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Annex C. Environmental prospective

C.1. Objectives and strategy for environmental planning
C.2. Methodology for determining environmental units
C.3. Procedure for determining environmental impact
C.4. Environmental assessment of Marigot Bay

C.1. Objectives and strategy for environmental planning

C.1.1. Protection of mangroves and coastal ecosystems (Objective 1)
C.1.2. Linkage with the Ministry of Agriculture (Objective 2)
C.1.3. Strategy for environmental planning

A preliminary assessment of the environmental problems of Saint Lucia was done in 1981 with the following objectives:

C.1.1. Protection of mangroves and coastal ecosystems (Objective 1)

Since immediate development pressures exist in the coastal zone, the Ministry of Planning and Ministry of Agriculture agreed to investigate the mangrove and surrounding areas of Marigot Bay and use the ecosystem analysis procedure as an example in environmental planning and management. The emphasis was not only to focus on the ecological importance of the mangrove forest but to quantify the physical processes (natural drainage, run-off, sedimentation, contamination sources, etc.), with a view to the siting of the proposed facilities and to the potential consequences of altering existing ecological processes. Maps and documents were gathered, government officials consulted, a field trip organized, and a brief analysis presented. The data sources, steps in the ecosystem analysis, and overall methodology for determining environmental units used in environmental management were discussed with counterpart agencies and presented as part of the OAS Tourism Planning Seminar (section C.7).

C.1.2. Linkage with the Ministry of Agriculture (Objective 2)

An environmental consultant is needed to define national land use zoning in relation to settlement patterns in order to 1) determine priorities for production and land transformation on a spatial basis (Rojas, 1980), and 2) identify natural resources management issues important to the Land Transformation Programme.

Information related to a quantitative and spatial analysis of the natural and scenic resources (soils, water, geology, forestry, natural features) will be required to identify the basic issues of agricultural development, define environmental units, and develop the related zoning recommendations. Initial studies will include definition of environmental units based on the available information concerning the island's environment (climate, topography, land capability, erosion, surface drainage patterns, forest cover, etc.). Environmental management criteria should be defined for each unit. This spatial disaggregation will provide the basis for land use and crop allocation zoning proposals to be made in future stages of programme implementation.

The environmental units, urban and tourism development areas and protected areas and areas that can be devoted to intensive agriculture should be identified. Crop allocation zoning should be outlined for all existing agricultural development areas in the different environmental units so as to guide decision making and extension work respecting the agricultural sector.

C.1.3. Strategy for environmental planning

There are three basic reasons why attempts at environmental planning in Saint Lucia have failed:

a) There is no political awareness concerning the future effects of development.

b) The ideas presented for structural and institutional change have never fitted well into existing government operations and could not be implemented without causing considerable disruption to normal procedure (Charles, 1978 a and b; and Charles and Butler, 1980).

c) The existing institutional structure never had sufficient decision-making powers to be effective.

The Development Control Authority established by law within the Ministry of Planning has the responsibilities of environmental evaluation.

However, it is apparent that agencies with authority do not necessarily worry about environmental problems, whereas other agencies (particularly the Forestry and Fisheries Divison of the MOA), which have more direct responsibility for conservation of natural resources, do not have the powers to evaluate the impact of development projects or officially designate specific area for restricted use.

A successful environmental planning strategy would be to reinforce existing institutional structures (DCA) and involve both Government and non-Government groups having a particular interest in environmental management (Chart C-1). The environmental planning officer of DCA would work in permanent consultation with the following agencies in the following areas of concern:


Area of Concern

Forestry Division

Water catchment, habitat conservation for rare and endangered species, timber concessions


Coastal fisheries

MOA Technical Unit

Land use zoning

Tourist Board

Scenic resources, coastal development

Non-Government interests

Public issues

CHART C-1. Institutional Organization for Environmental Planning

Source: Pool, D., 'Environmental Prospective: Natural Resource and Agricultural Development', O.A.S. Technical Report, Saint Lucia: November, 1980

The candidate for the position of environmental planning officer should have a scientific or technical background with experience in the environmental sciences. If candidates with these qualifications do not exist, then an experienced ecologist or scientist provided by a donor agency should help train the person and serve as senior adviser for two years or so.

