Commission interaméricaine des droits de l'homme (CIDH)

Mesures Conservatoires

Résolution No. 76/21
MC 475-21 - Bertha María Deleón Gutiérrez, El Salvador

On September 19, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Bertha María Deleón Gutiérrez. In accordance with the request, the proposed beneficiary, a human rights defender, is in a situation of serious and imminent risk of irreparable harm to her rights after receiving threats and being harassed, particularly through social networks. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the Commission requested that El Salvador: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Ms. Bertha María Deleón Gutiérrez, taking into account a gender perspective, so that she can continue to carry out her work as a human rights defender without being subjected to threats, intimidation, harassment or acts of violence in the exercise thereof; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and her representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 74/21
MC 1175-20 - Camille Occius et sa famille, Haiti

Le 4 septembre 2021, la CIDH a accordé des mesures conservatoires à Camille Occius et à sa famille nucléaire. Selon la demande, le bénéficiaire se trouve dans une situation de danger compte tenu des actes de violence commis à son encontre en raison de son travail de défenseur des droits de la personne en Haïti. Après avoir examiné les moyens de fait et de droit présentés par les requérants, la Commission estime que les informations soumises démontrent prima facie qu’il existe un risque grave et urgent de dommage irréparable aux droits à la vie et à l'intégrité personnelle de M. Occius, conformément à l'article 25 de son Règlement. En conséquence, la CIDH demande à Haïti : a) d’adopter les mesures nécessaires pour protéger les droits à la vie et à l’intégrité personnelle de Camille Occius et de sa famille. À cette fin, l’État doit veiller à ce que ses agents respectent la vie et l’intégrité personnelle des bénéficiaires et protègent leurs droits contre les actes posant un risque imputable à des tiers, conformément aux normes établies par le droit international des droits de l’homme ; b) d’adopter les mesures nécessaires pour garantir que Camille Occius puisse exercer ses activités de défenseur des droits de la personne sans être soumis à des actes de violence et de harcèlement dans le cadre de son travail ; c) de convenir, avec les bénéficiaires et leurs représentants, des mesures à adopter ; d) de rendre compte des mesures prises pour enquêter sur les faits allégués qui ont conduit à l’adoption de la présente résolution dans le but d'éviter qu'ils ne se produisent de nouveau.

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Résolution No. 72/21
MC 679-21 - Wilmer Alfredo Mendoza Espinoza and family, Nicaragua

On August 30, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Wilmer Alfredo Mendoza Espinoza and his family. According to the request, the beneficiary finds himself in a situation of risk in the context of his deprivation of liberty due to attacks suffered during his detention, as well as his current conditions and the alleged lack of medical care. After analyzing the submissions of fact and law presented by the applicants, the Commission considers that the information submitted demonstrates prima facie that Wilmer Alfredo Mendoza Espinoza is in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life, personal integrity and health are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, Nicaragua is asked to: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life, personal integrity and health of Mr. Wilmer Alfredo Mendoza Espinoza and his nuclear family. To this end, the State must ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, and protect their rights in relation to threatening acts attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international law of the human rights; b) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life, personal integrity and health of Mr. Wilmer Alfredo Mendoza Espinoza; in particular, by adopting immediate measures so he may have access to adequate medical treatment, including the necessary medications as prescribed by the corresponding health professionals, and the diagnoses and examinations necessary to evaluate his health on a regular basis, in accordance with the applicable international standards; c) taking into account the situation of potential harm to the life, personal integrity and health of Mr. Wilmer Alfredo Mendoza Espinoza as a result of the circumstances surrounding the current deprivation of his liberty, the State is requested to consider the possibility of granting alternative measures to deprivation of liberty, in accordance with its internal regulations and in light of the applicable inter-American standards; d) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and, e) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that motivated the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to avoid their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 71/21
MC 593-21, 665-21, 680-21 - Ana Margarita Vijil Gurdián et al., Nicaragua

On August 30, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor Ana Margarita Vijil Gurdián, Dora María Téllez Arguello, Suyen Barahona Cuán, Jorge Hugo Torres Jiménez, Víctor Hugo Tinoco Fonseca, Arturo José Cruz Sequeira y Luis Alberto Rivas Anduray. In accordance with the request, the persons proposed as beneficiaries are at risk in the context of their deprivation of liberty because their conditions of detention are unknown, in addition to the fact that some suffer from serious chronic illnesses, while the whereabouts of others are unknown. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Nicaragua: (a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life, personal integrity and health of Ana Margarita Vijil Gurdián, Dora María Téllez Arguello, Suyen Barahona Cuán, Jorge Hugo Torres Jiménez, Víctor Hugo Tinoco Fonseca, Arturo José Cruz Sequeira and Luis Alberto Rivas Anduray; (b) ensure that their conditions of detention are compatible with the applicable international standards on the matter; c) taking into account the risk to their lives, personal integrity and health resulting from the circumstances surrounding their current detention, immediately evaluate the possibility of granting alternative measures to the deprivation of liberty, in accordance with its domestic legislation and in light of the applicable inter-American standards; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this resolution and thus avoid their repetition.

