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  • Democracia
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 78, 79, 80, 81
    Effective governance in a major thrust of the Government of Jamaica as clearly articulated in Vision 2030. Therefore, efforts must be taken to improve governance at the local government and community level. This includes:
    A. Providing technical and financial support (through a budgetary allocation) to community groups such as community development committees, development area committees and parish development committees.

    B. Improving the government’s effectiveness through the Public Sector Modernisation Programme and the Public Sector Master Rationalisation Plan which is being implemented by the Public Sector Transformation Unit in the Cabinet Office.

    C. Pursing Local Government Reform with focus on the areas of governance, structure and functions of the local authorities, service delivery, financial management, financing framework, organizational restructuring and institutional capacity strengthening, legal framework, enforcement of municipal laws/regulations, modernization of local authorities and local government systems, and international collaboration.

    D. Implementing the “Enhancing Civil Society Participation in Local Governance for Community Safety Programme” which seeks to improve capacity at the Parish level to address community safety issues, build the capacity of local authorities and civil society organizations at the parish level to collaborate in the planning and implementation of safety policy preventive initiatives, and assist with the formulation of tools and instruments for parish level co-ordination and preventative action.

    E. Developing a training programme on the development process for community groups and incoming Councillors with assistance from the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation (CFTC).

    F. Establishing a Stakeholder Committee on Local Governance to provide advice and direction on a number of issues which will support governance at the local level.
  • Desenvolvimento Econômico Sustentável
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 7, 12, 13, 20
    The Jamaican government has taken steps towards achieving sustainable economic growth, guided by the National Development Plan: Vision 2030 Jamaica which was conceptualized in 2009. Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan provides a comprehensive planning framework in which the economic, social, environmental and governance aspects of national development are integrated, and is expected to put Jamaica in a position to achieve developed country status by 2030, guided by the mantra “Jamaica, the place of choice to live, work, raise families, and do business”. During 2011 the PIOJ continued to build the long-term sustainable framework for the implementation, monitoring, evaluation and communication of the Plan to the wider public. In the area of policy and planning, several results were achieved in 2011; the third year of the 21 year implementation period.
    Institutionalization of Vision 2030 Jamaica
    Over the reporting period, the Plan Development Unit (PDU) which has direct oversight of Vision 2030, continued to advance the process of institutionalization internally within the PIOJ and externally with key Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) to embed ownership of, and engender commitment towards the implementation of Vision 2030 Jamaica.
    Strategic Cons03/21/2012ultations with MDAs
    In keeping with Cabinet Decision 20/09 which directed all MDAs to align their corporate and operational plans with Vision 2030 Jamaica and the MTF, the PIOJ as the National Focal Point for Vision 2030 Jamaica continued to carry out ongoing meetings with MDAs to facilitate:
    • alignment of the corporate and operational plans of MDAs with Vision 2030 Jamaica and the MTF;
    • alignment of key national policies and strategies with Vision 2030 Jamaica, including the National Minerals Policy (draft) 2010 - 2030 and the State of the Environment Report 2010;
    • the revision and finalisation of performance indicators and targets for key MDAs including the ministries of National Security, Justice, Education, Energy and Mining, Health, Labour and Social Security, and the Environment;
    • progress towards agreement on coordination and reporting requirements.

    Work with the Cabinet Office also continued to complete the alignment of the new Strategic Business Plan templates by the Cabinet Office in FY 2011/ 2012 with the goals and outcomes of Vision 2030 Jamaica, including the explicit alignment with the three (3) year plans and budgets for the eight (8) pilot ministries under the phased establishment of the Performance Monitoring and Evaluation System (PMES) in the public sector.
    Also spearheaded by the PIOJ in 2011 were the Growth-Inducement Strategy and the Community Renewal Programme, which were developed as key initiatives aligned with the priority National Outcomes of the MTF in consultation with stakeholders in the public sector, private sector and civil society.

    Establishment of a robust performance monitoring and evaluation system

    Thematic Working Groups
    Thematic Working Groups (TWGs), with membership drawn from the public and private sectors, civil society and international development partners are being established as part of the monitoring and evaluation framework for Vision 2030 Jamaica. TWGs provide a dynamic framework in which to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate strategic priorities and actions; track indicator progress; identify and mobilize resources for the sector or thematic area; promote new policies and projects; share information, knowledge and expertise; and ensure concerted and coordinated technical support towards national development. It is expected that a total of 17 TWGs will be established and that each will meet at least once per quarter. By the end of 2011, the establishment of ten (10) TWGs namely Education and Training; National Security and Justice; Strong Economic Infrastructure; Effective Social Protection; Energy and Minerals Development; Environment and Natural Resources Management; Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation to Climate Change; and Population, Tourism and Health were facilitated.

    Consultations toward an Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation Framework
    The Vision 2030 Jamaica monitoring and evaluation framework is being built on existing systems and processes within the public sector. During 2011 several high-level meetings were held with key agencies including the PIOJ, the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), the Cabinet Office and the Ministry of Finance and the Public Service (MFPS) to ensure the integration of Vision 2030 Jamaica into proposed and existing national and sectoral processes and mechanisms for planning, budgeting, monitoring and evaluation in the public sector. These included:
    • the establishment of the Performance Monitoring and Evaluation System (PMES) in the public sector including the proposed development of a Whole of Government Business Plan;
    • the new Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) being introduced in six (6) pilot ministries in FY 2011/2012 to provide a rolling 3-year budget for the public sector; and
    • the Jamaica Public Investment Prioritization System.
    The overall expected outcome is an integrated national framework for monitoring and evaluation which is consistent with current public sector transformation efforts and the Government’s commitment to Results-Based Management (RBM), and which is fully aligned to Vision 2030 Jamaica.
    Capacity Strengthening
    Members of the PDU participated in training to enhance the application and use of the JAMSTATS DevInfo system for national statistics. The JAMSTATS system is used as the database for the framework of national indicators and targets used to track progress under Vision 2030 Jamaica.
    Performance Reporting
    A draft 2-Year Progress Report on Vision 2030 Jamaica for FY 2009/2010 and FY 2010/2011 was finalized. As an integral part of the PIOJ Quarterly Press Briefings during 2011, four quarterly reports were made on the National Dashboard of Indicators introduced in the previous year to track the country’s progress towards the achievement of the national goals articulated in Vision 2030 Jamaica, using the following eight areas of measurement for national development and social well-being: Health Status; Education Status; Labour Force Quality; Security Status; Justice Status; Economic Growth; Employment and Environmental Stewardship Status.
    During the period the full framework of over sixty-two (62) national indicators and targets used to track progress under Vision 2030 Jamaica were updated on the JAMSTATS database, including data time series for available years, baseline values and targets for 2012, 2015 and 2030.
    Commencement of Preparation for the new MTF 2012-2015