The basic work plan should be located within the MOA Technical Unit, whereas the basic information for preparing environmental units would be based on environmental management criteria generated primarily by the DCA and the environmental planning officer.

C.2. Methodology for determining environmental units

C.2.1. Inventory of physical resources
C.2.2. Quantification of ecological processes
C.2.3. Definition of environmental units

C.2.1. Inventory of physical resources

To define the environmental units and develop related zoning recommendations, basic data concerning the quantitative and spatial analysis of the natural resources should be collected from existing sources. The initial inventory of physical resources will utilize the following sources of information:

a) Aerial photos: most recent island-wide coverage in 1954.

b) Topographic maps (scale 1:25 000 and 1:50 000).

c) Climatic data: precipitation distribution and frequency (data available for approximately 20 stations).

d) Watersheds (approximately 20 major ones) determine flow, erosional features and quantity of human intervention data available. Water Authority.

e) Coastal erosion maps: Port Authority.

f) Forest cover and forest reserve boundaries: Ministry of Agriculture.

g) Habitat of rare and endangered species. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division.

h) Topography, erosion, land capability, OAS study.

i) Scenic and natural areas: Tourism Board, Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program.

j) Geology and geomorphological maps, UN study.

k) Mineral deposits (pumice, other), OAS study.

Other helpful sources of background information on physical parameters are reviewed in section C.6 and referenced at the end of this annex.

C.2.2. Quantification of ecological processes

The physical units of the landscape are all connected by common processes or ecosystem functions such as water flow, erosion, run-off, sedimentation and nutrient cycling and productivity. For example, mangroves, estuaries, beaches, and coral reefs are all connected to terrestrial ecosystems by water run-off. Likewise, streams and rivers connect upland forested watersheds to intensively cultivated valleys and floodplains. Many of these coupling mechanisms involve the timing or behaviour of biological life cycles and the net movement of nutrients and organic materials.

The occurrences of these regional couplings are relevant socioeconomic phenomena. Man, his actions, and his dependence on natural ecosystems are all related to the ability of regions to maintain a livable environment where agriculture, forestry, industry, and urbanization are compatible at low costs to society. Island ecosystems cannot subsidize a completely artificial environment, therefore natural undisturbed ecosystems are needed to maintain regional homeostasis. For these reasons we must understand and protect those ecosystem couplings that are essential for attainment of the proper balance between anthropic and natural ecosystems.

Quantification of ecological processes facilitates assessment of the impact of developments such as sand extraction, dredge and fill operations, waste disposal, and mining.

C.2.3. Definition of environmental units

On the basis of the physical parameters and quantification of the ecological processes, homogeneous units will be mapped and subsequently managed by environmental criteria used in land use zoning.

Areas for conservation of water catchments, valuable natural features, national parks, forest reserves and preservation of historical and archaeological sites should be mapped, as should areas appropriate for intensive agriculture and forestry. The overall purpose in defining environmental units is to combine resource quality and quantity with management considerations.

On the basis of recommended national strategies for balanced development and of the identified natural resource values, a number of geographic sub-regions of the island have been identified (UNDP, 1975). These will be evaluated as potential development areas based on the management criteria outlined for each environmental unit. For example, rural areas that have a high capability to absorb additional development and public works must be evaluated in terms of environmental management criteria and include:

a) Prime agricultural development lands, first priority areas. Agricultural activities should be further rationalized and intensified in the Choc-Ti Rocher-Babonneau area, in the Cul de Sac-Roseau area, in Rich Fond Valley, and in the quarters of Micoud, Vieux Fort, Laborie and Choiseul.

b) Forest development areas. Possibilities for lumber or charcoal production could be encouraged on private lands under careful management if marginal lands are reforested. The area identified as the Central Forest Reserve should be surveyed and its boundaries marked. Extraction of timber should be allowed only under careful management by the Forestry Division. Measures of protection should be applied to Crown and private lands surrounding the Central Forest Reserve which, because of their land capability and ecological value, should come under the control of the Forestry Division.