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Résolution No. 70/21
MC 1061-20 - Georgina Roxana Vargas Clarens, Nicaragua

On August 28, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Georgina Roxana Vargas Clarens. According to the request, the beneficiary –press correspondent for Canal 10, a television channel in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region of Nicaragua–, finds herself at risk because she is being subjected to acts of harassment, threats and repression by State authorities and third parties, as a result of her work as a journalist. Upon analyzing the submissions of fact and law submitted by the parties, the Commission considers that the information presented shows, prima facie, that Ms. Vargas Clarens is in a serious and urgent situation, since her rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, the IACHR requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Georgina Roxana Vargas Clarens. To this end, the State must ensure that state actors respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiary, as well as protect her rights in relation to acts of risk that are attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures so that Georgina Roxana Vargas Clarens can carry out her activities as an independent journalist without being subjected to acts of violence, threats, harassment or intimidation in the exercise of her work. The above includes measures so that she can properly exercise her right to freedom of expression; c) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and her representatives; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 69/21
MC 512-21 - José Alberto Tejada Echeverri and Jhonatan Buitrago, Colombia

On August 28, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures in favor of journalists José Alberto Tejada Echeverri and Jhonatan Buitrago, in Colombia. The request for precautionary measures alleges that the beneficiaries, journalist and cameraman of Canal 2 in Cali, have been the object of threats, harassment and other acts of violence against them, while the State has not implemented any adequate and effective protection measures in their favor. Upon analyzing the allegations of fact and law submitted by the applicants, the Commission found that, from a prima facie standard of review, journalists José Alberto Tejada Echeverri and Jhonatan Buitrago are in a serious and urgent situation, since their rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, based on Article 25 of its Rules of Procedure, the Commission requested that the State of Colombia: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and humane treatment of José Alberto Tejada Echeverri and Jhonatan Buitrago. In particular, the State should ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, as well as protect their rights in relation to threatening acts attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures so that José Alberto Tejada Echeverri and Jhonatan Buitrago can carry out their activities as journalists without being subjected to threats, harassment or other acts of violence in the exercise of their work. This includes the adoption of measures so that they can duly exercise their right to freedom of expression; c) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to avoid their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 68/21
MC 1068-20 - Irán Almaguer Labrada, Cuba

On August 28, 2021, the IACHR decided to extend precautionary measures in favor of Irán Almaguer Labrada, member of the Movimiento Cristiano Liberación (MCL in Spanish), after finding that he is in a serious and urgent situation, as his rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm in Cuba. The IACHR identified that the proposed beneficiary is being threatened, intimidated and held incommunicado by State agents. Upon analyzing the allegations of fact and law provided by the applicant, the Commission considers that the available information shows prima facie that Mr. Almaguer Labrada is in a serious and urgent situation, since his rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Therefore, Cuba is requested to: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of the beneficiary. To this end, the State must both ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiary, and protect his rights in relation to harmful acts attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures so that the beneficiary can carry out his activities without being subjected to threats, intimidation, harassment and acts of violence in the exercise of his work; c) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure to prevent such incidents from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 67/21
MC 584-21 - José Bernard Pallais Arana, Nicaragua

On August 24, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of José Bernard Pallais Arana. According to the request, the beneficiary finds himself in a situation of risk because he suffers from serious chronic diseases and has been deprived of his liberty since June 9, 2021, however, his whereabouts and detention conditions are unknown. Upon analyzing the submissions of fact and law furnished by the parties in the context in which they take place, the Commission considers that the information presented shows prima facie that Mr. Pallais Arana is in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, the Commission requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life, personal integrity, and health of Mr. José Bernard Pallais Arana; b) ensure that the conditions of his detention are compatible with applicable international standards on the matter; c) taking into account the situation presenting a risk to his life, personal integrity, and health as a result of the circumstances surrounding his current deprivation of liberty, assess the possibility of granting alternative measures to the deprivation of liberty, in accordance with its internal regulations and in light of the applicable inter-American standards; and d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this resolution, so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 65/21
MC 444-21 - Douglas Antonio Villanueva Sandoval, Cindy Mariana Mejía Tercero and their son, Nicaragua

On August 23rd, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Douglas Antonio Villanueva Sandoval, Cindy Mariana Mejía Tercero and their son. In accordance with the request, as a result of his work in political opposition to the current Nicaraguan government, the proposed beneficiary Villanueva Sandoval is the target of threats, harassment, and acts of violence by state and parastatal authorities. In this context, his couple, Ms. Mejía Tercero, is also being subjected to harassment and threats. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Douglas Antonio Villanueva Sandoval, Cindy Mariana Mejía Tercero, and their son. In particular, the State must ensure that state actors respect the beneficiaries’ rights in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law, and in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the events that led to the adoption of the precautionary measures at hand, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 59/21
MC 511-21 - Flor de María Ramírez, Nicaragua

On August 3, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Flor de María Ramírez. According to the request, as a result of her political opposition to the current government in Nicaragua, the beneficiary finds herself at risk as she is a victim of threats, harassment, detentions and acts of violence by state and parastatal authorities. Having analyzed the allegations of fact and law provided by the parties, the Commission considers that the information presented demonstrates prima facie that Flor de María Ramírez finds herself in a serious and urgent situation, since her rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, the IACHR requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Flor de María Ramírez. To this end, the State must both ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiary, as well as protect her rights in relation to acts of risk that are attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and her representatives; and, c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events for reoccurring.