    FY 2009/2010 represented the first year of implementation of Vision 2030 Jamaica. Vision 2030 and the MTF are now in the third year of implementation. The long-term implementation of Vision 2030 Jamaica as approved by Cabinet calls for the preparation of a new MTF for the next three-year period, FY2012/2013 – 2014/2015. Therefore the process to prepare the new Medium Term Socio-Economic Policy Framework (MTF) for FY2012/2013 to FY2014/2015 commenced in 2011. The new MTF 2012-2015 will provide the strategic framework for development priorities at the national and sectoral levels over the three year period FY2012/2013 to FY2014/2015.
    The steps taken during the period for the preparation of the new MTF 2012-2015 included:
    • the recruitment of a Plan Review Consultant to lead the preparation of the new MTF
    • the establishment of a MTF Planning Committee to provide oversight to preparation of the new MTF
    • the Terms of Reference for the review of MTF 2009-2012 finalized and the procurement process to identify a National Consultant to conduct the MTF Review commenced
    • Preparatory meetings held with key stakeholders including Cabinet Office, Bank of Jamaica, SALISES, National Centre for Youth Development, Social Development Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade and JAMPRO
    • the preparation of supporting documentation including a MTF Preparation Brief, draft Jamaica Country Assessment Report, draft Environmental Scanning Report and a draft MTF Progress Report
    The schedule for preparation of MTF 2012-2015 envisages the staging of a Country Assessment Workshop in February 2012 to arrive at consensus among national stakeholders on the main economic, social and environmental issues and challenges for Jamaica’s development over the medium term. It is planned that the draft MTF 2012-2015 will be prepared by April-May 2012 and the final MTF 2012-2015 will be completed for submission to Cabinet by August 2012.
    External Communications and Marketing - Vision 2030 Jamaica
    A range of activities was completed during the period to support the communication programme for Vision 2030 Jamaica. These included:

    Completion of Vision 2030 Jamaica, Popular Version
    The Popular Version of Vision 2030 Jamaica was completed in July 2010, and 37,000 copies printed for distribution to a wide cross-section of stakeholders throughout Jamaica and overseas to broaden awareness of the National Development Plan and mobilize involvement in its implementation. In 2011 a Braille version of the Popular Version of Vision 2030 Jamaica was developed and distributed to agencies for the visually impaired. The PIOJ also collaborated with the Social Development Commission (SDC) to hold a series of sixteen “Train the Trainer” Workshops island wide between November 2010-February 2011 to train SDC staff and community leaders on how to use the Popular Version to apply Vision 2030 Jamaica to development planning at the parish and community levels. At the end of December 2011, approximately 26,957 copies of the Popular Version had been distributed to stakeholders.
    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 7, 12, 13, 20

    In 2010, the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) formulated a growth strategy aimed at inducing economic growth in the short to medium term. The Growth Inducement Strategy (GIS) seeks to “build and sustain an enabling environment for creative and enterprising actors (individuals and firms) to seize emerging opportunities for value-creation” by providing a coherent and comprehensively structured package of strategies and initiatives to systematically address binding structural constraints and achieve sustainable economic growth with social equity. In the current macroeconomic environment and the context of limited fiscal space, three priority “programme themes” which are fully aligned with the long term goals of Vision 2030 Jamaica have been identified to underpin the growth impetus of the 2012/13 – 2014/15 medium term economic programme within the comprehensive strategic framework of the Growth Inducement Strategy. These programme themes are:
    1. Asset Mobilization
    2. Climate Change Adaptation & Disaster Risk Reduction
    3. Community Renewal and Empowerment

    Additionally, specific areas were also proposed as essential components of the growth-inducement strategy for implementation in the short to medium term, some of which are highlighted below.
    Tax Reform

    In the area of tax reform it was proposed that a systematic program of tax reform be embarked on to remove distortionary taxes; simplify the tax code; review the external tariff structure; introduce new mechanisms for collateralizing assets (physical capital, financial assets, and land); and package and privatize government-owned assets. The reforms aim to unlock latent wealth tied up in potentially productive assets and promote entrepreneurial dynamism.
    International Competitiveness

    The GIS proposes that international competitiveness be strengthened via the following media:
    ? an acceleration of the National Energy Policy Action Plan as an urgent priority and a potential game-changer
    ? the continuation of ongoing efforts to lower cost of capital and improve transmission to the productive sector
    ? improvement of productivity of the workforce by ramping up training and labour certification
    ? the promotion of technical innovation (e.g. greenhouse agriculture) through research and development.

