IACHR Composition

Term of Office

1/1/2012 - 12/31/2015
1/1/2014 - 12/31/2017
1/1/2010 - 12/31/2017
1/1/2008 - 12/31/2015
1/1/2012 - 12/31/2015
1/1/2012 - 12/31/2015
1/1/2014 - 12/31/2017

Chair: Rose-Marie Belle Antoine
First Vice-Chair: James L. Cavallaro
Second Vice-Chair: José de Jesús Orozco Henríquez

Left to right: Felipe González, José de Jesús Orozco Henríquez, Tracy Robinson, Rose-Marie Belle Antoine, Rosa María Ortiz, Paulo Vannuchi, James L. Cavallaro

Left to right: Felipe González, José de Jesús Orozco Henríquez, Tracy Robinson, Rose-Marie Belle Antoine, Rosa María Ortiz, Paulo Vannuchi, James L. Cavallaro

According to the American Convention on Human Rights, the Commission shall be composed of seven members, who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human rights, elected in a personal capacity by the OAS General Assembly from a list of candidates proposed by the governments of the Member States. Each of those governments may propose up to three candidates, who may be nationals of the State proposing them or of any other OAS Member State. When a slate of three is proposed, at least one of the candidates shall be a national of a State other than the one proposing the slate. The members of the Commission are elected for a four-year term and may be reelected only once.

Rose-Marie Belle Antoine

Rose-Marie Belle AntoineRose-Marie Belle Antoine has dual citizenship of Saint Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago. She was elected at the 41st OAS General Assembly in June 2011 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2012. She was elected Chair of the Commission during the 154th Period of Sessions, in March 2015. She had also been First Vice-Chair, from March 2014 to March 2015. She is a lawyer, Professor and Dean of the University of the West Indies, specializing in human rights, financial law, comparative law, administrative law, public service law, discrimination law and labor law. She has also lectured abroad, including in the United States. Commissioner Antoine has substantial international consultancy experience. She has served as senior legal advisor to all of the governments of the Commonwealth Caribbean and to governments outside of the region, such as the UK, Venezuela, USA and Canada, and to several international and regional organizations. These include the European Union, UNICEF, UNIFEM, the ILO, the IADB, the World Bank, and the OAS, among others. She is an award-winning author who has written eleven books and numerous reports and articles and drafted laws on a wide range of topics, including discrimination, constitutional reform, public service reform, juvenile justice, mutual legal assistance, women’s rights, health, sexual harassment, trafficking in persons, labor law, free movement of labor, HIV, financial law, anti-drug trafficking and anti-corruption. Commissioner Antoine is an Oxford Commonwealth Scholar and a Cambridge Pegasus Scholar, holding a doctorate from Oxford University, an LL.M. from Cambridge and an LL.B. from the University of the West Indies. Professor Antoine also holds diplomas and certificates in international human rights from the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France.

James L. Cavallaro

James CavallaroCommissioner James L. Cavallaro is a citizen of the United States. He was elected during the 43rd regular session of the OAS General Assembly in June 2013 for the prescribed four-year term, which began on January 1, 2014. In the 154th Period of Sessions in March 2015, he was elected First Vice-Chair. James L. Cavallaro is a lawyer with an undergraduate degree from Harvard College, as well as a law degree from the University of California at Berkeley. Currently, James L. Cavallaro is a Professor of Law at Stanford Law School and Founding Director of both the International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic at Stanford and the Stanford Human Rights Center. Previously, he was a Clinical Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and Executive Director of the Human Rights Program at Harvard. He founded the Brazil-based Global Justice Center and served as Director of the Brazil offices of Human Rights Watch and the Center for Justice and International Law (CEJIL). He is the author of dozens of articles, books, and other publications on human rights and the inter-American human rights system.