c) Water catchment areas. Within the defined water catchment areas, various protection measures, development controls and management policies are required. Deforestation should be stopped immediately. Catchment areas should be protected against human, animal, and chemical contamination.

d) Conservation of natural areas. There are several natural areas (pitons, volcanic sulfur springs, Mt. Gimie, mangroves, coral reefs, canyon, Saint Lucian parrot habitat, etc.), that require protection through legislative and development control measures.

e) Tourism development areas. Castries-Gros Islet axis, Soufriere Valley, Vieux Fort and other areas defined in the OAS Tourism Plan should be designated as tourism development areas. Plans should incorporate environmental management criteria and address land use constraints to preserve the qualities that makes Saint Lucia attractive.

C.3. Procedure for determining environmental impact

In environmental planning, identification, through the assessment of potential impact, of the hazards to ecosystems associated with specific types of land utilization is necessary. At the core of impact assessment is a presumption of adverse effects for certain identified development activities. The term "adverse effect" may be defined as follows:

Effects are considered adverse if environmental change or stress causes some biotic population or non-viable resource to be less safe, less healthy, less abundant, less productive, less esthetically or culturally pleasing, or if the change or stress reduces the diversity and variety of individual choice, the standard of living or the extent of sharing of life's amenities; or if change or stress tends to lower the quality of renewable resources or to impair the recycling of depletable resources (Clark, 1974).

According to this definition, environmental impact assessment is the evaluation of adverse and positive ecological effects and the determination of their impact on human needs.

The prediction of ecological disturbances such as change in run-off, loss of vegetation, or discharge of toxic substances is possible but their quantification is sometimes difficult. A system of impact prediction and an analysis of the consequences of ecological disturbance are critical in the determination of necessary constraints to siting and design of development projects in upland forested watersheds, agricultural regions, coastal zones, urban and industrialized areas and recreational sites. Impact assessment must not only consider one important species, but rather focus on the entire ecosystem. An ecosystem consists of a functional assemblage of plants, animals, decomposed organisms, non-living substances, a climatic regime and man. A list of major land use activities and agents causing adverse impacts is found in Table C-1 (adapted from McEachern and Towle, 1974).

There are two basic steps in environmental impact evaluation: a) information gathering and b) analysis of potential problems associated with a specific site based on broad management guidelines. The information needs can be summarized as follows (Island Resources Foundation, 1973):

a) A complete written description of the proposed site, including maps, aerial photographs, physical parameters, hydrogeology, drainage patterns, topography, vegetation cover, geomorphology, etc.

b) A detailed description of the project proposal, including design plans, construction methods, movement of earth materials for project activity. The report should detail work accomplished and should describe final site geometry, the movement of materials, and the environmental conditions of the site and adjacent lands after the project is completed.


Major land use activities


Energy and Natural Resources

1. Excavation, earth moving


Power Generation

2. Dredging



3. Channels, cuts and fills


Reclaimed Land

4. Wetland landfill



5. Vegetation clearing

Industrial and Residential

6. Structures: hotels, residential


Oil Storage

7. Utilities



8. Marinas, docks, piers



9. Landfills, garbage and solid waste


10. Sewage outfall, treatment



11. Waste water



12. Oil spills



13. Open burning



14. Collecting flora and fauna and historic objects


15. Access by activities inappropriate to the area





Waste Emplacement




Ocean dumping

Source: Pool, D. "Environmental prospective", OAS Technical report Castries 1980, (mimeo).