    The Business Network Model

    The exploitation of the full potential of the business-network model has also been advocated by the GIS to promote synergies within and among targeted clusters of economic activity, reduce transaction costs and realize economies of scale: including the building and strengthening of value-chain linkages, both backward and forward, among firms (e.g. business incubator network; linkages between tourism, agriculture, agro-processing, and local services (health, sports, food, crafts, entertainment)); and also to spur the emergence of new clusters of activity based on a logistics hub. Immediate gains for increased employment and export earnings are expected to come from front-loaded measures to expand ICT sites.
    Loan Portability

    The GIS proposed that stamp duty be abolished, as it has been proven to hinder the portability of bank loans and in so doing facilitates the sub-optimal functioning. The application of stamp duty on the transfer of loans was also found to act as a constraint on the refinancing of debt, which acts a deterrent for borrowers in shifting from high cost loans to more attractive rates of financing. Changes have been made to the regime of stamp duty and transfer taxes on mortgage loans, such that the refinancing and substitution of mortgages between financial institutions is less costly. This has significantly increased the portability of mortgage loans.

    Secured Transactions

    A secured transactions framework allows borrowers to pledge movable property as security for a loan in a manner that removes ambiguity regarding the property that has been pledged, to whom the property has been pledged, and gives the lender the right to repossess these assets speedily in the event of payment default. It was envisaged that the implementation of the Framework would also lead to a reduction in loan rates as the loan assessment process would be optimized and the degree of risk associated with individual borrowers could be determined. Cabinet has approved the preparation of a new Secure Transactions law and drafting instructions for the preparation of this new law have been issued.
    Credit Bureaus
    The Credit Reporting Act was passed on August 31st, 2010. The notice was signed by the Minister of Finance to bring the Act into effect from October 1, 2010. The Regulations were passed in the Lower House during the first week of November. The original Regulations were revised and these were passed by the Senate on January 13, 2011. The Bank of Jamaica is in receipt of applications from potential Bureau Owners; with approval for the first licence for the establishment of a credit bureau granted by the Minister of Finance in March 2012.
    Land Registration & Titling
    The Land Administration and Management Programme (LAMP) II programme is a Government initiative aimed at assisting owners of land in Jamaica to obtain Certificates of Title and updating the information on existing land titles. The project has been facing a constrained by inadequate capacity at the National Land Agency. Financing also poses another challenge to persons who seek to register property as the average cost of first registration is approximately seventy thousand Jamaican dollars. Private sector firms have been invited to provide financing via loans but have opted to charge commercial rates, resulting in no takers. The National Housing Trust is exploring options to address this situation,
    Probate & Land Transfer
    Stamp duties and transfer taxes attached to the process of probate were reduced in 2011. Estimates have shown that the previous system of probate taxes resulted in as much as 50 – 60 per cent of deceased estates not being probated. This financial constraint has significant equity implications: for many rural poor or vulnerable persons, property bequests represents one of the main sources of non-cash wealth but these are precisely the persons who are least able to afford the cash costs of monetizing their property
    Protection and strengthening of the built environment
    Severe and costly damage (in treasure and human life) is perennially inflicted on Jamaica by hazards arising from both natural and man-made causes, recent experience with tropical storm Nicole being only the latest example. Opportunities now exist to simultaneously reduce such costs and create jobs, by redirecting resources within existing fiscal constraints, through “public works”: infrastructure maintenance and improvement; housing construction.
    Community Renewal Programme
    The Community Renewal Programme (CRP) is aimed at improving the lives of residents in a total of 100 volatile and vulnerable communities in the parishes of Kingston, St. Andrew, St. Catherine, Clarendon and St James. The Programme has been designed as a coordinating mechanism that will bring together various organisations implementing projects/programmes at the community level in order to improve the level of impact of these projects/programmes and, maximise resource efficiency. The CRP has six main components namely: governance, safety and justice, social transformation, socio-economic development, sustainable physical transformation and youth development.
    Consultations have been held with various stakeholders to get their input and identify sources of funding for the various projects being/to be implemented under the programme. Currently, the list of communities to be targeted is being identified using the following criteria: major crimes such as murder, shooting, rape, carnal abuse; violence related injuries; presence of ex-offenders; access for policing (drivable roads, identifiable addresses, forceful prevention of access); poverty levels; grade 4 Literacy results; children at-risk; existence of areas of squatting; and existence of illegitimate electricity and water connections. Additionally, individuals are being recruited to manage the programme and a Secretariat has been established in the Planning Institute of Jamaica to manage the programme.
  • Desenvolvimento Social
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 4, 8, 9, 10

    Several of the programmes that came under the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NPEP) of 1996 outlived the project life span, and have continued. These include rural electrification, micro credit and some community infrastructure programmes. The majority of the latter has been effected through the Jamaica Social Investment Fund, which has extensive external financing. Programmes such as Poor Relief have also continued to serve the registered poor through the delivery of cash and in-kind benefits.
    However, the thrust in poverty eradication has since the initiation of the Social Safety Net Reform Programme in 2000, focused largely on human capital formation through the cash transfer and school feeding programmes, which each currently serve over 390 000 individuals. The Programme of Advancement Through Health and Education (PATH) has continued to provide cash benefits to eligible families, with over eighty per cent of beneficiaries being children and elderly persons from identified households. The programme pays monthly benefits in two categories – health and education- and in 2008 introduced differentiated education benefits to support grade retention and male inclusion. In 2010 an unconditional portion of the benefit was accorded to child beneficiaries as a social protection ‘floor’, particularly in response to the deepening economic crises impacting the global situation. The programme also offers a limited tertiary grant for students successfully matriculating beyond the secondary level.
    A welfare-to-work initiative has also been piloted in several parishes, as a supporting programme for poor households. This Steps-to-Work programme is intended to assist working-age adults in these households to be able to seek and retain employment. The aim is to further support the fight against inter-generational transmission of poverty. The interventions include remedial education, skill certification, business development and microfinance, and to date there have been over 4 000 clients served. Both programmes are implemented through the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, with loan and technical support from the World Bank and the IDB.
    A Beneficiary Identification System (BIS) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2011, by the Planning Institute of Jamaica. The BIS has improved the process of selection of clients for social assistance by instituting a proxy means test that identifies characteristics of needy households. The BIS is currently being used by the PATH, with consideration for its additional use in other social support programmes. It has reduced subjectivity and improved targeting.
    The School Feeding Programme, has continued to function in Government schools, with special budgetary provision being awarded for students on PATH over the past three school years. This programme provides either cash subsidies or actual food products to schools to assist them in providing meals; the two components of the programme are Cooked Meals or Nutribun and Milk. Government, in acknowledging the critical importance of nutrition to cognition and learning, has also moved to support feeding programmes at the pre-primary level, and to articulate a nutrition policy for the younger children. At the national level, the development of a Food and Nutrition Security Policy is also being spearheaded through the Ministry of Agriculture.
    Within the Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan there is a detailed sector plan for Poverty Reduction. In the main, this Plan calls for a multi-pronged approach, with emphasis on building the assets of the poor. The PIOJ is currently leading the thrust for a structured and coordinated poverty framework, to support and monitor the progress of the poverty programmes.
    Poverty prevalence rates, which had been trending downward over the decade, have seen a swing upwards since the 2007 estimates. Much of this has been ascribed to the income impacts caused by the global economic crises. Poverty according to the 2009 JSLC stands at 16.5 per cent, moving from a low of 9.9 per cent in 2007. Over the decade, the inequality index has moved from 0.379 in 2000 to 0.3667 in 2009, indicating some improvement in this measure. The prevalence data, recorded in the annual Surveys of Living Conditions, indicate that the Rural Areas is the leading region, well above the national average, with slower rates of change.