José de Jesús Orozco Henríquez

José de Jesús Orozco  HenríquezCommissioner José de Jesús Orozco Henríquez is a citizen of Mexico. He was elected during the 39th regular period of sessions of the OAS General Assembly in June 2009 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2010. On June 6, 2013, the General Assembly reelected him for a second term, which will begin on January 1, 2014 and end on December 31, 2017. He was elected Chair of the Commission during the 144th Period of Sessions, in March 2012, and reelected during the 147th Period of Sessions, in March 2013. He is a researcher in constitutional law, human rights, the judiciary, and comparative law, among other areas, at the Legal Research Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Previously, he served for 16 years as a Magistrate on Mexico's highest electoral courts, first in the Central Chamber of the Federal Electoral Court and then in the Higher Chamber of the Electoral Court of the Judiciary. He earned a Doctor of Law degree with honors from UNAM, and a Master of Comparative Law from the University of California, Los Angeles, as well as Doctor Honoris Causa for San Martín de Porres University in Peru, and for the Autonomous University of Coahuila, Mexico. He is the author or co-author of 8 books and the coordinator or editor of another 15, and he has written more than 100 articles for academic publications.

Felipe González

Felipe GonzálezFelipe González is a citizen of Chile. He was elected during the 37th regular period of sessions of the OAS General Assembly in 2007 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2008. He was reelected in 2011 for a second term, which started January 1, 2012. He was the IACHR Chair from March 2010 to March 2011. In the 154th Period of Sessions in March 2015, he was elected Second Vice-Chair. Commissioner González is Professor of International Human Rights Law and Constitutional Law at Chile’s Diego Portales University. He founded and directed that university’s Human Rights Center, where from 2002 to 2006 he managed the preparation and publication of an Annual Report on Human Rights in Chile. He also founded and coordinated a Latin American Network of Legal Human Rights Clinics. He is S.J.D. from the Carlos III University of Madrid, and he holds a Master of Law degree from American University and a Master of Advanced Human Rights Studies from Carlos III University. He is a Professor at the Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law at American University and a Visiting Professor at Carlos III University. Previously he has been a Visiting Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Lund University, the University of Deusto, and the University of Alcalá de Henares. He also worked for the International Human Rights Law Group (now Global Rights), first in Washington, D.C., and then in Santiago, Chile.

Rosa María Ortiz

Rosa María OrtizRosa María Ortiz is a citizen of Paraguay. She was elected at the 41st OAS General Assembly in June 2011 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2012. She graduated in social communications media and is an expert in children’s human rights. She has been Vice-President of the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child and adviser on human rights and cultural diversity for the Paraguayan Presidency’s National Secretariat of Culture. She is founder and member of several human rights organizations, including Decidamos, Global, Tekoha, Callescuela and Workshop on Communication and Popular Education. In 2003 she was recognized with the award Paraguayan Women of the Paraguayan Presidency’s Women’s Secretariat, and in 2010 she received the award Peter Benenson for the Defense of Human Rights from the Paraguay Section of Amnesty International. During Alfredo Stroessner’s dictatorship, she worked through ecumenical organizations in favor of the political prisoners of her country. Commissioner Ortiz has offered numerous conferences, workshops and has written articles on the rights of children.

Tracy Robinson

Tracy RobinsonTracy Robinson is a citizen of Jamaica. She was elected at the 41st OAS General Assembly in June 2011 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2012. She was elected Chair of the Commission during the 150th Period of Sessions, post that she had from March 2014 to March 2015. She is a lawyer and teaches Gender and the Law, Constitutional Law and Commonwealth Caribbean Human Rights, among other law subjects, at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. She has been a consultant for international agencies such as the United Nations Fund for Women and UNICEF, and she has advised Caribbean governments on topics related to legislation on gender and children rights, among others. Commissioner Robinson has been editor of the Caribbean Law Bulletin and she has written and published reports on a range of topics, including gender, the rights of LGTBI persons, sexual harassment, sexual rights, sex work and the law, and the rights of the child. She has a Bachelor of Law from University of the West Indies and an LLM from the University of Yale, as well as a Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL) from Oxford University.