By combining the basic data gathered above with environmental management guidelines, an analysis can be made of the proposed activity. Broad guidelines (Odlum, 1976) and questions to be reviewed for each project include the following categories:

1. Protection and wise utilization of valuable ecosystems:

a) Wherever destruction or severe alteration of areas of naturally high primary productivity (e.g., well developed forests, coastal estuaries) is contemplated, benefits and costs should be carefully compared.

b) Loss of productive agricultural land through urbanization or other development activities should be carefully analyzed. Is land of comparable quality available for cultivation in nearby areas? Will food imports be increased as a result of taking agricultural lands out of production?

c) Is recreational land going to be destroyed? Are there sufficient alternative recreational areas for future generations?

d) Are aesthetic or scenic values going to be degraded or destroyed? Will the tourism or other sectors be affected?

e) Is the natural recovery process (ecological succession) Likely to be disrupted? Will it be possible for natural processes to repair damage caused by development activity?

f) Will critical wildlife habitat (feeding areas, spawning and breeding grounds, nesting and nursery areas) be destroyed?

g) Will pests or disease vectors such as mosquitoes and snails become more common?

h) Are endangered species dependent on the proposed development area?

i) Is the impact area significant to commercial fisheries?

j) Will the proposed development limit or preclude uses of surrounding land?

k) If the carrying capacity (human) is to be increased, will there be sufficient water supply and disposal facilities?

l) Does the area to be developed contain archaeological or historic sites?

2. Prevention of adverse alterations of air and water quality:

a) Will the proposed development increase the presence of heavy metals, toxic chemicals and industrial and human wastes, increasing pressure on present disposal system?

b) Will there be activity which increases water turbidity to such high levels for extended periods of time that aquatic life will be destroyed?

c) Will there be increased danger of accidental oil spills?

d) Will the project endanger acceptable air quality? This should be maintained, since degraded air can lead to respiratory deseases.

3. Attention of physical parameters:

a) Will the proposed development cause accelerated soil erosion?

b) Are surface drainage patterns or run-off rates going to be altered? If so, the consequences must be anticipated. When large areas are paved with asphalt, infiltration rates are greatly reduced and the rate of run-off accelerated. For example, a small stream which prior to construction might be adequate to handle run-off from even the heaviest rains would become a dangerous flood threat after construction due to inability to accommodate a more sudden and greater flow.

c) Does the project contemplate the construction of jetties, causeways, etc.? Inshore currents and patterns of sediment deposition in coastal waters can be seriously affected by such construction, which can lead to accelerated beach erosion. If structures are absolutely necessary, then they should be designed so that little resistance to currents is offered and sedimentation transport and deposition are not affected. Natural beach erosion patterns should be understood before development is attempted.

C.4. Environmental assessment of Marigot Bay

C.4.1. Background
C.4.2. Development proposals
C.4.3. Physical environment
C.4.4. Development
C.4.5. Analysis for environmental management
C.4.6. Alternatives
C.4.7. An outline of the OAS Tourism Planning Seminar

C.4.1. Background

As an example of the type of environmental analysis required for decision making, this section provide an evaluation of the status of the mangrove forest ecosystem in terms of future proposed development plans for Marigot Bay and present guidelines to avoid short- and long-term conflict in land use and environmental degradation. The ideas and data included are based upon field observations, proposed development plans, governmental and international donor agency documents, and discussions with Robert Devaux (National Trust), Gabriel Charles and Paul Butler (Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture), John Rickards (Naturalists Society), Paul Hippolyte (Central Planning Unit) and Nick Bowden (Hurricane Hole Hotel).

Marigot is a small, protected bay surrounded by coastal hills on the west coast of Saint Lucia about 6 miles south of the capital, Castries. Historically, the bay was a favorite hiding place for pirates and also provided a secluded anchorage when the British Navy escaped the French. Today, the bay has a marina, Dr. Doolittles Restaurant, Hurricane Hole Hotel, and several private residences, and is a popular picturesque location for visiting yachts and exploring tourists. Because of the protection offered by the natural setting, over 50 boats anchored there during Hurricane Alien in 1980.

C.4.2. Development proposals

Besides the existing facilities, the following development projects are proposed for Marigot Bay:



1) Flamboyant Park, Ltd.