Résolution No. 57/21
MC 551-21 - Erica Sheppard, United States

On July 29, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Erica Sheppard. According to the request, the beneficiary finds herself in a situation of risk given that she has been held in solitary confinement on death row in the state of Texas for 26 years, as well as that she has not had access to proper accommodations for her physical disabilities. The applicants also filed a petition in which they allege violations of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man with regards to Ms. Sheppard’s rights to life, liberty and personal security, equality before the law, special protection as a child, fair trial, humane treatment in custody, due process of law and not to receive cruel, infamous or unusual punishment. Having analyzed the submissions of fact and law presented by the parties, the Commission considers that the information submitted demonstrates prima facie that there is a serious and urgent risk of irreparable harm to Ms. Sheppard’s rights to life and personal integrity in accordance with Article 25 of its Rules of Procedure. Moreover, in the event that Ms. Sheppard is executed before the Commission has the opportunity to examine the merits of her petition, any eventual decision would be rendered moot, leading to irreparable harm. Consequently, the Commission requests that the United States of America: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the life and personal integrity of Erica Sheppard; b) refrain from carrying out the death penalty on Erica Sheppard until the IACHR has had the opportunity to reach a decision on her petition; c) ensure that Erica Sheppard’s detention conditions are consistent with international standards, giving special consideration to her personal conditions; d) provide appropriate accommodations and attention for Erica Sheppard’s physical disabilities, in accordance with the applicable international human rights standards; and, e) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and her representatives.

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Résolution No. 54/21
MC 324-21 - Karla Patricia Ñamendi Mendoza and her nuclear family , Nicaragua

On July 22nd, 2021 the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Karla Patricia Ñamendi Mendoza and her nuclear family. According to the request, as a result of her work in political opposition to the current Nicaraguan government, the proposed beneficiary is being subjected to threats, harassment, and acts of violence by state and parastate authorities. Thus, the State of Nicaragua was required to a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Karla Patricia Ñamendi Mendoza, Esperanza del Carmen Mendoza Amador, Raquel de los Ángeles Ñamendi Mendoza, C.A.G.Ñ., and A.A.G.Ñ. Particularly, the State must ensure that its agents respect the rights of the proposed beneficiaries, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law, and in relation to threatening acts attributable to third parties; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 53/21
MC 552-21 - Yiner Hernán Quiguantar Cortés, Colombia

On July 15, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures to Mr. Yiner Hernás Quiguantar Cortés, in Colombia. The request for precautionary measures alleges that the beneficiary, a social, youth and indigenous leader in Cauca, has been subjected to threats and harassment, while no suitable and effective protection measures have been implemented in his favor. Upon analyzing the submissions of fact and law provided by the applicants, the IACHR considered, from the applicable prima facie standard of review, that Yiner Hernán Quiguantar Cortés is in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life and personal integrity face a risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, based on Article 25 of its Rules of Procedure, the Commission asked the State of Colombia to a) adopt the necessary measures to protect their rights to life and integrity. In particular, the State must ensure that the protection measures implemented are sufficiently effective and adequate, in light of the risks identified in the resolution, so that he can continue to carry out his activities as a social leader and human rights defender, without being subjected to risk events against him; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and his representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 52/21
MC 311-21, 462-21 - Willih Francisco Narváez González and Alberto José Miranda Herrera , Nicaragua

On July 11, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Willih Francisco Narváez González and Alberto José Miranda Herrera. According to the applicants, the proposed beneficiaries find themselves in a situation of risk given that they are being victims of threats, harassment and surveillance by state authorities and private individuals due to their work as journalists. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Willih Francisco Narváez González and Alberto José Miranda Herrera. To this end, the State must both ensure that state actors respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, as well as protect their rights in relation to acts of risk that are attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures so that Willih Francisco Narváez González and Alberto José Miranda Herrera can carry out their activities as independent journalists, without being subjected to violence, intimidation, harassment, and/or other acts of violence in the exercise of their work. The above includes the adoption of measures so that they can properly exercise their right to freedom of expression; c) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 49/21
MC 480-21 - Cristiana María Chamorro Barrios et al., Nicaragua

On June 24th, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Cristiana María Chamorro Barrios, Walter Antonio Gómez Silva, Marcos Antonio Fletes Casco y Lourdes Arróliga. According to the request, as a result of the potential candidacy of Ms. Cristiana María Chamorro Barrios for the presidency of the Republic, both she and the remaining proposed beneficiaries began to be persecuted and harassed, while some of them are deprived of their liberty without their location and conditions of detention being known. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Cristiana María Chamorro Barrios, Walter Antonio Gómez Silva, Marcos Antonio Fletes Casco, and Lourdes Arróliga. In particular, the State must both ensure that State actors respect the rights of the beneficiaries in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law and in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties; b) adopt the necessary measures to ensure that the detention conditions of the beneficiaries who are deprived of their liberty comply with the applicable international standards; c) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representation; and d) report on the actions taken to investigate the events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 48/21
MC 479-21 - Jhovanny Alexander Tenorio Urbina, Nicaragua

