform the Commission of the steps taken to investigate the incidents that led to the adoption of the precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Obtilia Eugenio Manuel et al, Mexico

On January 14, 2005, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Obtilia Eugenio Manuel and others. The information available indicates that Mrs. Obtilia Eugenio Manuel is a member of the Me Phaa (Tlapaneco) people, a resident of the community of Barranca de Guadalupe, and is known for her commitment over recent years in defending and promoting indigenous rights in the Mexican state of Guerrero. In addition, apparently due to her advocacy work, she has been targeted over the years by a series of threats. Specifically, during December 2004, Mrs. Obtilia received written threats and was monitored and harassed, and these activities continued into January 2005. Given the risks facing the beneficiaries, the Commission asked the Mexican Government to adopt the measures necessary to protect the lives and personal integrity of Obtilia Eugenio Manuel and others, and to inform the Commission of the steps taken to investigate the incidents that gave rise to the request for precautionary measures.  

2004

Francisco Eladio Ramírez Cuellar, Colombia

On October 29, 2004, the Commission granted precautionary measures in favor of Francisco Eladio Ramírez Cuellar, Chairman of SINTRAMINERCOL and a prominent attorney known for his investigative work and defense of the rights of workers and indigenous communities, campesinos, and Afro-Colombians.  Available information indicates that the offices of SINTRAMINERCOL were the target of a series of assaults and harassment.  On October 10, 2004, Mr. Ramírez was the victim of an armed assault at the corner of Calle 49 and Carrera 15 in the city of Bogotá, which he survived unharmed by shielding himself behind electricity and telephone poles and preventing the assassin from hitting him. In view of the situation of the beneficiary and the context of violence against trade union workers and human rights defenders by paramilitary groups, the Commission requested the Colombian Government to adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Francisco Eladio Ramírez Cuellar and to report on the actions adopted to clarify judicially the incidents justifying the adoption of precautionary measures.  The commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiary. 

Members of the Kichán Kichanob Organization, México

On October 29, 2004, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of the witness Armando Díaz López and the members of his family–Micaela Torres Gutiérrez, María Consuelo Díaz Torres, Magdalena Días Torres, and José Armando Díaz Torres—as well as in favor of Reynaldo Gómez Martínez, Mario Torres, Ricardo Martínez Martínez, Mariano Sánchez Montejo, and Gilberto Jiménez López, members of the Kichán Kichañob organization of the state of Chiapas. The beneficiaries allege that they have been the targets of constant threats and harassment because of their reports on the activities of the Peace and Justice paramilitary group (“Paz y Justicia”) in the municipality of Tila in Chiapas. In view of the
risk to the beneficiaries, the Commission requested the Mexican State to adopt the measures necessary to protect the life and physical integrity of the above-mentioned persons and their families and to investigate threats against them. The State and the beneficiaries have reported on agreements that were reached regarding measures of protection. The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the beneficiaries.

Mery Naranjo Jiménez and her family and Socorro Mosquera Londoño, Colombia

On October 22, 2004, the IACHR adopted precautionary measures in favor of Mery Naranjo Jiménez and her family and Socorro Mosquera Londoño, human rights defenders and members of the Community Action Board (Junta de Acción Comunal) of the Independencias III district of Commune 13 of the city of Medellín.  Available information indicates that on October 7, 2004, Ms. Mery Naranjo witnessed the murder of Ana Teresa Yarce, prosecutor of the same Community Action Board to which she belongs, after which she had to leave her home for security reasons.  A few days later, unknown persons approached her daughter to intimidate her.  In view of the situation of the beneficiaries and the context of violence and intimidation against the social leaders of Commune 13 of Medellín by paramilitary groups, the Commission requested the Colombian Government to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the lives and physical integrity of Mery Naranjo Jiménez, Alba Mery Naranjo, Sandra Janneth Naranjo, Alejandro Naranjo, Juan David Naranjo, and Socorro Mosquera Londoño and to report on the actions adopted to clarify and put an end to the threats justifying the adoption of the precautionary measures.  The IACHR asked the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to order the adoption of provisional measures. The Court granted that request on July 5, 2006.

Members of the Cauca association of Displaced Persons of Naya, Colombia

On October 14, 2004, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Holmes Enrique Fernández, Jorge Salazar, and other members of the Cauca Association of Displaced Persons of Naya (Asociación Caucana de Desplazados del Naya--ASOCAIDENA), which, since December 2003, brought together 70 families of displaced persons of African descent, indigenous people, and colonizers who survived the massacre perpetrated on April 12, 2001 in Alto Naya.  Available information indicates that the members of ASOCADEINA–now relocated in La Laguna, Timbío, Department of Cauca—have been the target of threats against their life and personal safety by members of paramilitary groups operating in the zone and that, on September 30, 2004, Holmes Enrique Fernández and Jorge Salazar were the targets of an ultimatum by paramilitary groups, indicating that the time had come to settle scores with the leaders of the association for their activity in the zone.  In view of the situation of the beneficiaries, the Commission requested the Colombian Government to adopt the measures necessary to guarantee the lives and physical integrity of Holmes Enrique Fernández, Jorge Salazar, and other members of ASOCAIDENA and to report on the actions adopted for the purpose of putting an end to the incidents justifying the adoption of precautionary measures.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the protected persons.

Raúl Javier Gatica Bautista et al, México

On September 27, 2004, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Raúl Javier Gatica Bautista, member of the Organizational Board of the Ricardo Flores Magón Oaxaca People’s Indigenous Council.  Available information indicates that Mr. Gatica Bautista has been the target of threats and harassment because of his work defending the human rights of the indigenous peoples of Oaxaca, which had allegedly undermined official, political, and paramilitary groups interests.  In view of the risks to the beneficiary, the Commission requested the Mexican State to adopt measures to protect Mr. Raúl Javier Gatica Bautista’s life and physical integrity and the free exercise of his activities as a human rights defender.  The State and the beneficiaries have reported on agreements reached concerning measures of protection.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the protected person.

Andrés Pavón Murillo, Honduras

On June 8, 2004, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of the human rights defender Andrés Pavón Murillo, Executive Director of CODEH.  Available information indicates that Mr. Pavón Murillo has been the target of threats and harassment because of his activities as a human rights defender and that the public has been called upon on television and radio to take his life and the lives of his family, so as to dissuade him from continuing “to defend delinquents.”  In view of the risk for the beneficiaries, the Commission requested the Honduran State to adopt measures to protect the life and physical integrity of Mr. Pavón Murillo and his family.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the protected persons.

Orlando Blanco Lapola, Guatemala

On February 17, 2004, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Orlando Blanco Lapola, director and spokesperson for the National Human Rights Coordinator of Guatemala.  Available information indicates that Mr. Lapola has been the target of repeated death threats, an illegal search of the offices where he works, and intimidation on a public highway, because of his activity as a defender of human rights and the steps taken to promote the establishment of the Commission for the Investigation of Clandestine Security Corps and Devices (Comisión de Investigación de Cuerpos y Aparatos Clandestinos de Seguridad—SICIACS) in 2002 and 2003.  In view of risk to the beneficiary, the Commission requested the Guatemalan State to adopt the necessary measures to protect the life and physical integrity of Mr. Blanco and to report on the actions undertaken to investigate the incidents and the threats made against him.  The Commission continues to monitor the situation of the protected person.

2003

Members of the Comisión Colombiana de Juristas

On December 8, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of the members of the Comisión Colombiana de Juristas (CCJ), a prominent human rights organization and petitioner in individual cases and precautionary and provisional measures before the IACHR. The information available indicates that the climate of hostility and accusations against human rights organizations in Colombia has given rise to a situation of risk for the members of the Comisión Colombiana de Juristas, the legality of whose work has been called into question by some sectors. In view of the situation, the IACHR asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries and ensure that they are able to continue their work of promoting and defending human rights in Colombia.

Alexander López Angulo y otros, Colombia

On November 6, 2003, the Commission issued precautionary measures on behalf of Alexander López Angulo, Luis Eduardo Espinosa Mosquera, Luis Fernando Murillo, Henry Montenegro, Rosalba Castillo Viveros, Andrés Felipe Benítez, Eduardo Andrés Sánchez, Leady Zulay Castro, and Luis Carlos Bravo, leaders of the Asociación de Grupos Juveniles (Association of Youth Groups) in the city of Cali. The information available indicates that since February 2003, the leaders of this association, which has been working with high-risk youth offenders in the district of Aguablanca for 13 years, have been victims of constant threats, harassment, accusations, and abuses by police agents working out of the stations at El Diamante, Villanueva, and Los Mangos because of a series of allegations of police violence against the local youth. In view of the situation, the IACHR asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued receiving information on the situation of the persons protected.