    Social Protection
    Alongside new initiatives with respect to safety nets have been efforts to address other aspects of social protection. Major social security programmes were instituted during the decade, including the National Health Fund, the Jamaica Drugs for the Elderly Programme, and initiatives aligned to the contributory National Insurance Scheme, such as the NI Gold health insurance. Over the period, Government has also sought to increase the value of NIS pensions to retirees. A major project to address reforms to the public service pension system, which lacks viability, is being supported through the World Bank-funded Social Protection Project (2008-2013).
    One of the 32 sector plans within the Vision 2030 Jamaica also deals with Social Insurance and Pensions. The main thrusts in the medium term include improved coverage, viability of pension funds, and enhanced private sector participation in the delivery of social security options.
    The Government has been implementing a five-year (2009-2013) Social Protection Project, supported by a World Bank loan. The major components involve further development of PATH, improved administration of public service pensions and development of a comprehensive social protection strategy. All of this is in keeping with the goals of the Vision 2030 Jamaica, for effective social protection, greater coverage and efficient service delivery. The IDB has also supported the agenda for social protection through several studies and grant programmes, particularly in the area of under-served vulnerable groups and school feeding.
  • Direitos Humanos
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 40
    In 2006 Jamaica was one of the first countries to sign and ratify the new UN International Convention with respect to persons with disabilities. The Jamaica Council for Persons with Disabilities (JCPD) is the state’s agency with responsibility for giving oversight to the implementation of the National Policy on Disability, and the tenets of the international commitments. There is also a National Advisory Board on Disability, which provides policy advice to Government on various issues. The final draft of a Disability Bill has been submitted to Parliament for debate. It seeks to enshrine in law certain rights and provisions that guarantee the inclusion and protection of persons with disabilities.
    Government has over the past four budget years made specific provisions for Economic Empowerment Grants and Assistive Aids Grants through the JCPD. This has greatly facilitated some persons in improving their social and economic outlook. Selection criteria defined by the Advisory Board are brought to bear on the process of identifying beneficiaries.
    The Vision 2030 Jamaica also entails a sub-plan for the disability sector. The main thrusts of the plan are inclusion, empowerment, opportunity and equity. There are also complimentary processes that have taken place in the education sector, in terms of addressing the needs of special children (children with disabilities and other learning disorders), where a Special Education Policy has been defined.
    Pending the 2011 Census estimates, the last estimates of persons with disabilities hark back to the 2001 Census period. The data suggest that some 3 per cent of resident Jamaicans have a disability. It is felt that this figure is under-estimated, particularly where the’ invisible’ disabilities are concerned. For policy, planning and programming purposes, the Government has received a technical assistance grant to support a registration process. It is hoped that, using secondary and primary data collection methods, a more comprehensive picture of the numbers and characteristics of disabilities in the country can be defined. It is expected that this project, currently supported by the IDB, will be completed by 2013.
  • Diversidade cultural
  • Educação
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 36, 37, 38
    The Government of Jamaica (GoJ) has recognized the importance of education and training in the growth and development of the country. The GoJ has outlined in its Vision 2030 National Development Plan and the Ministry of Education National Education Strategic Plan 2010-2016, programmes of action geared at enhancing quality, increasing access and fostering equity at all levels of the education system. One of the national goals for education in the Vision 2030 National Development Plan states “Jamaicans are empowered to achieve their fullest potential”, to be achieved through a world-class education and training system. Implicit in this, is the transformation of the education sector in order to engender improved systems of accountability, greater stakeholder participation, effective use of resources including education technology and the implementation of relevant curricula to provide quality education for all.

    Quality in education refers not only to outputs and outcomes but also to inputs and processes. Realizing this, the GoJ has been focusing on the delivery of the education product by commencing a plan to modernize the roles and functions of the Ministry of Education; introducing a school accountability framework; refining the competence and professional levels of teachers; providing adequate resources for curricula delivery; and increasing stakeholder involvement in the education process. Efforts to improve quality have often included collaboration and support through locally and internationally funded projects and programmes. (See Table 1 below)
    Initiatives associated with improving quality include the following:
    • curriculum reform including the development of national assessment standards;
    • teachers’ professional development;
    • the rationalization of teacher education;
    • strengthening of educational management capacity;
    • targeted interventions to improve literacy, numeracy and attendance
    • support to vulnerable students
    • institutional strengthening