On June 13, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Jhovanny Alexander Tenorio Urbina. According to the request, the beneficiary has been missing since May 2, 2021, when he was detained at the Hacienda La Aurora, in the municipality of Matagalpa, by four persons dressed in civilian clothes and armed, who identified themselves as police officers. Since then, his whereabouts or fate remain unknown. Upon analyzing the submissions of fact and law furnished by the applicants, the Commission considers that the information presented shows prima facie that Mr. Tenorio Urbina is in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, the IACHR requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Jhovanny Alexander Tenorio Urbina. In particular, report whether the beneficiary is in the custody of the State and, where appropriate, the circumstances of his deprivation of liberty, or else, adopt the measures aimed at determining his whereabouts or fate; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary’s representation; and c) implement the actions aimed at investigating the events that led to the granting of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 47/21
MC 366-21 - Kalua Salazar and her family, Nicaragua

On June 10, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Kalua Salazar and her family. According to the request, the beneficiary –press director for the independent media outlet La Costeñísima–, finds herself at risk because she is being the victim of threats, harassment and surveillance by State authorities and private individuals due to her work as a journalist. Upon analyzing the submissions of fact and law submitted by the parties, the Commission considers that the information presented shows, prima facie, that Ms. Salazar is in a serious and urgent situation, since her rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, the IACHR requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Kalua Salazar and her nuclear family. To this end, the State must both ensure that state actors respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, as well as protect their rights in relation to acts of risk that are attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures so that Kalua Salazar can carry out her activities as an independent journalist without being subjected to acts of violence, intimidation, and harassment in the performance of her work. The latter should include measures that will allow her to properly exercise her right to freedom of expression; c) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 45/21
MC 649-20 - Leyner Fonseca Aspirilla and his family, Colombia

On June 1, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures to Leyner Aspirilla and his nuclear family, in Colombia. When making its assessment, the Commission considered Mr. Palacios' current role in the context of Colombia. After requesting information from the State, the Commission noted the implementation of a series of protection measures in favor of Mr. Palacios and his family. However, the Commission identified a lack of effectiveness of the protection scheme, as well as the continuous incidents that pose a risk to Mr. Palacios. Consequently, the IACHR requested that Colombia: a) adopt the necessary measures with the corresponding ethnic and gender perspective, to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Mr. Leyner Palacios and his family. In particular, the State must ensure that the protection measures implemented are sufficiently effective and adequate, in light of the risks identified in the resolution and by addressing the shortcomings identified; b) adopt the necessary protection measures so that Mr. Leyner Palacios can continue to carry out his activities in defense of human rights without being subjected to incidents of risk against him; c) agree on the measures to be implemented with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this resolution and thus avoid their reoccurrence.

Résolution No. 41/21
MC 382-21 - Ovidio Jesús Poggioli Pérez, Venezuela

On May 13, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures in favor of Mr. Ovidio Jesús Poggioli Pérez, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. According to the request for precautionary measures, the beneficiary was deprived of his liberty by state agents on April 26, 2021, and his location or whereabouts are currently unknown. Upon analyzing the submissions of fact and law provided by the applicants, the IACHR found that, from the applicable prima facie standard, Mr. Ovidio Jesús Poggioli Pérez is in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life and personal integrity face a risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, based on Article 25 of its Rules of Procedure, the Commission requested that the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela adopt the necessary measures to protect his rights to life and personal integrity. In particular, the State is called on to report whether the beneficiary is in the custody of state authorities and, if so, the circumstances of his deprivation of liberty, or otherwise, adopt the measures aimed at determining his whereabouts or fate; The State was also requested to implement the actions aimed at investigating the events that led to the granting of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 38/21
MC 978-20 - Noris Alberto Perozo, Venezuela

On April 30, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Noris Alberto Perozo. According to the request, the beneficiary finds himself in a situation of risk given that he is preventively deprived of his liberty, suffers from several serious diseases, and is not receiving the medical care that he allegedly requires. After analyzing the submissions of fact and law presented by the applicants, the Commission considers that the information submitted demonstrates prima facie that Noris Alberto Perozo is in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life, personal integrity and health are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the IACHR’s Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Venezuela: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect Mr. Noris Alberto Perozo Villanueva’s rights to life, personal integrity and health. In particular, through the adoption of immediate measures that allow access to adequate medical treatment, including the necessary medications as prescribed by the corresponding health professionals, and the diagnoses and examinations to evaluate his health status on a regular basis, in accordance with the applicable international standards; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and his representation; and c) implement the actions aimed at investigating the facts that motivated the granting of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

Résolution No. 37/21
MC 96-21 - Gustavo Adolfo Mendoza Beteta and family, Nicaragua

On April 29th, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of Gustavo Adolfo Mendoza Beteta, who is deprived of Liberty at Jorge Navarro (also known as “La Modelo”) and his nuclear family, comprising Mrs. María del Rosario Beteta Castañeda, Mr. Domingo Mendoza and Mrs. Marbely Leal López. According to the request, the proposed beneficiary is allegedly deprived of liberty under inadequate conditions and being subjected to threats and acts of violence by state agents as a result of his political opposition to the current Nicaraguan government. In this context, his family is also being reportedly the target of harassment. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Mr. Gustavo Adolfo Mendoza Beteta and his nuclear family. In particular, the State must both ensure that its agents respect the rights of the beneficiaries in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law and in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties; b) adopt the necessary measures to ensure that the detention conditions of Mr. Gustavo Adolfo Mendoza Beteta comply with the applicable international standards; c) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representation; and d) report on the actions taken to investigate the events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent such events from reoccurring.