Amílcar Méndez, Guatemala

On October 3, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Amílcar Méndez, a prominent human rights defender, founder and legal representative of the Consejo de Comunidades Étnicas “Runujel Junam” (CERJ). The information available indicates that on September 27, 2003, Mr. Eusebio Macario Chicoj was assassinated; he was a member of CERJ who had worked on issues related to compensation for the victims of the internal armed conflict in the community of Chulumal in Chichicastenango. On September 30, 2003, Amílcar Méndez received a telephone threat indicating “... we brought Eusebio to justice [ajusticiamos, i.e. “we killed him”], we’re going to bring you to justice ... complain to your father the Ombudsman, to the gringo shits (los gringos cerotes)....” In view of the risk to which he is exposed, and the context of danger facing human rights defenders in Guatemala, the IACHR asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and personal integrity of Amílcar Méndez. In response, the State indicated that the Minister of Interior, the Director General of the National Civilian Police, and the Chief of the Human Rights Unit had been informed, and told to provide perimeter security to the offices of the CERJ and the beneficiary’s residence.

Jorge Isaac Aramburu, Colombia

On October 1, 2003, the IACHR adopted precautionary measures on behalf of the teacher and human rights defender Jorge Isaac Aramburu, who works in the Yurumanguí and Cajambre river basins in the municipality of Buenaventura. The information available indicates that he has been declared a military target and since September 2000 ten members of his family have been assassinated. In view of this situation, the IACHR asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures needed to protect his life and physical integrity and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued to receive information on his situation.

David Flórez González, Colombia

On September 9, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of trade union leader David Flórez González, president of the Central Unitaria de Trabajadores in the department of Santander. The information available indicates that in the context of violence against trade unionists in Colombia, information was received regarding death threats made to Mr. Flórez. In view of the situation, the IACHR asked the Colombian State to take the measures needed to protect his life and physical integrity, and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued receiving information on his situation.

Members of the Comisión Intereclesial de Justicia y Paz, Colombia

On September 8, 2003, the Commission issued precautionary measures on behalf of the members of the Comisión Intereclesial de Justicia y Paz, a prominent human rights organization and a petitioner in individual cases and precautionary and provisional measures before the IACHR. The information available indicates that the members of the Comisión Intereclesial de Justicia y Paz have been subject to threats, have been followed, have subject to accusations, have been subject to repeated detentions and searches since 1997, and more intensely since the first half of 2003, as part of a pattern of conduct aimed at thwarting or hindering its work on behalf of human rights in the regions of Colombia in which it accompanies especially vulnerable communities. In view of the situation, the IACHR asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued receiving information on the situation of the persons protected.

Jorge Custodio y otros, Brazil

On August 12, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures to Jorge Custodio, Rosangela Aparecida Saraiva Ferreira, and Alessandra Rodrigues Celestino. The information available indicates that Mr. Custodio–Regional Coordinator of the National Movement for Human Rights, and Coordinator of the SOS against Torture project–and his family have been subject to harassment because of a report on torture of inmates at the Londrina prison, which was a topic of debate in the Legislative Assembly of the state of Paraná, and which led to the replacement of prison officials and an investigation into the allegations. Ms. Alessandra Rodrigues Celestino, delegate of the staff of the prison system of the state of Paraná, and Rosangela Aparecida Saraiva Ferreira, were also said to be targeted by threats. In view of the risk to the beneficiaries, the Commission asked the state to adopt the necessary measures to protect the life and personal integrity of Jorge Custodio, Rosangela Aparecida Saraiva Ferreira, and Alessandra Rodrigues Celestino.

Rosalina Tuyuc, Guatemala

On August 11, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Rosalina Tuyuc, a prominent defender of human rights and indigenous rights, and her daughter Julia Ixmucané Tuyuc. The information available indicates that on July 26, 2003, unknown persons entered Rosalina Tuyuc’s home and took school supplies and other objects of scant economic value. In addition, in the course of an exhumation organized by CONAVIGUA, the beneficiary was threatened and harassed by several persons. In view of the risk to which the beneficiaries are exposed, the IACHR asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and personal integrity of Rosalina Tuyuc and her daughter. In response the State reported that it had adopted measures to coordinate the adoption of protective measures with her.

Gloria Inés Flórez Schneider et al, Colombia

On July 10, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of human rights defenders Gloria Inés Flórez Schneider and Martha Cecilia Monroy, who are, respectively, executive director and staff attorney with the Asociación para la Promoción Social Alternativa (MINGA), a prominent human rights organization and petitioner in individual cases and precautionary measures before the IACHR. The information available indicates that the beneficiaries have been receiving anonymous phone calls and threats against their persons and against MINGA in the context of attacks against the work of human rights organizations in the Republic of Colombia. On June 27, 2003, they received a phone call in which a threat was made to kill (“darle a”) Martha Cecilia Monroy. In view of the situation the IACHR asked the Colombian State to take the measures needed to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued receiving information on the situation of the persons protected.

María Victoria Fallon, Colombia

On May 16, 2003, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of attorney María Victoria Fallon, a prominent human rights defender and director of the Grupo Interdisciplinario por los Derechos Humanos (GIDH). The information available indicates that the beneficiary is at risk as a result of her work related to the situation of the district known as Comuna 13 of Medellín, Antioquia. Accordingly, the IACHR asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures needed to protect her life and physical integrity, and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued receiving information on her situation.

Members of the Colectivo HIJOS, Guatemala

On May 15, 2003, the IACHR issued precautionary measures on behalf of Edgar Filiberto Celada Alejos, Raúl Eduardo Najera Hernández, and all other members of the Colectivo HIJOS. The information available indicates that the beneficiaries have been subject to a series of acts of harassment, including physical assault and verbal threats by state agents. On March 15, 2003, the youth Domingo Yaxon Guarcax was beaten by members of the National Civilian Police and left unconscious near the Plaza de la Constitución. On that same day, Jorge and Marina Isabel Gómez, Ijinio Osvely, and Byron Sánchez were apparently threatened by police agents. In view of the risk to which the beneficiaries are exposed, the Commission asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and personal integrity of members of the Colectivos HIJOS. In response, the State reported on the implementation of perimeter security around the organization’s offices.

Members of the organization Acción de los Cristianos para la Abolición de la Tortura (ACAT), México

On April 8, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Samuel Alfonso Castellanos Piñón, Beatriz Casas Arrellanos, José Raymundo Díaz Taboada, Graciela Calvo Navarrete, and Mayra Iracema Jarquín Lujan, all members of the organization Acción de los Cristianos para la Abolición de la Tortura (ACAT: Action by Christians for the A Abolition of Torture). The information available indicates that on March 1, 2003, attorney Samuel Castellanos Piñón and other members of the organization received an anonymous threat at the ACAT offices in Oaxaca presumably from members of the community of Santiago Xochiltepec, related to the organization’s participation in the “Agua Fría Massacre” case. In view of the risk to which the beneficiaries are exposed, the Commission asked the Mexican State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and personal integrity of the members of ACAT. In response, the State reported to the IACHR that it had adopted measures aimed at implementing the IACHR’s requests in terms of police surveillance of the ACAT office and launching an investigation into the facts. Later, the IACHR learned of new threats to Mr. Castellanos, of which the State was duly informed.

Members of the Asociación de Defensores de Derechos Humanos “Eduardo Umaña Mendoza”

On March 26, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Waldir Sinisterra and Alberto Hoyos Suárez, members of the Asociación de Defensores de Derechos Humanos “Eduardo Umaña Mendoza” in Valle del Cauca. The information available indicates that the beneficiaries were declared military targets by the Bloque Calima of the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) because of their reports of massacres and extrajudicial executions perpetrated by paramilitary groups in Valle del Cauca. In view of the situation the IACHR requested the Colombian State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and physical integrity of the beneficiaries and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued to receive information about the situation of the persons protected.