57 houses constructed on 16 acres

2) The Moorings

Hotel, yacht base chartering

3) Mr. Gold and Partners

i) 13 housing units as indicated

ii) gradual expansion of Doolittles complex

iii) pumping of sand as indicated

iv) donation of about 70 acres of the steep upper slope to the ridge top and access via ravine to the National Trust as a nature reserve

4) Mr. Maraj

Proposed development at eastern end of bay

The exact locations of these developments are not fully known, and therefore only approximate placement is attempted in map C-1.

C.4.3. Physical environment

The eastern end of Marigot Bay is bordered with fringing mangroves (principally red and white) that extend approximately the length of the Queen's Chain (186 feet) landward, changing abruptly to a thin strip of brackish water species such as acrosticum fern, hibiscus, and then subtropical dry forest on the hill slopes. Evidence of human intervention includes small garden plots, forest clearings, and mangrove deforestation. The upland forest age is dependent on past and present land ownership and use patterns. For example, most of the forested land on the north side of Marigot Bay is an even-aged natural stand with little or no recent disturbance, whereas the natural vegetation has been cleared for grazing at the extreme eastern end of the bay.

Two small streams, one intermittent and the other spring-fed, drain into the bay, forming the only natural waterways with visible flow. Overland flows and seepages probably occur throughout the watershed (Map C-2), depending on rainfall and local vegetation cover. Erosion and sedimentation processes tend to be more accelerated in areas of recent soil disturbance or vegetation removal as compared to forested areas, although no quantitative data exist for detailed comparisons.

i. Importance of natural drainage patterns

The basic processes that are critical, particularly in Marigot Bay, are those pathways which link terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In any development scheme, normal precautions are required to prevent interference with the natural pattern of drainage and to prevent contamination of run-off water. Water in the form of streams, run-off and sewerage causes erosion, sedimentation, and pollution, resulting in environmental degradation and a reduction of touristic and social values. Increased bare surface areas such as roads, parking lots and housing units will increase run-off. All proposed development projects for Marigot Bay jointly need to consider erosion and eventually sedimentation of the bay.

Map C-1. Saint Lucia. Existing Facilities and Proposed Development Activities for Marigot Bay

Source: Pool, D., 'Environmental Prospective: Natural Resources and Agricultural Development', O.A.S. Technical Report. Saint Lucia: November, 1980

Map C-2. Saint Lucia. Physical Environment of Marigot Bay

Source: Pool, D., 'Environmental Prospective: Natural Resource and Agricultural Development', O.A.S. Technical Report, Saint Lucia: November, 1960

ii. Relevance of the mangrove forest

The mangrove forest ecosystem is uniquely adapted to changes in soil salinity and tidal fluctuations and consequently serves as a buffer between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Not only are mangroves important as a source of detritus used as a basis for fish production, but also stabilized sediment, transported from upland areas, traps nutrients and filters contaminants from fresh water run-off, and provides nurseries for shrimp and fisheries and habitat for wildlife.

With increased development on all sides of Marigot Bay, the elimination of the mangrove forest will result in increased run-off, an increasing rate of sedimentation and nutrient input into the bay and a diminution of fisheries and wildlife habitats.

C.4.4. Development

From a developer's viewpoint, the mangroves provide a visual obstacle and a physical barrier to entering the bay, besides serving as breeding sites for sand flies and msoquitoes. The future touristic, cultural, historical and natural values of Marigot Bay will depend not on the elimination of the two acre mangrove forest, but on implementation of a closely coordinated development plan that considers several high-density facilities spatially arranged with adequate green belt areas so as not to physically crowd or exceed the carrying capacity of Marigot Bay.

In the short term it seems likely that the mangroves will be removed from around the eastern end of the bay along the frontage controlled by Flamboyant Park, Ltd., and Mr. Maraj. Mr. Gold has indicated that he will not disturb the mangroves controlled by him.