Résolution No. 35/21
MC 284-18 - Tsotsil indigenous families from twelve communities in the municipality of Aldama, Chiapas, Mexico

On April 23, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures for Tsotsil indigenous families living in the following twelve communities: (1) Coco', (2) Tabac, (3) Xuxch'en, (4) San Pedro Cotzilnam, (5) Chayomte, (6) Juxtón, (7) Tselejpotobtic, (8) Yetón, (9) Chivit, (10) Sepelton, (11) Yoctontik and (12) Cabecera Aldama located in the Municipality of Aldama, Chiapas, in Mexico. The IACHR acknowledged the actions taken by the State to address the alleged situation. However, after monitoring the issue, the Commission noted that attacks by armed groups have persisted, even despite the existence of an Agreement on Non-Aggression. The Commission also noted the National Human Rights Commission's observations, which, on several occasions, urged the State to guarantee the rights of the inhabitants of the area. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the IACHR Rules of Procedure, the Commission requested that the State of Mexico: a) adopt the necessary and culturally relevant security measures to protect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries. Specifically, the State must adopt the necessary measures to guarantee their safety within their communities and during their displacements, in order to prevent threats, harassment, intimidation or acts of armed violence against them by third parties; b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 34/21
MC 241-21 - Yoel Suárez Fernández and his family, Cuba

On April 22, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Yoel Suárez Fernández. According to the request, the beneficiary is being subjected to threats, harassment, intimidations and detentions by state actors, purportedly as a result of his work as an independent journalist and writer in Cuba. After analyzing the submissions of fact and law presented by the applicants, the Commission considers that the information submitted demonstrates prima facie that Yoel Suárez Fernández finds himself in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the IACHR’s Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Cuba: a) implement the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Mr. Yoel Suárez Fernández and his family. To this end, the State must ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, as well as protect their rights in relation to acts of risk that are attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures to ensure that Mr. Yoel Suárez Fernández can carry out his activities as an independent journalist without being subjected to acts of violence, intimidation, harassment and detention in the exercise of his work. The foregoing includes the adoption of measures so that he can exercise his right to freedom of expression; c) agree upon the measures to be implemented with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this resolution with the aim of preventing their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 33/21
MC 205-21 - Kevin Roberto Solís, Nicaragua

On April 22, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Kevin Roberto Solís. According to the request, the beneficiary –a university student, social activist and government opponent–, finds himself in a situation of risk in the context of his deprivation of liberty due to beatings received during his detention, as well as his detention conditions and an alleged lack of medical attention. After analyzing the submissions of fact and law presented by the parties, the Commission considers that the information submitted demonstrates prima facie that Kevin Roberto Solís finds himself in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life, personal integrity and health are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, the Commission requests that Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life, personal integrity and health of Mr. Kevin Roberto Solís; b) ensure that his conditions of detention are compatible with the applicable international standards; c) taking into account the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the situation of risk to the life, personal integrity and health of the beneficiary as a result of the circumstances of his detention, immediately evaluate the possibility of granting alternative measures to detention, in accordance with the State’s domestic legislation and in light of the applicable inter-American standards; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that gave rise to the adoption of this resolution with the aim of preventing their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 32/21
MC 216-21 - seven pregnant women of the Wichí ethnic group, Argentina

On April 16, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures to 7 indigenous women who have been reportedly hiding in the town of El Potrillo while pregnant, out of fear of the authorities of the province of Formosa, in Argentina. As a result, they are unable to access the medical care they require for their pregnancy and upcoming labor, and are therefore facing a serious and urgent risk of irreparable harm to their rights in Argentina. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the IACHR Rules of Procedure, Argentina was required to: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life, personal integrity, and health of the beneficiaries. In particular, the State must adopt immediate measures to facilitate access to adequate medical care, pursuant to the applicable international standards. These measures must be adopted with the beneficiaries’ free, informed and prior consent, with a perspective of cultural and linguistic relevance, integrating their indigenous worldview while implementing a gender approach; and, b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the representatives and beneficiaries. The Commission also asked the applicants to provide as soon as possible any additional information and to cooperate with the State in the implementation of the precautionary measures.