María de los Ángeles Monzón Paredes, Guatemala

On March 18, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of María de los Ángeles Monzón Paredes, a Guatemalan journalist who has done crucial work on issues related to the observance and protection of human rights, and of her family. The information available indicates that she has received threats in the wake of publishing articles on the situation of the Azmitia Dorantes family–the petitioner in a case before the IACHR–and the assassination of indigenous leader Antonio Pop. In addition, in the early morning hours of March 2, 2003, unknown persons entered her home, checked her vehicles, and removed property of hers, allegedly to make it look like a robbery. In view of the risk to which the beneficiaries are exposed, the Commission asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life, personal integrity, and freedom of expression of María de los Ángeles Monzón Paredes and to investigate the threats against her. In response, the State reported on the implementation of perimeter security measures for her and her family. Later, the IACHR learned that Ms. Monzón had continued receiving death threats.

Mario Amílcar Mollinedo and others, Guatemala

On March 17, 2003, the Commission issued precautionary measures on behalf of Mario Minera, Héctor Amílcar Mollinedo, and other members of CALDH, a prominent human rights organization and petitioner in individual cases and precautionary measures before the IACHR. The information available indicates that the members of the organization have been followed, threatened, and intimidated. Specifically, on March 3, 2003, Mr. Héctor Mollinedo, legal assistant, was followed by two unknown persons. On March 5, 2003, the founder of CALDH, Mario Minera, was intercepted by two individuals who threatened him with a bladed weapon, telling him “don’t feel intimidated because you’re the ones who intimidate people.” These acts are occurring in the context of threats and acts of aggression against human rights defenders in Guatemala. In view of the context and the risk to which the beneficiaries are exposed, the Commission asked the Guatemalan State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and personal integrity of the members of CALDH.

Carlos Rosero et al, Colombia

March 7, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Carlos Rosero, Jairo Castillo, Rosa Helena Gallón, Dolis Manuela Salazar, Daira Elsa Quiñones, Hernán Cortés, and José Santos Caicedo, all members of the human rights organization Proceso de Comunidades Negras (PCN). The information available indicates that the members of this organization have received threats against their lives and physical integrity.  In view of the risk to which the beneficiaries of the measure are exposed, the IACHR asked the Colombian State to adopt measures to protect the life and physical integrity of the members of the PCN and to report on the actions taken to investigate the facts and put an end to the threats. The Commission has continued receiving information on the situation of the persons protected.

Piedad Córdoba, Colombia

On March 5, 2003, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Senator Piedad Córdoba, who has played a key role in the area of human rights. The information available indicates that Senator Córdoba has been the target of a series of attacks, including a kidnapping by members of the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC). In view of the risk to which she was exposed, the Commission asked the Colombian State to adopt the measures needed to protect the life and personal integrity of Senator Piedad Córdoba and to investigate and clarify the circumstances of the attacks against her. The Commission has continued to receive information on her situation.

2002

Marta Lucía Rentería Barreiro, Colombia

On November 19, 2002 the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Mrs. Marta Lucía Rentería Barreiro, civic representative of Jamundí and human rights defender.The beneficiary had denounced cases of corruption in different municipalities in Valle del Cauca, which led the Office of the Attorney General of the Nation to launch investigations and resulted in disciplinary investigations against civil servants.She also denounced serious acts of violence in the department of Valle del Cauca, particularly in the municipality of Jamundí, that had led to the death, disappearance, and displacement of hundreds of persons.  The petitioners alleged that, as a result, her life was in danger and that she was the victim of harassment and threats and was followed in June, July, August, and September 2002.  They indicated that both civil servants and paramilitary groups operating in Valle del Cauca were behind these incidents and that other popularly-elected civic representatives in the municipality had been murdered and that those crimes had gone unpunished.They also claimed that she had been the victim of systematic harassment.  In its reply, the State indicated that the Unit on Crimes against Individual Liberty and Other Guarantees, Unit 28, in Santiago de Cali is in the preliminary phase of investigations into the alleged offense of making threats.  The Technical Investigative Body (CTI) is responsible for providing protection to the beneficiary and her family, a measure taken along with security rounds by the National Police, while waiting for the risk assessment to be conducted by the DAS.

Teresa Cedeño Galíndez, Colombia

On October 29, 2002 the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Dr. Teresa Cedeño Galíndez, president of the Permanent Committee for the Defense of Human Rights (CPDH) of Arauca.The petitioners claimed that on October 2, 2002 a man who identified himself as Commander Mario of the AUC made repeated calls to the cell phone of attorney Teresa de Jesús Cedeño Galíndez, threatening her with death and ordering her to leave the city and to “stop defending the guerillas.”He also said that he would post a guard at her house and expected not to see her there.  The AUC commander repeated the calls and a prosecutor from the support structure had the opportunity to verify the veracity of the calls and threats.  On October 22, 2002, Dr. Cedeño Galíndez detected persons following her, as well as movement of suspicious persons in front of her home.In its reply, the State reported that the prosecution office assigned to work with the Criminal Law Judges of the Special Circuit in Arauca was in the preliminary phases of an investigation and the Ministry of the Interior had evaluated the situation of Teresa Cedeño Galíndez and provided the beneficiary with a transportation and cellular telephone allowance.

Enrique Uzcátegui Jiménez, Venezuela

On October 18, 2002, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Luis Enrique Uzcátegui Jiménez, brother of Néstor José Uzcátegui Jiménez, who was killed on January 1, 2001 allegedly by state of Falcón police officers.  According to the request presented to the IACHR, Mr. Uzcátegui had received death threats for having organized a committee of family members of victims of alleged executions by members of the police.  In light of new events that aggravated the beneficiary’s security situation and of the fact that the State did not take the necessary measures to comply with the precautionary measures. On November 25, 2002 the IACHR asked the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to order the adoption of provisional measures. The Court granted that request on November 27, 2002.

Lysias Fleury, HaitiLysias Fleury, Haití

On October 15, 2002 the Commission adopted precautionary measures on behalf of Mr. Lysias Fleury. These measures were reiterated by the IACHR on November 12, 2002. According to information received by the IACHR, Mr. Lysias Fleury, of the Justice and Peace Episcopal Commission in Haiti, was detained by police on June 24, 2002 at approximately 7:00 p.m., and hit several times with the butt of a pistol at the time he was arrested.  He was held 17 hours for questioning at the Bon Repos police station. That night he was subjected to various forms of degrading treatment.  For instance, he was forced to collect excrement with his hands. The next day, some policemen beat him up, inflicting 15 double (“kalots marasa”) slaps on the face, 64 blows to the belly with a baton, and several kicks to the ankles.  Mr. Lysias Fleury presented the Commission with a medical certificate attesting to his wounds, along with various photographs of them.  The petitioner informed the Commission that a complaint was lodged with the Prosecutor’s Office in Port-au-Prince on August 1, 2002 as well as with the Inspector of the National Police on June 27, 2002. The Commission adopted the following precautionary measures: (1) Immediate adoption of all measures needed to protect the life and physical integrity of File Lysias Fleury. These measures must be adopted with the consent of the petitioner as soon as possible. (2) The adoption of all measures required to ensure that an investigation is carried out into the facts denounced by File Lysias Fleury.  According to information at the Commission’s disposal, the petitioner made several attempts to meet government officials to agree on appropriate measures to guarantee his personal security but was not received by them. Moreover, he was allegedly intimidated by certain government agents who had taken part in the events of June 24, 2002. The IACHR asked the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to order the adoption of provisional measures. The Court granted that request on June 7, 2003.

Egon Hidalgo Salvador y Salvador, Guatemala

On October 11, 2002 the Commission asked the State of Guatemala to adopt precautionary measures to protect the life and person of Egon Hidalgo Salvador y Salvador, a member of Pastoral de Movilidad Humana of the Diocese of San Marcos, municipality of San Marcos, who had received repeated death threats.  According to information obtained by the Special Rapporteur for Migrant Workers and their Families, on September 27 and October 1, 2002 Mr. Salvador y Salvador received anonymous telephone calls from a person who, in clear opposition to the beneficiary’s work on behalf of the rights of migrant workers, told him to stop those activities or suffer serious consequences, including death.  One piece of background information borne in mind by the Commission was that Mr. Salvador y Salvador was beaten by three individuals at night when returning home in the municipality of Comitancillo.  In a note dated November 19, 2002 the State informed the IACHR that an agreement had been reached with the beneficiary to adopt perimeter surveillance at his workplace and residence by the National Civil Police as a protective measure.  Later, on January 17, 2003 the State indicated that police authorities in the department of San Marcos continue to protect the beneficiary and that no new acts of intimidation or threats had been reported.  The Commission notes that the Guatemalan State has fulfilled the precautionary measures requested.