    Early Childhood Level
    At this level catering to children 0-5 years, the GOJ achieved the following:
    • Establishment of the Early Childhood Commission.
    • New curricula were developed and are being implemented
    • 86% of Early Childhood Institutions have applied for registration in accordance with the new requirements. 64% of them have been inspected as part of the registration process. Training was also provided for various categories of early childhood practitioners including principals and boards, primarily in the area of health and safety standards.
    • The National Public Awareness Parenting Campaign was developed and launched.
    • Legislation and policy developments were advanced in areas such as the National Parenting Policy and the Bill to establish the National Parenting Support Commission
    • The Behaviour Management Plan template was drafted
    • Mechanisms to address the psychosocial needs of children, including the preparation of the Child Health And Development Passport and preparations for the introduction of curriculum and delivery model for the Diploma in Child Development, were implemented

    Primary Level (Children 6-12)
    The GoJ implemented plans to improve the learning environment at the primary level. In this regard, initiatives were undertaken that addressed the community, health of the children, teacher development, the built environment and the school management. Some of the major initiatives undertaken included:
    • National Literacy and Numeracy Specialists were recruited to support the objective of achieving 100% literacy at the Grade Four level. During the period, the literacy rate achieved (mastery) at Grade 4 improved from 68.9 per cent to 70.1 per cent (81.3 per cent of girls and 59.1% of boys).
    • The curricula in Grades 1-3 were revised and implemented and the Grades 4-6 curriculum was revised
    • Citizenship Education programme introduced in schools
    • Strengthening of the School Feeding Programme
    • Improved School Management (e.g. training of Board Chairmen, professional development of principals)
    • Professional Development of Teachers (64 Quality Education Circles (QECs) launched)
    • Rationalization of space (337 school spaces added)
    • Enrichment Centres (16 established in select primary schools)
    • National Student Registration Programme

    Secondary Level
    The MOE focused on the quality of educational institutions, the tailoring of development programmes for the children through correct diagnoses and the creation of additional facilities to allow greater access and entry to employment. The main initiatives supporting this strategy were:
    • The Career Advancement Programme, a youth career development initiative developed by Ministry of Education and its agencies including HEART Trust/NTA, National Youth Service and Jamaican Foundation for Lifelong Learning. It provided training and certification in Technical and Vocational areas and on-the-job exposure for youth 16-24 years. This programme is currently operative in 78 secondary schools.
    • Implementation of the Centres of Excellence initiative with the establishment of a new Secondary School, Belmont Academy
    • The creation of an additional 1,590 spaces
    • Piloting and administration of the Grade Nine Diagnostic Test in high schools
    • Establishment and implementation of post of Dean of Discipline in 78 schools
    • Implementation of Security and Safety Policy in schools
    • The stationing of Safety Officers in several schools affected by violence or the risk of violence

    The HEART Trust/National Training Agency continued to play a critical role in the training and certification of the Jamaican workforce. The emphasis of the Agency has been centred on facilitating the delivery of higher level quality training programmes; providing relevant industry-based experience through a productive enterprise environment and fostering the development and growth of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) through the incubator experience. This is being implemented through the:
    • Transformation of the HEART Trust/NTA operated entities into Workforce Colleges and TVET Institutes
    • Infusion of the ‘at risk’ and unattached youth programme into the HEART Trust/NTA training system and;
    • Implementation of the Senior School Programme

    Work towards improving the quality of tertiary provision included the establishment of Jamaica Tertiary Education Commission (JTEC) and access improved with new lending arrangements and revised operations at the GoJ Students’ Loan Bureau.

    The GOJ established the National Education Trust (NET) to be the main channel through which financing of the Primary and Secondary School System will be achieved. Mechanisms through which it will be resourced include loans, grants and endowments.
    The GOJ also receives support from a number of funding agencies for the improvement to the quality of education.
  • Emprego
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 18
    In 2009, the GOJ launched the Tackle Child Labour through Education (Tackle) Project, which is funded by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The Ministry of Labour and Social Security and the Ministry of Education are the main ministries involved in the implementation of the project. Its main objective is to combat child labour through initiatives geared at assisting in the following areas:
    • The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals which pertain to education;
    • Strengthening the legal frameworks on child labour and education;
    • Strengthening institutional capacity to formulate and implement child labour strategies;
    • Carrying out targeted actions to combat child labour; and
    • Improving advocacy and dissemination of good practices to enhance the knowledge base and networks on child labour and education.
  • Energia
  • Gestão de Desastres
  • Grupo de Trabalho Conjunto das Cúpulas
  • Infância e juventude
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 19, 39, 87
    Children (0 - <18 years)
    In 2010 there were approximately 895,000 children (458 800 males and 436 200 females) in Jamaica, representing 33.1 per cent of the population. While the dependent elderly group (65+) accounts for the fastest growing segment of the population, children still account for a significant proportion of the population.
    The Government of Jamaica and its partners recognize that children are among the most vulnerable in the society and remain committed to enforcing their rights to protection, provision and participation. This is in keeping with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), UN Standard Rules, the National Policy on Children, the Child Care and Protection Act (CCPA) and other policies, legislations and international commitments. The period (2006 to present) has seen the establishment of an Office of the Children’s Advocate (OCA) and an Office of the Children’s Registry (OCR) in keeping with the requirements of the CCPA.
    Through the support of its International Development partners, the Government has embarked on initiatives to improve the situation of children in general, while building capacity and strengthening the policy framework. This is being achieved through a number of interventions including:
    1. GOJ/UNICEF Country Programme
    2. The GOJ/IIN Child Rights Project
    3. The GOJ/IBRD Early Childhood Development Project

    Child abuse, violence against children and poverty continue to be major challenges facing children in Jamaica. However, since 2005 several policy directives, legislations, programmes and institutions have been developed to address these issues. These include:
    • The enactment of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act
    • Ananda Alert – national system to track missing children
    • National Plan of Action on Child Justice
    • Child Pornography Act
    • Programme of Advancement Through Health and Education (see section on Poverty and Social Protection), which provides welfare benefits to poor families.