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Résolution No. 29/21( EXTENSION )
MC 1101-20 - Aminta D’Cárdenas Soroa and Carlos Manuel Álvarez, Cuba

On March 24, 2021, the IACHR extended precautionary measures to Aminta D'Cárdenas Soroa and Carlos Manuel Álvarez, both associated with the San Isidro Movement (MSI), in Cuba. The IACHR identified that the proposed beneficiaries were subject to intense police control, which was not limited to surveillance, but also sought to prevent them from performing activities related to the Movement. In this sense, the IACHR noted that state agents were closely monitoring the beneficiaries’ actions and even tracking their movements between provinces in the country. In the case of Carlos Manuel Alvarez, after being detained, he was reportedly subject to acts of aggression after having been summoned to the police station. Consequently, the Commission requested that Cuba: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of the two identified beneficiaries associated with the San Isidro Movement. To this end, the State must ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, and protect their rights in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures so that the beneficiaries can carry out their activities as human rights defenders without being subjected to acts of violence, intimidation and harassment in the exercise of their work. c) agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 28/21
MC 127-21 - Nelson Gabriel Lorío Sandoval and family, Nicaragua

On March 19, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary protection measures to Nelson Gabriel Lorío Sandoval, Karina Alejandra Navarrete Sánchez, her daughter J.M.L.N. and her nephew Ángel Gabriel Umaña Navarrete. According to the request, the proposed beneficiaries are at risk due to their search for justice in the alleged murder of their 14-month-old son T.L.L.N. at the hands of police and "paramilitary" officers. Having analyzed the available information, in light of the applicable context and findings, the Commission considers that the information submitted shows prima facie that the rights to life and humane treatment of Nelson Gabriel Lorío Sandoval and his family are at serious and urgent risk. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that the State of Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the rights to life and humane treatment of Nelson Gabriel Lorío Sandoval and his identified family members. In particular, the State must ensure that its agents respect the rights of the beneficiaries in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law, as well as in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties; b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to avoid their repetition.

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Résolution No. 27/21( EXTENSION )
MC 1067-18 - Danelia del Rosario Argüello Cano et al., Nicaragua

On March 14, 2021, the IACHR decided to extend the precautionary measures to Danelia del Rosario Argüello Cano and her immediate family in Nicaragua. In the current context of the country, the request alleged that Ms. Argüello and her family were being followed, intimidated and attacked in the context of her work as a human rights defender and as a member of the Unidad Nacional Azul y Blanco (Blue and White National Unity). Consequently, the Commission requested that the State of Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the rights to life and personal integrity of the beneficiary and her family. In particular, the State must ensure that the rights of the beneficiaries are respected in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law, both by its agents and in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties; b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 26/21
MC 552-20 - María de los Ángeles Matienzo Puerto and Kirenia Yalit Núñez Pérez, Cuba

On March 14, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures to María de los Ángeles Matienzo Puerto and Kirenia Yalit Núñez Pérez, in Cuba. The request alleged that the couple faced threats, surveillance, intimidation and attacks in the context of their work as human rights defenders and independent journalists. Consequently, the Commission requested that Cuba: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of María de los Ángeles Matienzo Puerto and Kirenia Yalit Núñez Pérez. To this end, the State must ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, as well as protect their rights in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; b) adopt the necessary measures to allow the beneficiaries to carry out their activities, whether as independent journalists or human rights defenders, without being subjected to acts of violence, threats, intimidation and harassment in the exercise of their work; c) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 24/21
MC 374-20 - Roberto de Jesús Quiñones Haces, Cuba

On March 9, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures of protection in favor of Roberto de Jesús Quiñones Haces, in Cuba. It was alleged that the proposed beneficiary has been threatened, harassed and followed by State agents in connection with his work as a journalist. Having analyzed the arguments of fact and law presented by the applicants, the Commission considers that the information presented shows prima facie that Mr. Roberto de Jesús Quiñones Haces is in a serious and urgent situation, as his rights to life and personal integrity are at grave risk. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the IACHR Rules of Procedure, the IACHR requests that Cuba: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Mr. Roberto de Jesús Quiñones Haces. Such measures should allow him to continue carrying out his work as a journalist without being subjected to threats, harassment or acts of violence in the exercise thereof; b) reach agreement with the beneficiary and his representatives on the measures to be adopted; and c) report on the actions implemented to investigate the facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 17/21
MC 1076-18 - Carlos Ramon Brenes Sánchez and his nuclear family, Nicaragua

On February 25, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures to Carlos Brenes and his family in Nicaragua. The Commission identified Mr. Brenes as a leader among retired military personnel and the population of Masaya and Carazo. Furthermore, he is recognized for being a dissident voice, particularly after the events of April 2018. In this context, the IACHR noted that Mr. Brenes has been subjected to acts of harassment, intimidation and threats. In particular, it noted that such acts have been attributed to police officers, and have also been perpetrated against members of Mr. Brenes' family. Consequently, the State was requested to: a) adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the rights to life and personal integrity of Carlos Ramon Brenes Sánchez and his family. In particular, the State must ensure that the rights of the beneficiaries are respected in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law, both by its agents and with regard to acts of risk attributable to third parties; b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and his representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of the precautionary measure at hand, so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 16/21
MC 907-20 - Kevin Adrián Monzón Mora and his nuclear family, Nicaragua