Diego Osorio et al, Colombia

On August 27, 2002 the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Diego Osorio, Carlos Valencia, Aide Trujillo, Rodrígo López, Vicente Villarda, Gerardo Santibáñez, Guillermo Cardona, Domingo Taboparda, Adriana, Gonélez, María Teresa Henao, and others.On August 21, 2002 the Risaralda Teacher’s Union (SER) received a leaflet by fax signed by the self-appointed Cacique Calarcá Bloc of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) ordering them to “leave the region within 15 days. If not, our units will take the actions set forth by our general command.”The letter specifically named the following members of the United Workers Union (CUT) and the Human Rights Committee (CDH): Diego Osorio, district president of the CUT; Carlos Valencia, treasurer of the executive committee of the CUT branch; Aide Trujillo, president of the Risaralda Teacher’s Union (SER); Rodrigo López, vice president of the SER; Vicente Villada, treasurer of the executive committee of the SER branch; Gerardo Santibáñez, secretary general of the Public Company Workers Union (SINTRAEMDES); Guillermo Cardona, President of the Risaralda branch of the Permanent Committee for the Defense of Human Rights (CPDH); Domingo Taborda, vice president of the Risaralda branch of the CPDH; Adriana González, secretary general of the Risaralda branch of the CPDH and member of the national executive committee of the "Eduardo Umaña Mendoza" Association of Defense Lawyers; María Teresa Henao, Risaralda branch of the CPDH; Gustavo Marín, Risaralda branch of the CPDH; Dover Hoyos, Risaralda branch of the CPDH; and Hernando Aguirre, Risaralda branch of the CPDH.With regard to the protective measures taken by the State, the IACHR received information on the reinforcement of the headquarters of the CUT, SINTRAEMSDES, and the SER in October.Regarding implementation of protection plans, the State reported that it was still awaiting the results of the risk assessments, although it did approve the provision of national airplane tickets for 13 of the beneficiaries. The State also indicated that the National Police had conducted different raids in the region, to dismantle self-defense and guerilla groups in the region.The National Human Rights Unit is responsible for the criminal investigations into the illegal placement of constraints on members of the CPDH and CUT of Risaralda.

Members of the Colombian Legal Foundation (CORPORJURÍDICO), Colombia.

On August 6, 2002 the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of members of the Colombian Legal Foundation (CORPOJURÍDICO), headquartered in Apartadó, Antioquia, and the relatives of the victim in petition P0597/2001 on the disappearance of Alcides Torres Arias. The petitioner requested a hearing to present the testimony of the victim’s mother during the 114th regular session of the IACHR in Washington, D.C.; however, before departing, attorney María del Carmen Flores Jaime, a member of CORPOJURÍDICO, was killed after she met with the victim’s mother. The petitioners claim that, since then, they have received threats and members of the organization have had to move or go into exile abroad for security reasons.

Miembros de ANDAS (Asociación Nacional de Ayuda Solidaria) y líderes sociales de Santander, Colombia

On July 19, 2002 the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of members of the National Solidarity Aid Association (ANDAS) and social leaders in Santander.  On June 23, 2002 the Fidel Castaño Gil Urban Front, Bolívar Central Bloc of the AUC released a public document ordering ten social leaders in Bucaramanga, Santander and surrounding areas to leave the region or lose their lives. Specifically, the threats were made to Hernando Maldonado, a university professor who has handled projects on displaced persons; Wilson Vega Castro, president of the Association of Displaced Persons of Bucaramanga; Julio Avella García, founder of ANDAS; Mercedes Usuga, age 75, leader of the UP in the Urabá region; Luis Antonio Núñez, treasurer of the Association of Displaced Persons of the Municipality de Girón, who had already been assaulted; Alvaro Tapias, president of the Santander section of ANDAS; Belcy Rincón, founder of the Santander section of ANDAS and wife of a UP leader killed in 1998; María Gutriérrez, ANDAS spokeswoman in Santander; and Nicanor Arciniegas, president of the Association of Displaced Persons of Piedecuesta. In response, the State informed the IACHR that risk assessments were being performed for the beneficiaries and indicated that the investigation into the threats was being conducted by the Third Prosecutor with the Special Criminal Courts; however, the IACHR did not receive information on progress made in that connection.

Members of the Rigoberta Menchú Foundation, Guatemala

On July 29, 2002 the Commission contacted the Guatemalan State to request precautionary measures to protect the rights to life and personal safety of members of the Rigoberta Menchú Foundation, based on threats and acts of intimidation against them.  Among the incidents considered by the Commission in issuing the measures was the murder of Guillermo Ovalle, a Foundation member, on June 26, 2002 in a restaurant near that organization.  On August 12, 2002 the State presented information on fulfillment of the precautionary measures and indicated that a decision was reached at a meeting with the petitioners to have continuous police surveillance of Foundation facilities. Following that reply from the State, the parties continued to present information and observations in connection with these precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor compliance with the precautionary measures.

María Noguera y su familia, Paraguay

On July 29, 2002 the Commission asked the Paraguayan State to take the necessary steps to protect the person of Mrs. María Noguera and her family from the threats they have received.  Mrs. Noguera is a human rights defender, and her main activity is to visit military barracks to see if there are child soldiers, in connection with an inter-institutional commission created for that purpose.  She told the Commission that, as a result of her activities, both she and her family had been the victims of threats and intimidation.  The State replied on August 29, 2002 and the Commission continues to receive information from both parties on implementation of the measures.

Pablo Bustos Sánchez, Colombia

On July 15, 2002 the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Pablo Bustos Sánchez, director of the so-called Citizen’s Watch Committee, which reports corruption in the administration of public resources to judicial and control agencies.  This activity has made members of the Watch Committee the subject of constant threats and persecution throughout the country, and six of them had been killed in the last three years.The petitioners alleged that they learned, through reliable sources, that there was a plan in place to kill Pablo Bustos Sánchez.Three days after precautionary measures were ordered, the beneficiary received an anonymous letter at home threatening him and his family with death, and his wife was assaulted on the highway.The beneficiary asked the State to strengthen its protection plan, which is headed up by the DAS.

María Dolores Gómez and her family, Argentina

On July 11, 2002 the Commission renewed the precautionary measures that had been granted on August 27, 2001 on behalf of María Dolores Gómez and her family.  The Commission had granted precautionary measures and requested that the State take steps to protect the life and person of Dr. María Dolores Gómez, public defender in the Province of Buenos Aires, and her family, based on the information received indicating that she had been the victim of a series of threats and harassment. The petitioners alleged that those events, including one attack, anonymous phone calls, and serious threats, were related to the performance of her functions, particularly in connection with protecting the rights of prisoners.  The Commission also asked the State to report on the measures taken to determine the origin of the threats and to try those responsible, and to end the risk to Dr. Gómez, her family, and the witnesses who testified about the threats against her.  Following initial exchanges of information that reported, inter alia, on the protection of the beneficiaries by official security forces, the parties continued to present information and observations on the precautionary measures.  

Jesús González Luna, Colombia

On June 10, 2002 the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Jesús González Luna, a member of the executive committee of the United Workers Federation (CUT), director of human rights of the CUT, and member of the CRER (Risk Assessment Committee responsible for implementing IACHR precautionary measures in Colombia) who had been continuously receiving threats since 1995 in a context of widespread violence against members of the Colombian union movement, including attacks in which his guards were killed.On May 1, 2002 while he was trying to clarify an incident in which two known members of the AUC were photographing and filming participants in the Labor Day march in Cali, Jesús González Luna and his guard were surrounded by a dozen police officers dressed in black and were truncheoned and kicked. The State told the IACHR that the investigation into the events of May 1, 2002 was in the hands of the National Police Division, Cali district, at the instructions of the Presidential Program on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law.  Regarding the protection plan designed for the beneficiary, the CRER recommended granting special humanitarian aid, facilitating monthly air tickets, and reinforcing the Cali residence of Jesús González Luna.

Iriny Nicolau Corres Lopes, Brasil

On June 4, 2002 the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Iriny Nicolau Corres Lopes.  The request alleged that Mrs. Lopes, a human rights defender in the state of Espíritu Santo, was receiving death threats because of complaints she made in relation to organized crime operating in that state.The precautionary measures requested by the IACHR were aimed at protecting the life and person of Mrs. Lopes and investigating the threats.  On June 14, 2002 the State informed the IACHR that it was complying with the precautionary measures, by providing four federal police officers to protect Mrs. Lopes.  On December 20, 2002 at the request of the petitioners, the Commission extended the precautionary measures for six months.