    Advancements have been made on the following:
    The National Framework of Action for Children (NFAC)
    National Plan of Action for an Integrated Response to children and Violence (Draft)
    Evidence Amendment Act
    (See section on Public Security)

    Increased attention is also being paid to other vulnerable children including children at risk, children with disabilities, and street and working children. The programmes and initiatives to support these children include:
    1. The GOJ/ILO Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) project
    2. Possibility Programme
    3. GOJ/IDB Disability Technical Cooperation Project

    Early childhood development is a key strategic priority for the government. A five-year National Strategic Plan (NSP) for the early childhood sector was developed in 2008. Some of the priorities of the NSP are: preventative healthcare for children 0-6 years; parenting education and support; curriculum development and training for practitioners; and regulation of Early Childhood Institutions (ECIs). The Ministry of Health, through its National Breastfeeding Programme targets the early childhood sector and offers support to mother, including those with HIV/AIDS.

    Research and data collection remain important areas of focus. The government continues to support the annual Caribbean Child Research Conference spearheaded by the University of the West Indies. There is also a thrust towards the inclusion of a child-related database of indicators included in the national database (JamStats).
    The initiatives for Children are being undertaken by a number of ministries and agencies including the Child Development Agency, the Office of the Children’s Advocate, Office of the Children’s Registry, the Early Childhood Commission, the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, and the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture. The Planning Institute of Jamaica continues to identify and guide the policy process and track the implementation of programmes to improve the well-being of vulnerable groups, including children. The Education and Training as well as the Social Welfare and Vulnerable Groups sector plans of Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan provide the framework for bringing the situation of children to developed country status by 2030.
    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 19, 39, 87
    The Government of Jamaica (GOJ) has for a long time, had a strategic focus on youth development, and since 2005, the GOJ has taken steps to enhance the youth policy framework and the suite of programmes geared at addressing this issue. The main highlights are mentioned below.
    There are several institutions that undertake skills training and other youth development initiatives in Jamaica. Among them, the Human Employment and Resource Training Trust/National Training Agency (HEART Trust/NTA) is the main institution. Founded in 1982, HEART facilitates the development of a more skilled and productive workforce, thereby increasing the employability of workers and the competitiveness of Jamaican businesses and the economy through the provision of training to persons 17 years old and over in several occupational fields.
    HEART Trust/NTA is a beacon of best practices in the areas of training and certification and is a model institution for vocational training regionally and globally. This institution has through innovative means, successfully sought to increase enrolment and output. Since 2005, the number of graduates annually has increased by approximately 40.0 per cent to reach 46 000 in 2010.
    The National Youth Service (NYS) is a programme that is tackling youth unemployment through training in soft skills and the provision of internships. The NYS’s emphasis is the personal development of youth, for effective functioning at the workplace. It was initially established in 1973 before being closed in 1983. It was re-established in 1995 and continues to play a critical role in preparing youth for the school-to-work transition. During 2010, all the programmes offered by the NYS were redesigned to ensure alignment with HEART/NTA standards, allowing participants to receive the National Council on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (NCTVET) level II certification upon completion.
    The Special Youth Employment and Training Project (SYEAT) was launched in October 2008 as an active labour market programme to improve the situation of youth in the labour market. The project, which is spearheaded by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MLSS) targets young persons within the 18–25 age group for the purpose of providing internships, on-the-job training, literacy training where necessary, skills training and certification.
    The project aims to raise the level of training and certification and decrease unemployment among youth. The management of the project rests with the Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MLSS), however, it collaborates with several organizations to provide the requisite services. These include the HEART Trust/NTA, the Jamaica Foundation for Lifelong Learning (JFLL), the NYS, and the Jamaica Employers’ Federation (JEF), as well as several organizations in the private and public sectors that provide employment for beneficiaries of the project. The project is active in all 14 parishes and is expected to have a lifespan of four years, with one cohort of 2 500 youth expected to participate each year. SYEAT specifically targets the most vulnerable youth, i.e. those with no formal training or certification.
    The Youth Empowerment Strategy (YES) is a programme which seeks to empower at-risk young persons 16–30 years old to channel their efforts into productive endeavours. The programme, which began operation in October 2008, provides financial assistance to beneficiaries that can be used to pay tuition fees or for small business ventures. The Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MLSS) is the lead coordinating agency for this programme.
    In 2009, work commenced under the Youth Development Programme Phase I, funded by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), aimed at facilitating the transition of unattached youth to adulthood and the world of work. The first phase of the programme focuses on strengthening institutional capacity to implement, monitor and evaluate youth policies and programs, support ongoing transformation of the NYS and test new initiatives for unattached youth. Specifically, the NYS is seeking to broaden its target group to include those youth who currently do not qualify for entry to its flagship programme (the Corps Programme) because they don’t meet the minimum academic requirement of two subject passes at the level of CXC, GCE of SSC.
    The second phase would build upon the results of the first phase, taking into account the results of the external evaluation and lessons learned. In particular, Phase II aims to complete the transformation of NYS and expand newly tested initiatives that prove successful, in an attempt to reach a larger percentage of the target group, improve the mechanisms for collaboration among youth-serving organizations, and increase the coverage of the Youth Information Centres (YICs), which are youth-friendly spaces that provide youth with access to information technology (IT) resources and counselling on issues such as sexual and reproductive health and career guidance. All of these initiatives are expected to aid in improving the effectiveness of the NYS and the National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) and therefore contribute to increasing the employability of youth and ultimately increase youth employment. The NCYD is the national body responsible for the coordination of youth policies and programmes across the public sector.
    The National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) and the NYS, the two agencies responsible for the technical execution of the programme activities, have thus far concluded several project activities including a national youth survey to inform a revision of the National Youth Policy (2004); and a preliminary impact evaluation of the NYS programmes.
    In 2009, the GOJ launched the Young Entrepreneurs Programme (YEP). This programme provides training and funding for school leavers at the secondary and tertiary levels to pursue entrepreneurial activity. The key elements of YEP are as follows:
    • General business training;
    • The provision of technical assistance;
    • Specialized training on how to run a business; and
    • Access to loans.
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 17
    The Government of Jamaica has approved the development of a National Policy and Plan of Action on International Migration and Development – a landmark project for Jamaica. The overall objective of this policy is to contribute to national socio-economic development by integrating international migration into development planning. The Government has received funding for this project from the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the Global Migration Group (GMG) which includes all UN organizations with an interest in migration and development, as well as the European Union (EU). This project has three main components to:
    • develop a National Policy and Plan of Action on International Migration and Development;
    • development of an Extended Migration Profile – a tool to measure and monitor the impact of migration on national development; and
    • the mainstreaming of migration in national development strategies - Jamaica was selected as one of four pilot countries based on its experience in integrating migration issues in Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan as well as its commitment and practical steps toward the formulation of a Migration Policy and Plan of Action.