Paulo Vannuchi

Paulo VannuchiCommissioner Paulo Vannuchi is a citizen of Brazil. He was elected during the 43rd regular session of the OAS General Assembly in June 2013 for the prescribed four-year term, which began on January 1, 2014. Paulo Vannuchi is a political and union consultant. During his youth, he was imprisoned for five years due to his activities in the resistance to the military dictatorship in Brazil. He studied journalism at the University of São Paulo, where he received a Master’s Degree in Political Science. He was a member of the team that conducted the investigation “Brazil: Never Again”; was a cofounder of the Cajamar Institute; and was a political adviser to the national office of the Workers Party of Brazil. He also served as Executive Secretary of the National Coordinating Committee of the Lula for President Campaign in 1994 and 2002. He held various posts, including that of President, at the Citizenship Institute, coordinated by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. He served as Human Rights Minister in the Lula Government, between December 21, 2005 and December 31, 2010, as well as President of the Human Rights Defense Council; the National Commission for the Eradication of Slave Labor; and of the National Committee to Prevent and Combat Torture in Brazil. He is the author of articles and publications on political science and human rights, among other topics.

On June 16, 2015, the General Assembly of the OAS in Washington, D.C., elected Enrique Gil Botero, Esmeralda Arosemena de Troitiño, Margarette May Macaulay and Francisco José Eguiguren Praeli for a 4-year-mandate, which starts on January 1, 2016, and ends December 31, 2019.

Enrique Gil Botero Enrique Gil Botero

Commissioner-elect Enrique Gil Botero is a citizen of Colombia. He has a degree in Law and Political Science from Antioquia University. He was Magistrate of the Colombian State Council, a trial lawyer before the Chamber for Administrative Litigation from 1984 to 2006, a founding member of the Institute for Civil and State Responsibility of Antioquia, and President of the Council of State from April 2008 to February 2009.

Esmeralda Arosemena de Troitiño Esmeralda Arosemena de Troitiño

Commissioner-elect Esmeralda Arosemena de Troitiño is citizen of Panama. She has a degree in Philosophy, Letters, and Education, as well as in Law and Political Science, sigma cum laude. She joined the Special Commission for the 2011-2012 Constitutional Reforms in Panama and was Magistrate of the Supreme Court from 2004 to 2009. She currently puts together teams of trainers in the Accusatory Criminal System for the Public Prosecutor’s Office and at the inter-institutional level.

Margarette May Macaulay Margarette May Macaulay

Commissioner-elect Margarette May Macaulay is citizen of Jamaica. She holds a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of London and is currently an attorney in private practice. She serves as Mediator in the Supreme Court of Jamaica and an Associate Arbitrator, as well as serving as a Notary Public. She served as a Judge of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights from 2007 to 2012, contributing to the formulation of the Court’s Rules of Procedure.

Francisco José Eguiguren Praeli Francisco José Eguiguren Praeli

Commissioner-elect Francisco José Eguiguren Praeli is citizen of Peru. He has a law degree from the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, with a master's degree in Constitutional Law and a PhD in Humanities. He was Ambassador of Peru to the Kingdom of Spain from 2012 to 2014 and Minister of the Office of Justice. He is currently a legal consultant and adviser at both the national and international level, specializing in issues related to Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, and Human Rights.

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Dinah Shelton Dinah Shelton
United States

Dinah Shelton is a citizen of the United States. She was elected during the 39th regular period of sessions of the OAS General Assembly in June 2009 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2010. Commissioner Shelton is the Manatt/Ahn Professor of International Law at the George Washington University Law School. Previously, she was Professor of Law at the University of Notre Dame Law School. She has also been a Visiting Professor at various universities in the United States and France. Commissioner Shelton also directed the Office of Staff Attorneys at the United States Court of Appeals of the Ninth Circuit and was Director of Studies at the International Institute of Human Rights. She studied law at the University of California, Berkeley, and at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. She has been an international law consultant for the World Health Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and the UN Institute for Training and Research, among others. She has written, co-written, or edited 19 books and authored dozens of book chapters and articles on human rights and international law.