Members of the National Human Rights Unit, Colombia

On April 25, 2002 the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Amelia Pérez Parra, Leonardo Augusto Cabana Fonseca, Lucía Margarita Luna Prada, Amparo Cerón Ojeda, Luis Augusto Sepúlveda Reyes, and Giovani Alvarez Santoyo, members of the National Human Rights Unit, and Martha Cecilia Camacho, an investigator with the Technical Investigative Body (CTI), who were threatened by paramilitary leaders Carlos Castaño and Salvatore Mancuso because of their involvement in a series of investigations being conducted by the National Human Rights Unit of the Government Attorney’s Office, involving high-level members of the armed forces.One of the prosecutors, Luis Augusto Sepúlveda Reyes, was dismissed from his post on April 23, 2002 before he could issue an arrest warrant. The Commission asked the State to take the necessary steps to protect the life of the beneficiaries and investigate the threats against them.

Esther Chávez Cano, México

On April 25, 2002 the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Esther Chávez Cano, who reported that she was threatened because of her investigation into the murder of women in Ciudad Juárez. The petitioners and the authorities held several working meetings to discuss protective measures.  Both parties regularly submitted information on the steps taken by the Attorney General’s Office to investigate the complaints and to implement Federal Judicial Police patrols at the offices of the organization Casa Amiga and at the home of Mrs. Chávez.

Members of the human rights organization COFAVIC, Venezuela

On April 19, 2002 the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Yris Medina Cova, Hilda Páez, Maritza Romero, Aura Lizcano, Alicia de González, Carmen Alicia Mendoza, and Liliana Ortega Mendoza, members of the human rights organization COFAVIC.  According to the petition presented to the IACHR, Mrs. Liliana Ortega, director of COFAVIC, and members of that organization had received threats, because of their activities to defend human rights.  The State provided police protection to the beneficiaries, but the latter indicated that the investigations into the incidents that led to the granting of precautionary measures had not yielded satisfactory results.  In November 2002, the petitioner informed the IACHR that the police protection initially implemented by the State in compliance with the precautionary measures was stopped just when Mrs. Liliana Ortega was receiving new threats on her life.  On November 25, 2002 the IACHR requested provisional measures from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.  The Court granted that request on November 27, 2002.

Patrick Merisier and Benthony Philippe, Haití

On March 14, 2002 the Commission adopted precautionary measures on behalf of Mr. Patrick Merisier and Mr. Benthony Philippe, members of the National Coalition for the Rights of Haitians.  These measures were adopted for a six-month period and expired on September 15, 2002.  According to information received by the Commission, Mr. Patrick Merisier suffered bullet wounds on February 22, 2002 and was pursued until he took refuge in a hospital.  Mr. Benthony Philippe was allegedly subjected to persecution and intimidation by certain government agents.  According to the same source, these acts of aggression and intimidation were perpetrated because Mr. Patrick Merisier and Mr. Benthony Philippe, acting in their capacity as members of the National Coalition for the Rights of Haitians, had denounced the deterioration in the overall human rights situation in Haiti; drawn the public’s attention to the impunity enjoyed by those responsible for the events at La Saline on November 1 and 2, 2001 and to the problem of corruption; and criticized the “zero tolerance” policy and the delay in investigating the murder of Mr. Jean Dominique.  On March 14, 2002 the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Mr. Patrick Merisier and Mr. Benthony Philippe and asked the State to take the necessary steps to protect the lives and physical integrity of Mr. Patrick Merisier and Mr. Benthony Philippe and to adopt all measures required to guarantee the exercise of their right to seek, receive, and impart information in accordance with Article 13 of the American Convention and with the second principle of the Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression.  On September 5, 2002 the Commission asked the parties to comment within 2 weeks on the precautionary measures adopted in March 2002.  After a hearing at the Commission’s headquarters on October 15, 2002 the Commission was informed by the National Coalition for the Rights of Haitians that Mr. Patrick Merisier had left Haiti and that, therefore, precautionary measures were no longer necessary in his case.  In a note dated September 18, 2002 and received by the Commission on December 23, 2002 the Haitian State acknowledged receipt of the Commission’s communication dated September 5, 2002.

2001

Abel Barrera Hernández, México

Based on the information received from the petitioners, on December 21, 2001, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Abel Barrera Hernández. Mr. Barrera Hernández, the director of the Tlachinollan Mountain Human Rights Center, received a verbal threat telling him to be careful because there was a group of people who wanted to cause him harm. The incident worried Mr. Barrera, who had received similar threats in the past and which, according to the complaint, had never been investigated. In their application the petitioners added that they sought protection from Mexico’s National Human Rights Commission and from the Guerrero State Human Rights Defense Commission; however, they did not receive an appropriate answer to their grave situation and thus had grounds for fearing that the threat could be carried out.

Mauricio García Prieto Hirlemann y otros, El Salvador

On November 20, 2001, the Inter-American Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Mauricio García Prieto Hirlemann, Gloria Giralt de García Prieto, and their legal advisors from the Human Rights Institute at José Simeón Cañas Central American University (IDHUCA). The measures were granted after the petitioners supplied information claiming that the aforesaid individuals’ right to life and physical integrity was in grave danger. They claim that the threats are intended to dissuade them from continuing to search for justice in the murder of Ramón Mauricio García Prieto Giralt, the aforesaid couple’s son, which is currently being processed by the IACHR as case 11.697. A preliminary report from the Salvadorian State noted that a meeting between the nation’s attorney-general and the García Prieto family and their representatives had been scheduled for November 22, when the necessary protection measures would be agreed upon. On December 5, 2001, the petitioners submitted a series of specific proposals for the Salvadorian authorities to pursue, including appointing a special prosecutor and a special investigator from the National Civilian Police, assigning the García Prieto family and their advisors security guards, details on the equipment needed to protect them, and holding regular meetings with the competent authorities. The Commission asked the Inter-American Court to adopt provisional measures. The provisional measures were granted on September 26, 2006.

Pierre Espérance et al, Haití

On November 9, 2001, the IACHR granted precautionary measures to protect the lives of a number of Haitian human rights workers. According to the information received, the Platform of Haitian Human Rights Organizations (POHDH) reported the existence of a list of fifteen names, all members of the organization, identified as targets in an assassination plot. These individuals included the following: Pierre Espérance, treasurer (POHDH) and executive director of the National Coalition for the Human Rights of Haitians (NCHR), Vilès Alizar, head of programs with the NCHR, Serge Bordenave, general secretary of POHDH, and Jean Simon Saint Hubert, executive secretary of POHDH. The information received indicates that these threats are related to complaints filed by the Platform and the NCHR about the increasingly politicized character of the Haitian National Police (PNH) and about human rights violations in the country. The background to this situation dates back to March 8, 2000, when Pierre Espérance, the director of the National Coalition for the Human Rights of Haitians (NCHR) and treasurer of the Platform of Haitian Human Rights Organizations (POHDH), was attacked and seriously wounded. In addition, a pamphlet containing threats was sent to POHDH’s member organizations on March 1, 2000. In light of the gravity of this situation, on April 19, 2000, the IACHR asked the Haitian State to adopt precautionary measures on behalf of Pierre Espérance and the members of the NCHR and to take the steps necessary to protect those individuals’ persons and lives. To date the Haitian State has neither replied to the request nor received any information in that regard.

Members of the Todos los Derechos para Todos National Network of Human Rights Bodies.

On November 1, 2001, the Inter-American Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Sergio Aguayo Quesada, Juan Antonio Vega, and the members of the technical secretariat of the Todos los Derechos para Todos National Network of Human Rights Bodies. The information received by the IACHR reports that on October 27, 2001, a message was found in a Mexico City telephone booth; this note contained threats against five nationally renowned human rights workers, together with a demand for money. The first steps were taken by the National Security and Investigation Council (CISEN), the director of which notified the National Network. The text of the anonymous message referred to the killing of the human rights activist and defender, and it claimed responsibility for that crime. On November 9, 2001, the State reported that the office of the federal attorney-general (PGR) was protecting the persons identified by the IACHR, together with others whose names also appeared in the threatening note. The communication added that they were in contact with the protected persons with a view toward jointly coordinating the most appropriate measures, and that the PGR’s Specialized Organized Crime Unit had launched a preliminary investigation into the incident.