    One of the main objectives for the Government of Jamaica in undertaking this project is:
    To increase the understanding, awareness and importance of migration and development issues in national development. There has been a general lack of a coherent and coordinated approach to addressing the issue as a result of the multidimensional and multidisciplinary nature of migration. Several agencies of the government are responsible for different aspects of monitoring migration and therefore a systematic approach for addressing all the issues and the potential development impacts was deemed necessary.
    A National Working Group on International Migration and Development (NWGIMD) has been established to: (A) oversee the process for development of a National Policy and Plan of Action on International Migration and Development; and (B) operate as a standing committee for the national policy and facilitation of institutional coherence on migration and development issues in Jamaica. The NWGIMD seeks to improve the capacity of all stakeholders to identify, formulate and implement policy and programme objectives for migration and development and ensure inter-institutional coherence among policy areas and interventions with an aim to maximizing the benefits of migration. In addition, the NWGIMD also seeks to improve the government’s capacity to monitor and manage international migration in line with Jamaica’s socio-economic development objectives.
    Eight (8) sub-themes that have been identified for the Policy:
    • Labour Mobility and Development
    • Remittance and Development
    • Diaspora Engagement and Development
    • Human rights and social protection
    • Governance and Policy Coherence
    • Data, Research and Information Systems
    • Return and Reintegration of Migrants
    • Family, Migration and Development

    In light of the focus on international migration and development at the international level, through the Global Forum on Migration and Development and the upcoming UN High-Level Dialogue on Migration and Development in 2013, Jamaica is keen to complete the development of its Policy and Plan of Action. This is an area that has potential for significant achievement in our social and economic development.
    Since its inception in 2007, Jamaica has been actively involved in the annual GFMD. Over the past four years, the GFMD has sought to contribute to policy coherence on migration and development at the national, regional and global levels; strengthen the capacity of States to address migration and development opportunities and challenges more effectively; and promote international cooperation among states and between states and other actors.
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 41, 42
    Several programmes have been put in place, specifically through the National Council for Senior Citizens (NCSC), to continue implementing the national and international policies impacting the elderly. Through the NCSC a programme of activities provide for the social inclusion, inter-generational interaction and support to psychosocial needs of the elderly population. These are carried out through parish networks and a structured annual programme supervised by the Secretariat. Sports and recreation form a distinctive element of the programmes. Referral services for welfare and other pertinent assistance are also offered through a telephone helpline, where connections are made with other government or NGO services. An active feeding programme supports the welfare of several elderly clients, assisted by state and NGO funding. The NCSC has also participated actively in study tours and in preparing reports to the United Nations.
    Government has made several strides in allocating expenditure to medical subsidy programmes targeting the elderly. Due to the high incidence of chronic illnesses in this population, steps have been taken to ensure some amount of income transfer through programmes such as the National Health Fund and the Jamaica Drugs For the Elderly Programme. The contributory pension scheme – National Insurance Scheme – has also put in place a health insurance component known as NI Gold.
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 6, 11
    The implementation of gender policies and international commitments falls largely to the Bureau of Women’s Affairs (BWA). The BWA has actively promoted gender mainstreaming throughout the policies and programmes of the public sector. Over the period under review, the BWA has collaborated with other government entities on pertinent legislation and policy statements, including the National Gender Policy, the Sexual Harassment Bill, and other strategic work. The BWA also established a Male Desk in its thrust towards a holistic representation of gender issues impacting men and women. The BWA has been actively involved in regional and international work, including conferences and training initiatives. Significant work on sensitization to gender issues has been done locally with various groups, including judiciary, police and the media. The work in gender awareness is supported by several NGOs.
    The Vision 2030 Jamaica places strong emphasis on equity and opportunity, and a specific sector plan details the main goals for gendered development. Non-discrimination, non-violence, and equality of opportunity are some key elements in this plan, with education and sensitization playing a significant role in socialization of the population. The majority of the strategies under the plan are to be spearheaded by the BWA, in collaboration with other agencies and NGOs.
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 26, 27, 35
    Health Systems Management and Supply: Access to Comprehensive Health Care

    The Government of Jamaica (GOJ) continued to focus on access and levels of utilization particularly within the public sector. Against this background the Abolition of User Fee Policy came into effect on April 1, 2008. The utilization data from the MOH indicates that the removal of fees to access service resulted in increased utilization at the primary care level as well as pharmacy and diagnostic services.
    To further support the comprehensive nature of the health care delivery system, a needs-based human resources for health planning study, was undertaken. The aim is to enhance capacity for needs-based Human Resources for Health (HRH) planning by developing needs-based simulation modelling tools appropriate to the unique circumstances of Jamaica.
    There is increased emphasis on revising the services offered at health centres and upgrading the physical infrastructure of these facilities in keeping with the policy objective to renew and strengthen primary health care. Policy objectives for secondary care focus on improving the quality of care offered at public hospitals with particular attention on customer service, infrastructure, emergency care, and maternal and child health.
    Maternal Mortality and Child Health

    In keeping with the commitment of the Global Partnership for Maternal and Child Health, there was focus on the development of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance Manual and the Guidelines for the Management of Common Obstetric Emergencies. A Safe Motherhood Programme was also launch and there is increased focus on the use of the partograph in the management of obstetric cases.
    In keeping with the Government’s thrust to improve early childhood development, the Child Health and Development Passport (CHDP) was implemented. The aim of which is to monitor the health and development of each child born as of September 1, 2010.
    A comprehensive National Strategic Plan was developed to improve the delivery of health care to adolescents. The Child and Adolescent Services Policy and Procedures Manual was also developed.