C.4.5. Analysis for environmental management

The framework for the management analysis of an ecosystem must include not only the important biota, but the major physical factors, their interaction and how in combination they affect the life of the system. In other words, environmental management must encompass entire ecosystems. Any attempt to manage separately one of the many interdependent components of an ecosystem will very likely fail. The following general environmental management rules should be considered in the preparation of a development plan for Marigot Bay:

a) Drainage ways: Alteration of any drainage by realignment, bulkhead ing, filling or any other process that shortcuts the natural rate or pattern of flow or blocks or impedes its passage, is unacceptable.

b) Basin circulation: Any significant change from the natural rate of water flows of a coastal watershed is presumed to be detrimental.

c) Run-off contamination: Any significant dishcarge of suspended solids, nutrients, or toxic chemicals is presumed to be adverse.

d) Buffer areas are to be provided between shoreland residences and coastal waters of a size to correlate with the extent and density of shoreline development.

e) Water collected by storm drains is to be cleansed by treatment and its discharge regulated.

f) Water basins with poor flushing are to be avoided as marina sites.

More specifically, environmental managers of Marigot Bay, e.g., government planners, private developers, the Tourism Board and the Naturalists Society, should evaluate the following specific parameters which influence natural processes in order to provide an integrated management approach:

a) Determine natural drainage patterns and quantity and frequency of run-off and sedimentation. Altered drainages and run-off due to road construction and earth movement may result in increased sedimentation of the bay.

b) Determine carrying capacity of the area in terms of future water consumption, sewage disposal, touristic, cultural and historical values.

c) Determine the impact of removal of natural vegetation in terms of increased erosion and sedimentation.

d) Determine impact of coastline alteration including proposed dredge and fill for increased beach areas. Before construction of jetties or marinas, request detailed study of basin circulation patterns.

C.4.6. Alternatives

The fact that no definite management or development plan is available for Marigot Bay means there is still time to consider all the development alternatives which will include well-planned projects and provide for natural vegetation or buffer areas. It has been mentioned that a possible land exchange might offer the opportunity to establish a national park or national historic site which includes approximately 70 acres of land in the upper watershed. These proposals should be carefully considered, since the permanent establishment of a national park would insure long-term homeostasis in the area. Without this stability the very factors that make the bay so attractive an area for investment in tourism could be destroyed.

C.4.7. An outline of the OAS Tourism Planning Seminar

On October 30, 1980, the Tourism Planning Seminar took place at the Halcyon Sands Hotel, in Castries. Part of the seminar discussion focused on natural resources in terms of environmental planning. Following is a brief outline of the topics and problems discussed:

I. Definition of Environmental Planning

A. Centers on an integrated approach to regional development scheme that insures long-term island stability.

B. Growth and expansion policy of Saint Lucia needs to be evaluated in terms of social, cultural and economic needs.

C. Environmental management involves more than air and water pollution control.

II. Institutional Concept

A. Present situation:

1. No central source of environmental data.

2. No government authority to assess environmental impact of proposed development projects.

3. Definite need to exchange information, reports, ideas and appraisals on all proposed projects.

B. Strategy:

1. Name an environmental planning officer in the Development Control Authority (Ministry of Planning) to prepare an assessment of all proposed projects.

2. Should have the authority to request more baseline ecological data from the private sector or government depending who is doing the development.

3. The position requires someone with general knowledge of various aspects of environmental management and could possibly be trained by a senior advisor financed by a donor agency for a period of two years.

4. The office of the environmental planner would also require close liaison with other ministries such as Agriculture and Foreign Affairs, Trade, Commerce and Tourism as well as non-government interests.

III. Methodology for Obtaining Data Base

A. Inventory of physical resources:

1. Aerial photos (no recent ones with forest coverage)
2. Topographic maps (scale 1:25 000, 1:50 000)
3. Climatic data
4. Watersheds
5. Coastal erosion maps (Port Authority)
6. Forest cover
7. Forest reserve boundaries
8. Mining deposits
9. Other helpful documents

- Eastern Caribbean Coastal Investigation (Deane, Thom & Edmonds, BDD, 1970-73).

- Soil and Land Use Survey N° 20, Saint Lucia Regional Research Centre of the British Caribbean, U.W.I.

- UNDP Physical Planning Project

- land capability, water catchment areas, etc.

- Agricultural Census (1973-74).