Rodrigo Escobar Gil Rodrigo Escobar Gil

Commissioner Rodrigo Escobar Gil is a citizen of Colombia. He was elected during the 39th regular period of sessions of the OAS General Assembly in June 2009 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2010. He was a Justice of the Constitutional Court of Colombia in the 2001-2009 period and was its President from February 2007 to February 2008. He was General Director of the Rotating Fund of the Ministry of Justice, as well as a consultant attorney and legal representative for various private companies and public entities for 16 years. He has also been Professor of Public Law at the Pontifical Javeriana University and Sergio Arboleda University, among other universities in Colombia. He serves on the Sergio Arboleda University School of Law's Human Rights Committee and the organizing committee for the university's Institute of Human Rights. He studied law at Javeriana University in Bogotá and earned his doctorate at Complutense University in Madrid. He has written three books and dozens of academic articles, and has given seminars and conferences on human rights and other topics.

Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro

Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro was elected in the OAS General Assembly held in June 2003 and began serving on the IACHR on January 1, 2004. He was reelected during the 37th regular period of sessions of the OAS General Assembly in June 2007 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2008.  Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro is Adjunct Professor of International Relations at Brown University's Watson Institute for International Studies. He was United Nations Special Rapporteur for Myanmar and for Burundi, and was appointed by the UN Secretary-General as an independent expert to prepare the Study on Violence against Children, presented in 2006. He also served as Vice-Chair of the Humanitarian International Verification Commission in Bern, Switzerland, and participated in human rights observation missions in Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Peru, Paraguay, Togo, and East Timor, among other countries. He has taught at a number of universities, including the University of São Paulo in Brazil; Oxford in Great Britain; Notre Dame and Columbia in the United States; and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris, France. He has published hundreds of essays, articles, and books on human rights.

Luz Patricia MejíaLuz Patricia Mejía

Luz Patricia Mejía was elected during the 37th regular period of sessions of the OAS General Assembly in June 2007 for the standard four-year term, which began on January 1, 2008. She was First Vice-Chair of the IACHR in 2008 and Chair in 2009. Luz Patricia Mejía is an attorney who graduated from the School of Juridical and Political Science at the Central University of Venezuela, where she studied Administrative Law. She was Director of Legal Counsel in Venezuela’s Public Ministry and previously worked in that country’s Public Defender’s Office, as Director of Legal Resources and later Director General of Legal Services. She was also in charge of carrying out the Defense Program as part of Venezuela’s Education-Action in Human Rights Program (PROVEA), and worked as an attorney with the Women’s Association for Reciprocal Assistance (AMBAR) and the Organization for Citizen Action against AIDS (ACCSI). She co-authored the Law for the Protection of Victims, Witnesses, and Others Involved in Judicial Procedures, as well as the Organic Law of the Public Defender’s Office and the Organic Law of Citizen Power. She has published research and specialized articles, and has lectured in courses and seminars.

María Silvia GuillénMaría Silvia Guillén
El Salvador

María Silvia Guillén was elected at the December 3, 2009, regular session of the Permanent Council, in accordance with Article 9 of the IACHR Rules of Procedure, to fill out the term of Commissioner Florentín Meléndez, who resigned effective December 31, 2009. María Silvia Guillén is Executive Director of the Foundation for Studies on the Application of the Law in El Salvador (FESPAD) and a Deputy Judge of the Central American Court of Justice. She is also a member of the El Salvador Working Commission on Human Rights and Historical Memory, as well as the Salvadoran Coalition for the International Criminal Court. She has been a member of the El Salvador Supreme Court of Justice's Commission of Inquiry into Irregular Diplomas, the Court of Appeals for the Office of the Attorney General of the Republic, and the Special Commission for a comprehensive assessment of the Attorney General's Office. She has been a Professor of Law at the university level and teaches in FESPAD's Legal Update and Training Project. She has been a consultant and researcher for various organizations, including the United Nations, the Arias Foundation, the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, and FIAN International. She graduated with a law degree from the University of El Salvador.