On February 22, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures to Kevin Adrián Monzón Mora and his family in Nicaragua. In the current context of the country, the Commission identified that, after making several posts on "Tik Tok", Kevin Adrián Monzón has been exposed to threats, harassment, intimidation and acts of violence, including while in the custody of the State. Consequently, the Commission requested that the State of Nicaragua: a) adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the rights to life and personal integrity of Kevin Adrián Monzón Mora and his family. In particular, the State must ensure that the rights of the beneficiaries are respected in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law, both by its agents and in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties. This includes the adoption of measures so that he can freely exercise his freedom of expression without being subjected to threats, intimidation, harassment or aggression; b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and his representatives; and c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to avoid such acts from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 14/21
MC 1101-20 - 20 identified members of the San Isidro Movement (MSI), Cuba

On February 11, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary protection measures in favor of 20 identified members of the San Isidro Movement (MSI) in Cuba. According to the request received, the proposed beneficiaries are at risk due to threats, harassment, surveillance, persecution, detention and acts of violence by state actors and third parties because of their work as activists and journalists, human rights defenders in Cuba.After analyzing the allegations of fact and law provided by the petitioners, the Commission asked Cuba to adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of the 20 identified members of the San Isidro Movement (MSI). To this end, the State must both ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, and protect their rights in relation to acts of risk that are attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international law of human rights; b) adopt the necessary measures so that the beneficiaries can carry out their activities as human rights defenders, without being subjected to acts of violence, intimidation and harassment in the performance of their work; c) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and, d) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure and thus avoid its repetition.

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Résolution No. 12/21
MC 1051-20 - 34 identified members of the digital newspaper “El Faro”, El Salvador

On January 4, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favor of 34 identified members of the digital newspaper “El Faro”, in El Salvador. In making its decision, the Commission considered that the beneficiaries reportedly work for “El Faro”, an independent media outlet, and were being subjected to harassment, threats, intimidation and stigmatization -mainly through social media- due to their work as journalists. Furthermore, the Commission considered that the alleged acts of harassment, threats and intimidation towards the beneficiaries are intended not only to intimidate them but also to hinder those activities related to their journalistic work. Thus, this situation has allegedly generated a high level of visibility and exposure for the beneficiaries, thereby exacerbating the risk they are facing. Consequently, the IACHR requested that El Salvador: (a) adopt the necessary measures to preserve the life and personal integrity of the identified beneficiaries; (b) adopt the necessary measures so that the beneficiaries can carry out their journalistic activities in the exercise of their right to freedom of expression, without being subject to acts of intimidation, threats and harassment; (c) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and (d) report on the actions adopted in order to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of these precautionary measures so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 11/21
MC 664-20 - Olman Onel Salazar Umanzor and his nuclear family, Nicaragua

On February 4, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures to Olman Onel Salazar Umanzor and his immediate family in Nicaragua. Mr. Salazar is a leader both in his community and in the environmental movement. The Commission considered the various continued threats of aggression, attacks, attacks, intimidations, surveillance and harassment against him over time, particularly after the events of April 2018. Consequently, the Commission requested that the State: a) adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the rights to life and personal integrity of Olman Onel Salazar Umanzor and his nuclear family. In particular, the State must ensure that the rights of the beneficiaries are respected in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law, both by its agents and in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties; b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and his representatives; and, c) report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 8/21
MC 998-20 - José Humberto Hernández Rodríguez, Venezuela

On January 28, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures to José Humberto Hernández Rodríguez, in Venezuela. The Commission assessed that, despite various requests filed before the competent authorities, Mr. Hernández, who is deprived of his liberty, is not receiving the medical care prescribed to address his state of health. This lack of medical care is reportedly generating significant impacts on his rights. Consequently, the Commission requested that Venezuela: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life, personal integrity and health of Mr. José Humberto Hernández Rodríguez. In particular, the State must ensure that he has access to the medical treatment prescribed by the competent authorities; b) consult and agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and his representatives; and c) implement the actions aimed at investigating the events that led to the granting of this precautionary measure, so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 7/21
MC 211-20 - Juan Antonio Madrazo Luna, Marthadela Tamayo and Oswaldo Navarro Veloz, Cuba

On January 19, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures of protection to Juan Antonio Madrazo Luna, Marthadela Tamayo and Oswaldo Navarro Veloz in Cuba. According to the allegations, the beneficiaries, members of the Citizens' Committee for Racial Integration (Comité Ciudadanos por la Integración Racial - CIR), are at risk as a result of their work as activists. According to the request received, the proposed beneficiaries are at risk due to threats, harassment, surveillance, persecution, detentions and acts of violence by state agents and third parties, allegedly as a result of their work as human rights defenders in Cuba. Having analyzed the arguments of fact and law provided by the applicants, the Commission requested that Cuba adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and humane treatment of Juan Antonio Madrazo Luna, Marthadela Tamayo and Oswaldo Navarro Veloz. To this end, the State must ensure that its agents respect the life and personal integrity of the beneficiaries, and protect their rights in relation to acts of risk attributable to third parties, in accordance with the standards established by international human rights law; adopt the necessary measures so that the beneficiaries can carry out their activities as human rights defenders without being subjected to acts of violence, intimidation, and harassment in the exercise of their work. This includes the adoption of measures that will allow them to exercise their freedom of expression; to agree upon the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and to report on the actions taken to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent them from reoccurring.