Miembros de la Corporación Sembrar, Colombia

On September 28, 2001, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of the members of Corporación SEMBRAR. This organization had suffered threats and intimidation following the murder of Yolanda Cerón, a nun attached to Tumaco diocese’s social pastoral program who worked, in conjunction with Corporación SEMBRAR, on documenting and denouncing serious human rights violations. The Commission therefore asked the Colombian government, as a matter of urgency, to contact the petitioners in order to agree upon the steps necessary to protect the lives and persons of SEMBRAR’s members; to investigate the source of the threats and intimidation; and to bring the guilty to justice. After the State replied, the parties have continued to submit information and comments in connection with these precautionary measures.

Hernando Montoya, Colombia

On September 18, 2001, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of trade union leader Hernando Montoya, who had been receiving repeated threats from a security cooperative called COPROSEG that had claimed responsibility for killings and several attacks on SINTRAMUNICIPIO union chiefs. The Commission asked the Colombian government, as a matter of urgency, to take the steps necessary to protect the life and person of Mr. Hernando Montoya; to agree on security measures with the petitioners; and to investigate the source of the threats in order to put an end to the danger threatening Mr. Montoya. After the State replied, the parties have continued to submit information and comments in connection with these precautionary measures.

Members of the National Human Rights Unit of the Colombian attorney-general´s officee and their families, Colombia

On August 9, 2001, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Pedro Díaz Romero, Virgilio Hernández Castellanos, Lucía Margarita Luna Prada, Gonzalo Alirio García Gómez, Maritza González Manrique, Fernando Niño Quintero, Ramiro Sánchez Pardo, and Jaime Tapias Carlier, all members of the National Human Rights Unit of the Colombian attorney-general’s office; in addition, the requested measures were to apply to their families. The protected persons, in discharging their duties, began a judicial investigation of Gen. Rito Alejo del Río Rojas (ret.) in connection with the alleged creation and support of private vigilante groups during his tenure as the commander of the army’s XVII brigade in the Urabá region of Antioquia. This investigation led to his home being searched and his arrest. Almost simultaneously, Pedro Díaz Romero was asked to resign, Gen. Rito Alejo del Río Rojas (ret.) was released, and criminal and disciplinary proceedings were ordered against Lucía Margarita Luna Prada, Gonzalo Alirio García Gómez, Maritza González Manrique, Fernando Niño Quintero, Ramiro Sánchez Pardo, and Jaime Tapias Carlier. At the same time, Virgilio Hernández Castellano, who had previously served as the director of the Human Rights Unit and was at that time the head of the Anticorruption Unit, was asked to resign. The Commission asked the Colombian government, as a matter of urgency, to take the steps necessary to protect the lives and persons of the aforesaid individuals, to agree on security measures with them, and to refrain from taking any action in reprisal against the prosecutors and the members of the CTI for the actions in discharging their duties as prosecutors. After the State replied, the parties have continued to submit information and comments in connection with these precautionary measures.

Anselmo Roldán Aguilar, Guatemala

On July 31, 2001, the Commission contacted the State of Guatemala to request the adoption of precautionary measures to protect the life and person of Anselmo Roldán Aguilar, the president and legal representative of the Ixcán Human Rights Association in the community of La Unión Cuarto Pueblo and of the Association for Justice and Reconciliation. According to the information available, on Sunday, July 22, 2001, Anselmo Roldán Aguilar was attacked by an individual armed with a sharp bladed weapon at around 7:30 p.m. in the vicinity of Cuarto Pueblo. Mr. Roldán Aguilar, who had told the Justice of the Peace in Ixcán that death threats had been made against him because of his activities as a defender of human rights, was wounded with a type of stiletto knife known as a verduguillo, which cut through his left arm and caused him serious bleeding. In his capacity as president of the Ixcán Human Rights Association, Anselmo Roldán Aguilar had denounced, in public and judicial forums, harassment intended to terrorize the Cuarto Pueblo community, particularly those involved as witnesses in the association’s suit against the military high command for the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes committed between 1982 and 1986. After the State replied, the parties have continued to submit information and comments in connection with these precautionary measures. The Commission continues to monitor compliance with the precautionary measures.

Members of the National Association of Peasant and Indigenous Women of Colombia, Colombia

On March 2, 2001, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the Colombian State take steps to protect the lives and persons of the members of the National Association of Peasant and Indigenous Women of Colombia (ANMUCIC) and its president, Ms. Leonora Castaño. The information available indicates that several members of ANMUCIC have suffered threats and attacks, forcing them to relocate to different areas of Colombia, to go into exile, or to curtail the organization’s work in certain regions of the country. The Commission asked the State, in collaboration with the petitioners and the persons receiving protection, to adopt measures to guarantee the life and person of Ms. Leonora Castaño, to protect ANMUCIC’s facilities, particularly their premises in Bogotá, and to investigate, judge, and punish the persons responsible for the threats and harassment inflicted on ANMUCIC and its members. After the State replied, the parties have continued to submit information and comments in connection with these precautionary measures.

2000

Wilson Alfonso Borja Díaz, Colombia

On December 29, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the Colombian State take steps to protect the life and physical integrity of the President of the National Federation of State Workers, Wilson Alfonso Borja Díaz, who was attacked on December 15, 2000, leaving both he and his escorts injured. Shortly thereafter, paramilitary leader Carlos Castaño Gil claimed responsibility for the attack in the press and indicated that Mr. Borja Díaz remained a military target. Following the State’s reply, the parties continued to present information and observations on these precautionary measures. 

Members of the Regional Committee for the Protection of Human Rights in Magdalena Medio (CREDHOS)

On October 16, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the Colombian State take steps to protect the life and physical integrity of the management and workers at the Regional Committee for the Protection of Human Rights in Magdalena Medio (CREDHOS), headquartered in Barrancabermeja. According to available information, a course entitled “Forum for life and human rights” was held in Barrancabermeja, with State representatives and human rights defenders. Copies of a “condolence card” from Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) were found there, making death threats against members of the organization. The Commission also requested that the State report on measures taken to (a) shed light on the serious complaints of law enforcement’s tolerance or sponsorship of paramilitary groups stationed in Barrancabermeja and Yondó; and (b) guarantee that law enforcement complies with its legal functions and does not tolerate or sponsor paramilitary groups operating in the area. Following the State’s reply, the parties continued to present information and observations on these precautionary measures. 

Aura Elena Farfán, Guatemala

On September 12, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Aura Elena Farfán, President of the Association of Family Members of the Detained-Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA) to guarantee her life and physical integrity. The IACHR also requested that effective measures be taken to guarantee the safety of persons who visit or work at the FAMDEGUA offices. The precautionary measures were granted as a result of the robbery and breaking and entering at the FAMDEGUA offices--a petitioner in the case of the Dos Erres village massacre (case 11.681) being processed by the Commission. The Guatemalan State informed the Commission that the alleged perpetrators had been captured and that the pertinent judicial investigations are being conducted. It also reported that police protection is being provided for the FAMDEGUA offices. 

Members of the Municipal Utility Workers Union of Cali and other unions, Colombia

On June 21, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the Colombian State take steps to protect the life and physical integrity of union leaders of the Municipal Utility Workers Union of Cali-SINTRAEMCALI, National Union of University Workers and Employees of Colombia, Cali Division, Central Unitaria de Trabajadores Sub-directiva Valle del Cauca, and the Union of the Department of Valle del Cauca. The available information indicates that these union leaders are in imminent danger due to the constant plotting and accusations of the civil and military authorities in the Department of Valle del Cauca, who claim the aforementioned persons are guerillas, terrorists, or sympathizers with insurgent groups. On July 6, 2000, the Commission decided to broaden these precautionary measures to include Mr. Roberth Cañarte Montealegre and Fredy Ocoró B., in light of the request it received on July 4, 2000. The available information indicates that Roberth Cañarte Montealegre was detained by a group of uniformed men with long weapons who said they were members of the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC); there has been no news of his whereabouts since then. Regarding Mr. Fredy Ocoró B., prosecuting attorney with the Union of Municipal Workers of Bugalagrande, his name appears on a list of the paramilitary group operating in the center of the Department of Valle alongside another union leader who was recently executed. Following the State’s reply, the parties continued to present information and observations on these precautionary measures. 

Members of the Organización Femenina Popular, Colombia

On May 26, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures for steps to be taken to protect the life and physical integrity of the members of the Organización Femenina Popoular headquarted in Barrancabermeja.  According to the available ifnoramtión, on May 22, 2000 a paramilitary group went to the headquarters of the Casa de la Mujer of Puerto Wilches and threatened the life of its coordinator, Flor María Cañas. The Organización Femenina Popular, together with members of Peace Brigades International, lodged a complaint with the corresponding authorities, after which the paramilitary group sent a message saying they know the international presence will not last forever and that the women will remain in the town [and] will therefore “suffer the consequences.” Following the State’s reply, the parties continued to present information and observations on these precautionary measures.