Paolo G. Carozza
Paolo G. Carozza
United States
Víctor E. Abramovich
Víctor E. Abramovich
, Argentina 2006-2009
Florentín Meléndez
Florentín Meléndez
El Salvador 2004-2009
Sir Clare Kamau Roberts
Sir Clare Kamau Roberts
, Antigua and Barbuda 2002-2009
Freddy Gutiérrez Trejo
Freddy Gutiérrez Trejo
, Venezuela 2004-2007
Evelio Fernández Arévalos
Evelio Fernández Arévalos
, Paraguay
Susana Villarán de la Puente
Susana Villarán de la Puente, Perú
March 27, 2002-2004
José Zalaquett Daher
José Zalaquett Daher, Chile 2001-2004
Julio Prado Vallejo
Julio Prado Vallejo, Ecuador 2000-2003
Robert K. Goldman
Robert K. Goldman, United States
Juan Méndez
Juan Méndez, Argentina 2000-Sept. 2003
Marta Altolaguirre Larraondo
Marta Altolaguirre Larraondo, Guatemala 2000-Aug. 2003
Diego García Sayán
Diego García Sayán, Perú Jan. 1-Feb. 13, 2002
Peter Laurie
Peter Laurie, Barbados 1999-2001
Hélio Bicudo
Hélio Bicudo, Brasil 1998-2001
Claudio Grossman
Claudio Grossman,
Chile 1994-2001
Jean Joseph Exumé
Jean Joseph Exumé,
Haiti 1996-1999
Carlos Ayala Corao
Carlos Ayala Corao, Venezuela 1996-1999
Alvaro Tirado Mejía
Alvaro Tirado Mejía, Colombia 1992-1999
Henry Forde
Henry Forde, Barbados 1998-1999
John S. Donaldson
John S. Donaldson, Trinidad and Tobago
Michael Reisman
Michael Reisman, United States Aug. 22,
Oscar Luján Fappiano
Oscar Luján Fappiano, Argentina 1990-1997
Patrick Lipton Robinson
Patrick Lipton Robinson, Jamaica 1988-1995
Leo Valladares Lanza
Leo Valladares Lanza, Honduras 1988-1995
John Reese Stevenson
John Reese Stevenson, United States
1988-Mayo 24, 1990
Oliver Hamlet Jackman
Oliver Hamlet Jackman, Barbados 1986-1993
Marco Tulio Bruni-Celli
Marco Tulio Bruni-Celli, Venezuela 1986-1993
Elsa Kelly
Elsa Kelly, Argentina 1986-1989

Gilda Maciel Correa Russomano,
Brasil 1984-1991
Luis Adolfo Siles, Salinas
Luis Adolfo Siles, Salinas, Bolivia 1984-1987

Bruce McColm, United States 1984-1988
Luis Demetrio Tinoco Castro
Luis Demetrio Tinoco Castro, Costa Rica
César Sepulveda
César Sepulveda, Mexico 1980-1985

Franciso Bertrand Galindo, El Salvador 1980-1987
Marco Gerado Monroy Cabra
Marco Gerado Monroy Cabra, Colombia
José Joaquín Gori
José Joaquín Gori, Colombia 1976-1978
Tom J. Farer
Tom J. Farer, United States 1976-1983

Fernando Volio Jiménez, Costa Rica 1976-1979
Carlos García Bauer
Carlos García Bauer, Guatemala 1976-1979
Andrés Aguilar
Andrés Aguilar, Venezuela 1972-1985
Robert F. Woodward
Robert F. Woodward, United States
Genaro R. Carrió
Genaro R. Carrió, Argentina 1972-1976
Justino Jiménez de Arechega
Justino Jiménez de Arechega, Uruguay 1968-1972
Mario Alzamora Valdez
Mario Alzamora Valdez, Perú 1968-1972
Carlos A. Dunshee de Abranches
Carlos A. Dunshee de Abranches, Brazil

Daniel Hugo Martins, Uruguay 1964-1968
Gabino Fraga
Gabino Fraga, Mexico 1960-1979
Manuel Bianchi Gundián
Manuel Bianchi Gundián, Chile 1960-1976

Durwood V. Sandifer, United States
Angela Acuña de Chacón
Angela Acuña de Chacón, Costa Rica 1960-1972
Gonzalo Escudero
Gonzalo Escudero, Ecuador 1960-1968

Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, El Salvador 1960-1964
Rómulo Gallegos
Rómulo Gallegos, Venezuela 1960-1963