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Résolution No. 6/21
MC 207-20 - Ricardo Calderón Villegas, Colombia

On January 14, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures of protection in favor of Ricardo Calderón Villegas, in Colombia. According to the allegations, Mr. Calderón is at risk due to threats, surveillance and monitoring by individuals identified as agents of the State and other third parties, as a result of his investigations in his capacity as a journalist. Having analyzed the arguments of fact and law submitted by the parties, the Commission requested that Colombia adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to life and personal integrity of Ricardo Calderón Villegas, allowing him to continue to carry out his journalistic activities under safe conditions; to agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiary and his representatives; and to report on the actions taken in order to investigate the alleged facts that gave rise to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent their recurrence.

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Résolution No. 5/21
MC 1068-20 - Yandier García Labrada, Cuba

On January 7, 2021, the IACHR granted precautionary measures in favour of Yandier García Labrada. According to the request, the beneficiary, who is an activist and member of the Christian Liberation Movement, is currently detained in the “El Típico” prison for the crimes of “contempt and public disorder.” He finds himself at risk in the context of his deprivation of liberty as a result of an alleged lack of adequate medical care following beatings received during his detention. Having analyzed the submissions of fact and law presented by the applicants, the Commission considers that the information presented demonstrates prima facie that Mr. Yandier García Labrada finds himself in a serious and urgent situation, given that his rights to life and personal integrity are at risk of irreparable harm. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the IACHR’s Rules of Procedure, the Commission requests that Cuba: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the life and personal integrity of Mr. Yandier García Labrada; in particular, guarantee that his conditions of detention are in conformity with the applicable international standards; b) agree upon the measures to be implemented with the beneficiary and his representatives; and, c) report on the actions taken in order to investigate the alleged events that led to the adoption of this resolution with the aim of preventing their reoccurrence.

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Résolution No. 4/21( EXTENSION )
MC 1286-18 - Twenty persons diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis, Venezuela

On January 7, 2021, the IACHR decided to extend precautionary measures to twenty persons with multiple sclerosis in Venezuela. According to the beneficiaries’ representation, these individuals are at risk due to the lack of adequate medical treatment for their medical conditions. The Venezuelan Institute of Social Security (IVSS) is allegedly not delivering the prescribed medicines required by the beneficiaries for their medical conditions, despite the actions taken to obtain them. The impacts on the health of the people suffering as a result of the lack of their prescribed medical treatments were detailed in the request. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure of the IACHR, the State of Venezuela was requested to: a) Adopt the necessary measures to protect the life, personal integrity, and health of the beneficiaries, by adopting immediate measures that enable access to adequate medical treatment, including the necessary medications as prescribed by the corresponding doctors, as well as the diagnoses and examinations to regularly evaluate their state of health, according to the applicable international standards.

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Résolution No. 3/21
MC 968-20 - Mariano Valle Peters, Nicaragua, Nicaragua

On January 8, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures in favor of Mariano Valle Peters, after finding that his right to freedom of expression is at serious and urgent risk of irreparable harm in Nicaragua. Upon analyzing the request, the Commission considered the exceptional context of the human rights crisis that Nicaragua is undergoing, which has been directly confirmed by the IACHR and monitored by its MESENI. The Commission noted that, according to the available information, Mr. Valle Peters owns and oversees the general editorial line of the media outlet Canal 12, reportedly the only nationwide television station that constantly relays the news with a critical view of the government. Furthermore, the Commission found that Mr. Valle Peters faces serious difficulties in exercising his right to freedom of expression, due to his role within the television media and within the current context of Nicaragua. Therefore, Nicaragua was urged to guarantee the measures that will allow the beneficiary to continue exercising his right to freedom of expression, by adopting the pertinent actions and refraining from adopting those that hinder such right. Among such measures, the State is requested to refrain from carrying out the decision to auction or sell the Canal 12 media outlet until an examination has been made of the impact that such a decision would have on the exercise of Mr. Valle Peters' freedom of expression.

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Résolution No. 1/21
MC 754-20 - Members of the Guajajara and Awá Indigenous Peoples of the Araribóia Indigenous Land, Brazil

On January 4, 2021, the IACHR decided to grant precautionary measures in favor of the members of the Guajajara and Awá Indigenous Peoples in voluntary isolation, located in the Araribóia Indigenous Land. According to the request, the persons proposed as beneficiaries are at risk in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly considering their particular situation of vulnerability, lack of health care, and the presence of unauthorized third parties in their territory. Therefore, in accordance with Article 25 of the Rules of Procedure, the IACHR requested that Brazil: a) adopt the necessary measures to protect the rights to health, life, and personal integrity of the members of the Guajajara and Awá Indigenous Peoples of the Araribóia Indigenous Land, while implementing, from a culturally appropriate perspective, preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19, and providing them with adequate medical care in conditions of availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality, in accordance with applicable international standards; b) agree on the measures to be adopted with the beneficiaries and their representatives; and c) report on the actions implemented to investigate the incidents that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure so as to prevent such incidents from reoccurring.

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