Members of the Central Committee of Displaced Persons and spokespersons for the internally-displaced communities, Colombia

On May 22, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested the Colombian State to take steps to protect the life and physical integrity of Juan Romaña, Leonel Bejarano, Jairo Robledo Martínez, Nilson Mosquera Sierra, Jacob Orejuela Mosquera, Apolinar Mosquera Murillo, Euclides Gutiérrez Prado, Yaila Yessi Mena del Pino, and Alba María Cuesta, members of the Central Committee of Displaced Persons and spokespersons for the internally-displaced communities that have currently settled in the city of Quibdó. According to the information contributed by the petitioner, these persons have been victims of plotting and accusations from members of the national police assigned to the Departmental Police of Chocó quartered in Quibdó, who claim the displaced persons are guerillas or sympathize with insurgent groups. Following the State’s reply, the parties continued to present information and observations on these precautionary measures. 

Alirio Uribe Muñoz, Colombia

On May 11, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested the Colombian State to take steps to protect the life and physical integrity of Alirio Uribe Muñoz, a well-known human rights defender and active member of the “José Alvear Restrepo” Lawyers Collective. Available information indicates that Mr. Uribe was identified in a military intelligence report as part of the “ELN support network.” The persons mentioned in the intelligence report have been victims of nonjudicial execution, forced disappearance, arbitrary detention, or constant threats, forcing them to move or exile themselves. Following the State’s reply, the parties continued to present information and observations on these precautionary measures. 

Members of the Coalition Nationale des Droits des Haïtiens (NCHR), Haití

On April 19, 2000, the IACHR granted precautionary measures on behalf of Pierre Espérance and members of the National Coalition for Haitians’ Rights (NCHR), requesting that the Haitian State adopt the necessary measures to ensure the physical integrity and life of said persons. Those measures were granted based on the fact that, according to the information provided, Mr. Pierre Espérance, a human rights defender, had suffered various acts of intimidation, threats, assaults, and even an armed assault that left him seriously wounded. Members of the NCHR have also suffered various acts of intimidation and aggression. The precautionary measures were granted for a six-month period. The Commission has not received any information from the parties.  

Catherine Halver, Brazil

On March 9, 2000, the Commission requested that precautionary measures be adopted on behalf of Catherine Halvey, a human rights defender with the Human Rights Center of the Archdiocese of Manaos, who informed the IACHR that she had received several death threats as a result of her activities. The State informed the Commission that it had taken precautionary measures; those measures expired on September 9, 2000. 

Members of the Atlacatl Association, El Salvador

On February 29, 2000, the Commission granted precautionary measures on behalf of Mr. Odir Miranda and 26 other members of the Atlacatl Association, a group of inhabitants of El Salvador who carry the AIDS virus. The request was based on information received from the petitioners, according to which the right to life and health of the aforementioned persons were in serious danger, because they required care in State institutions in order to receive the medicine necessary for their treatment. On October 8, 1999, the IACHR had requested information from the State of El Salvador on the aforementioned situation. Since then, 10 of the members of the Atlacatl Association had died. The IACHR requested that the State of El Salvador provide the treatment and the anti-retroviral medication necessary to prevent the death of the 27 persons in question, as well as the necessary hospital, pharmacological and nutritional care needed to strengthen their immune systems and prevent the development of infections. On March 15, 2000, the State of El Salvador informed the IACHR that, inter alia, the authorities were reviewing the medical files of the persons in question in order to evaluate the anti-retroviral therapy and care needed for each case, and that they were seeking abroad the additional funds needed to provide the treatment. Pursuant to this response, the parties continued reporting in relation to these measures.

1999

Members of the Board of Directors of the Permanent Human Rights Committee of Tuluá, Colombia

On September 28, 1999, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the State of Colombia adopt effective measures to protect the lives and physical integrity of Messrs. Julio César Robledo Quintero, Jaime Sarmiento Otero, Jhon Fredy Posso, Carlos Arturo López Ríos and Octavio Millán Noreña, members of the Board of Directors of the Permanent Human Rights Committee of Tuluá, in the Department of Valle del Cauca. According to the information before the Commission, the members of this Committee were alleged to have received death threats, and one of them, Julio César Robledo Quintero, survived an actual murder attempt, allegedly carried out by the "Autodefensas del Valle." During the period covered by this report, the parties continued presenting information and observations in relation to these measures.

Digna Ochoa et al, México

On September 9, 1999, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the State adopt specific and urgent measures to protect the lives and physical integrity of Digna Ochoa y Plácido, Edgar Cortéz Morales and the members of PRODH (this matter is being processed as case 12.229). According to the information received, on September 3, 1999, PRODH received three envelopes containing threats made against the Center’s Director and staff, apparently in relation to the Center’s activities in the defense of human rights. The petitioners claimed that there was a connection between these activities and the kidnapping of Ms. Digna Ochoa y Plácido, the Center’s attorney, which was carried out by unknown persons on August 9, 1999. They indicated that during the kidnapping, the assailants took certain personal items of Ms. Ochoa y Plácido, including her personal calling cards, one of which was placed in one of the envelopes referred to above containing the threats. On September 21, 1999, the State reported that the National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) had taken steps to protect the persons named, that preliminary investigations had been initiated by the Office of the Attorney-General of the Federal District, and that the Human Rights Commission of the Federal District had also intervened. Within the time period set for receiving comments, the petitioners reported on another serious attack against Ms. Digna Ochoa, which led to the request for provisional measures submitted to the Inter-American Court on November 11, 1999. The Court granted that request on November 17, 1999

Members of the Committee of Solidarity with Political Prisioners, Colombia

On July 30, 1999, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the State of Colombia adopt effective measures to protect the lives and physical integrity of the members of the Committee of Solidarity with Political Prisoners, particularly those belonging to the Atlántico, Norte de Santander and Tolima sections. Information before the Commission indicated that a number of members of the Committee were alleged to have been the object of public labeling, threats, attacks, murders and disappearances. Pursuant to the response of the State, the parties continued presenting information and observations in relation to these measures.

Dora Emperatriz Oliva Guifarro, Hoduras

On July 27, 1999, the Commission granted precautionary measures in favor of Mrs. Dora Emperatriz Oliva Guifarro, a member of the Committee of Relatives of the Detained-Disappeared in Honduras (COFADEH), who, according to the information received, was abducted on July 5, 1999, for a period of two hours, by two individuals allegedly linked to active paramilitary groups. The same measures were requested on behalf of her sister, Mrs. Bertha Oliva de Nativí, General Coordinator of the aforementioned Committee and Vice Chair of the Commission for the Defense of Human Rights in Central America, the members of her family and the members of COFADEH. The Commission requested that the State of Honduras adopt the measures necessary to safeguard the lives and personal integrity of those named. Pursuant to the response of the State, the parties continued presenting information and observations in relation to these measures.

Joaquín Marcelo Denadai, Brazil

On June 24, 1999, the Commission granted precautionary measures in favor of attorney Joaquín Marcelo Denadai, a human rights defender and a key witness in corruption cases, and on behalf of Public Prosecutor, José Luis Azevedo da Silveira, both of the State of Espíritu Santo, on account of the serious death threats made against them by the para-military organization Scuderie Le Coq (this matter is being processed as case 12.003). This request was reiterated to the State on September 7, 1999. During the period of the present report, the parties continued presenting information and observations in relation to these measures.

Members of the Association of Relatives of the Victims of Trujillo (AFAVIT), Colombia

On February 10, 1999, the Commission granted precautionary measures and requested that the State of Colombia adopt measures to protect the lives and personal integrity of the members of the Association of Relatives of the Victims of Trujillo (AFAVIT) resident in the municipality of Trujillo as well as the members of the permanent support team of the Inter-Congregational Commission of Justice and Peace, based in Trujillo. According to the available information, the members of AFAVIT and the support team had allegedly been the subject of threats against their lives, physical integrity and freedom of expression, association, residence and movement. Pursuant to the response of the State, the parties continued presenting information and observations in relation to these measures.

1998

Heriberto Manuel Benítez Rivas, Perú

On November 13, 1998, the Commission requested that the State of Peru adopt precautionary measures on behalf of Attorney Heriberto Manuel Benítez Rivas, President of the Executive Commission on Human Rights of the prestigious Lima Bar Association. The precautionary measures requested are connected with the adoption of measures to guarantee the lives and physical integrity of Mr. Benítez Rivas and his family.