- Cadastre (1973-74)

- Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program-Survey of Conservation Priorities in the Lesser Antilles (resource data, maps)

B. Identification and quantification of ecological processes:

1. Processes which should be studied include:

a) erosion
b) run-off
c) sedimentation
d) nutrient cycling
e) productivity

2. Data which can be used as basis for evaluating development impact:

a) sand extraction
b) dredge and fill
c) marina or hotel construction
d) black coral priating
e) waste disposal
f) mining

IV. Description and Function of Environmental Units

A. Purpose is to combine resource quality and quantity with management considerations.

B. Resource capability is based on:

1. Water availability
2. Sewage treatment and disposal
3. Population density
4. Ecosystem carrying capacity
5. Land capability
6. Climatic, topographic characteristics
7. Natural and man-made hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes, mud slides, oil spills)

C. Areas of environmental concern:

Critical area



Tourism, shoreline protection


Wildlife habitat, tourism, potable water supply



Coral reefs

Black coral, tourism, shoreline protection


Beach, H., "An Environmental Study of Saint Lucia," Student's Report, 1974 (available at Central Planning Unit Library).

Beard, J.S., "Report on Forestry in Saint Lucia," Government Printery, Castries: 1944, 19 pp.

Butler, P., and D. Jeggo, "Assessment of the Effects of Hurricane Alien on the status of Amazona versicolor," Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 1980.

Caribbean Research Center, "Water in Our Development," 1980, 25 pp.

Charles, G., Unpublished inter-office memo. Proposed Conservation Areas and the Setting Up of Beaches and Parks Commission together with related topics, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 1978, 2 pp.

Charles, G., Letter to Premier suggesting a Steering Committee for Beaches and Parks Commission, 1978.

Charles, G., and P. Butler, Environmental Commission Task Force, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 1980, 2 pp.

Clark, J., "Coastal Ecosystems," The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1974, 178 pp.

Deane, C., M. Thom, and H. Edmunds, Eastern Caribbean Coastal Investigations (1970-73). Regional Beach Erosion Control Programme, U.W.I., Trinidad, British Development Division (4 Vol.), 1973.

Division of Forestry, "Forestry Work Plan for 1979-1980," Ministry of Agriculture, 1970.

Flamboyant Park, Ltd., "General Description of Flamboyant Park, Ltd.," 9 pp.

Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Programme, Resource Data Maps Saint Lucia (15 maps), 1980.

Euddards, R.W., Unpublished notes on Draft Bill, "Land Development and Building Act," UNDP, 1977, 5 pp (Available CPU).

Government of Saint Lucia, Saint Lucia National Plan, 1977, 56 pp.

Graunke, B., "A Report on Savannes Bay," Ministry of Agriculture, n.d., 7 pp.

Island Resources Foundation, "UNDP Environmental Survey (Contract 133/73)," 1973.

Leonce, L.M., "A Preliminary Study of Potential Water Requirements, Collection and Storage in Saint Lucia," McGill University, 1978.

McEarchern, J., and E. Towle, Ecological Guidelines in Island Development, IUCN Publication N° 30, 1974, 65 pp.

Ministry of Agriculture, "Hurricane Alien: Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development," 1980, 51 pp.

Odium, W., Ecological Guidelines for Tropical Coastal Development, IUCN Publication N° 42, 1956, 60 pp.

Roberts, H.H., "Coral Reefs of Saint Lucia, West Indies," Caribbean. Journal of Science 12 (3-4): 179-190, 1972.

Rojas, E., "Implementation of the National Agricultural Transformation and Land Reform Policy in Saint Lucia," OAS Technical Report, Saint Lucia, 1980.

UNDP "Draft Advisory National Physical Development Plan for Saint Lucia," 1975, 71 pp.

Whitman, D., "Assessment of the Effects of Hurricane Alien on Government Forests in Saint Lucia," Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 1980, 17 pp.

The Voice, "New Hotel Yachting project for Marigot," October, 1980, p. 6.

Zadek, S., and T. Bennedicks, "Appraisal of Windward Islands Fishing Boat Development Project," Central Planning Unit, 1980, 23 pp.

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