Ricardo Rezende, Brazil

In October 1998, as a result of new threats, the Commission reinstated its precautionary measures adopted in February 1995 on behalf of Father Ricardo Rezende (case 11.287), a human rights advocate in the southern region of Pará, and requested an immediate investigation into the new threats reported.

Domingo Rafael Tovar Arrieta and his family, Colombia

On October 21, 1998, the Commission requested the reactivation of the precautionary measures adopted to protect the lives and physical integrity of CUT leader Domingo Rafael Tovar Arrieta and his family. The Commission initially requested the adoption of protective measures for Mr. Arrieta on November 21, 1997. This request was shelved on January 12, 1998 when the subject left the country. The measures were reactivated after Mr. Tovar Arrieta received threats upon his return. The threats Mr. Tovar Arrieta received coincided with the assassination of CUT Vice President Jorge Ortega.

Jesús Ramiro Zapata, Colombia

On February 11, 1998, the Commission requested the adoption of precautionary measures on behalf of Jesús Ramiro Zapata, teacher and member of the Segovia human rights committee. Mr. Zapata was exposed to retaliation for his work as a human rights advocate in the northeast of Antioquia.

Members of the Regional Human Rights Comitte of Sabana de Torres, Colombia

On January 27, 1998, the Commission requested the adoption of precautionary measures on behalf of Mario Humberto Calixto Montañez, his family and other members of the Regional Human Rights Committee of Sabana de Torres. Mr. Calixto was subjected to harassment and acts of violence by paramilitary groups in retaliation for his work as a human rights advocate.

Runujel Junam Ethnic Communities Council (CERJ)

On January 27, 1998, the Commission requested the State of Guatemala to take precautionary measures to protect the life and physical integrity of Pablo Tiguila Mendoza, Pedro Tiguila Hernandez and Manuela Tiguila Hernandez who had been the targets of threats and harassment in connection with their work at Runujel Junam Ethnic Communities Council (CERJ) and their actions in the field of human rights.  Another close family member was murdered, it appears, by a member of the civil patrols in 1996 as a result of his work with CERJ.  The measures were requested for a term of four months, at the end of which the Commission would decide on whether to extend them.

1997

Domingo Rafael Tovar Arrieta, Colombia

On November 21, 1997, the Commission requested that precautionary measures be taken in behalf of Mr. Domingo Rafael Tovar Arrieta, a member of the Executive Committee of the Unified Workers Central (CUT).  Mr. Tovar had received death threats as reprisal for the work he was performing as trade union leader.  On June 14, 1994, when he was at the transport terminal in the city of Bogota, Mr. Tovar was violently thrown into a car carrying four individuals, presumably from intelligence and security agencies of the Colombian state.  Later on, Mr. Tovar was set free.  In August 1995, Mr. Tovar received an anonymous death threat and in May, 1997, he was the target of an attack.  When Mr. Tovar returned from a trip abroad in late September 1997, the threats against him began once again.  These measures were filed in January 1998.

Sergio Jaramillo Pulgarín, Colombia

On April 24, 1997, the Commission requested that precautionary measures be taken in behalf of Mr. Sergio Jaramillo Pulgarin, cofounder and former secretary of the Consorcio Porce II Workers Union in Amalfi, Antioquia, and his family.  The reason was that on March 20, 1997, heavily armed men in uniforms stopped and attacked the company car carrying the consortium staff, one of whom was Mr. Alberto Jaramillo, the union president.  After checking a list that they carried, the uniformed men identified Mr. Alberto Jaramillo and told him to get out.  Mr. Jaramillo was later assassinated.  After that incident, groups of armed men in uniform have appeared several times at the domicile of Mr. Sergio Jaramillo asking for him.

1996

Brenda Mayol et al, Guatemala

On July 30, 1996, the Commission requested the State of Guatemala to take urgent precautionary measures to protect the life and personal integrity of Brenda Mayol, her sons, Oscar René, Igor Alfonso and Rembrant Carlos Trujillo Mayol and her fellow workers Vidal Días, Rene Días, Rosa Zinico and Thelma López.  These persons were working in the legal office IXCHEL, which defends human rights, the environment, women and children in Peten and as a result of their work had been the object of constant harassment and threats.  The State of Guatemala responded on September 12, 1996, indicating the measures it was taking to protect the lives and physical integrity of the persons indicated.

Osmar Barcelos o Nascimento, Brazil

On May 20, 1996, the Commission requested the State of Brazil to take urgent precautionary measures to protect the life and personal integrity of the attorney Osmar Barcelos do Nascimento, who had been receiving grave death threats as a consequence of his work as an attorney in defending human rights in the state of Espiritu Santo.  On July 21, 1996, the State of Brazil reported that the precautionary measures requested had been taken.

Abencio Fernández, Honduras

On April 2, 1996, the Commission requested the State of Honduras to take precautionary measures on behalf of Mr. Abencio Fernández, legal advisor to the Committee on Human Rights of Honduras, CODEH, who, along with members of his family, had been receiving constant death threats because of his work as an attorney in the human rights organization indicated.   The State of Honduras has not responded as yet.

Graciela Zavaleta, México

On March 20, 1996, the Commission requested the State of Mexico to take urgent measures to protect the life, physical integrity and personal safety of Mrs. Graciela Zavaleta, a member of a group of human right defenders in Mexico, who found herself in imminent danger and had been receiving grave threats against her life.  Mrs. Zavaleta had appeared on August 11, 1995 at the municipal jail to verify the charges brought by family members of prisoners held in that establishment and had already been attacked and struck by a group of persons who accused her of defending delinquents and obstructing police work.  The State of Mexico sent its response on April 3, 1996.

Vilma Cristina et al, Guatemala

On March 14, 1996, the Commission requested the State of Guatemala to take urgent precautionary measures on behalf of Vilma Cristina González and Reynaldo Federico González, who were working for the Union of Bank Workers and in connection with their union work had received grave and imminent death threats.  A number of days afterwards Mrs. Vilma Cristina González was kidnapped and tortured.  For this reason, the request was reiterated on March 19, 1996.  The State sent its response on May 3, 1996, indicating that it had taken protective measures after the kidnapping.  On June 14, 1996, the IACHR requested confirmation that the measures were still in effect.  No response has been received to date from the State of Guatemala.

Members of the Political Prisoners Solidarity Commitee, Colombia

On February 20, 1996, the Commission requested the adoption of precautionary measures in behalf of Rafael Lozano Garsa, Gerson Edecio Leal Granados, Blanca Ines Rodriguez, Jose Merchan Basto, Alvaro Fernando Sanjuan Quintero, Jairo Ordonez, Rosa Elpidia Alzate Corredor, Juan Jose Landinez, Israel Vargas and Jairo Ordonez, members of the Political Prisoners Solidarity Committee (CSPP), Cucuta division.  The facts behind the request start with a series of death threats from members of local paramilitary groups to these people that began in 1994.  The groups promised that they would execute "the lawyers who worked for the guerrilla force."  On January 29, 1998, the Commission communicated to the petitioners and to the government that it had decided to file such precautionary measures.

1995

César Ovidio Sánchez Aguilar, Guatemala

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, on November 30, 1995, transmitted to the State of Guatemala a request for precautionary measures on behalf of César Ovidio Sánchez Aguilar, official of the Myrna Mack Foundation and of an indigenous peoples’ organization in Santa Barbara, Huehuetenango.  As a result of his work, Mr. Sánchez was threatened and attacked by local militia patrols and commissioned military officers in late 1995.  As a result of these events, Mr. Sánchez was obliged to leave the community.  The state declined to implement the measures requested, alleging that the matter was a private problem between individuals.  The Commission reiterated its request for precautionary measures on March 26, 1996.

David Fernández Dávalos, México

On January 29, 1995, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights contacted the State of Mexico and requested exceptional measures for the protection of Mr. David Fernández Dávalos, Director of the Miguel Agustin Pro Juarez Human Rights Center, the attorney José Lavadero Yanez and Rocío Culebro Bahena, Technical Secretary of the National System of Human Rights Civil Organizations “Every Right For All”, whose lives and personal integrity were gravely and imminently threatened.  Subsequently, the Commission requested the Mexican Government to extend and broaden these measures to other persons.  This situation is being reviewed under Case No. 11.682.  The State of Mexico, on February 9, September 10 and October 15, 1996, has sent responses with regard to this case.