    The national response has seen tremendous success particularly in the programme for the prevention of mother to child transmission. Multisectoral support is provided by the National AIDS Committee, civil society, NGOs, and GOJ. The national response is guided by a national strategic plan and is supported by monitoring and evaluation plan.
    The National Workplace Policy for HIV was passed by Parliament and a tool kit was developed to facilitate its implementation. The National HIV-related Discrimination Reporting and Redress System became operational as did the Multi-Sectoral Working Group on Discrimination.
    While the national response to HIV and AIDS is well organized and contains adequate supporting framework, concerns exists regarding sustainable financing of the national response. Jamaica is supported by the World Bank, Global Fund, other IDPs, and the GOJ. However support from the global fund is schedule to end in 2012 and no substitute funding has been identified. The Global Fund supports the treatment and care portion of the national response by providing antiretrovirals for Persons Living with HIV and AIDS.

    Population Ageing
    The discussion on Population Ageing has been receiving significant focus in Jamaica. The demographic situation and the changing structure of the Jamaica population have been highlighted in Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan. As a result, the implications of this changing population structure have been integrated in all policies, plans and programmes. It is imperative to plan strategically for these changes that will have implications for the society on a whole, particularly as the world has reached 7 billion on October 31, 2011.
    As part of the Regional Strategy for the implementation of the Madrid Plan of Action, initiatives directly geared towards the elderly are being executed through the National Council for Senior Citizens.
    In July 2011, the Government of Jamaica in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund hosted a Population Conference to commemorate World Population Day 2011, focusing on “Population Ageing: Implications for Development in Jamaica”. The changes in the population present clear opportunities for economic growth, savings and investments. To benefit from this window of opportunity, countries in the Americas must act now in the early stages- as this window will close when the proportion of elderly persons increases further - returning the country to the point of high dependency ratios.
    Jamaica is proposing that focus should be placed on initiating and implementing policies that stimulate investment in production, increase job opportunities and “promote stable economic and social environment that pave the way for sustainable development”. These include areas such as
    • Primary health care and long term care
    • Social infrastructure such as housing, transportation etc.
    • Youth development and entrepreneurship
    • Human resource development
    • Social security including pension coverage and pension funds and
    • Engaging in discussions on retirement age.
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    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 71
    National Security
    The Government of Jamaica (GoJ) continues to recognize the importance of safety and security to national development. This is clearly outlined in Goal 2 of the Vision 2030 which states, “The Jamaican society is secure, cohesive and just.” In this regard, the government continues to undertake a number of developments in the area of national security.

    A. The reform and modernization of the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) is a major activity of the government and stems from a strategic review of the JCF which was undertaken in 2006 – 2007. This review was aimed at improving the efficiency of the Force. Since its development a number of actions have been taken including:
    i. The rolling out of community based policing across the entire JCF. A community based policing training manual was prepared and over 3000 police officers have already been trained in the philosophy and practice of community based policing.

    ii. An Anti-Corruption Strategy (2010-2013) has been developed which speaks to effective confrontation of corrupt members of the Force, with a zero-tolerance approach to corruption, and timely removal of staff who act unlawfully, unethically or who lack integrity; while highlighting prevention, education and raising the fear of detection.

    iii. Preparation of policing plans at the divisional and station levels to guide the operations of police officers in various geographical locations.

    iv. Upgrading of the physical infrastructure of the police training facility and a number of police stations island wide thereby increasing the number of officers trained annually and the working conditions of police personnel.

    v. Development of an Information Communication Technology Strategy and implementation of new technologies in policing, such as the expanded use of CCTV; implementation of a new traffic ticketing system; and the testing of the Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) and Inventory Management System (IVS).

    B. The development of key strategies is also a critical part of the process and to this end, the National Crime Prevention and Community Safety Strategy was developed and the Anti-Gang Strategy drafted.

    C. A Safe Schools programme was developed in partnership with the Ministry of Education, Ministry of National Security and JCF to address violence in schools.

    D. Establishment of a Trafficking in persons unit within the Ministry of National Security and the JCF The development of a partnership with Woman Inc. to provide support services (including operation of a shelter) for victims of trafficking.

    E. The National Security Policy is currently being revised.

    F. Legislation is also a critical component of national security and hence a number of key pieces of legislation have been passed or amended. These include:
    i. The Cyber Crime Act
    ii. The Terrorism Prevention (Amendment) Act
    iii. The Public Bodies Management and Accountability (Amendment) Act
    iv. The Independent Commission of Investigations Act
    v. The Offences Against the Person (Amendment) Act
    vi. The Parole (Amendment) Act
    vii. The Bail (Amendment) Act
    viii. The Constabulary Force (Interim Provisions for Arrest and Detention) Act
    ix. The Firearms (Amendment) Act
    x. The Jury (Amendment) Act
    xi. The Child Pornography Act
    xii. The Proceeds of Crime Act
    xiii. Sexual Offences Act
    xiv. Legislation is also being drafted that relate to anti-gang and DNA.

    G. Rehabilitation of offenders is also of major importance to the GoJ and therefore the Jamaica Reducing Re-offending Action Plan was developed to facilitate the rehabilitation and reintegration of local offenders and deported persons. Additionally, the capacity of the Department of Correctional Services has been improved to facilitate the rehabilitation of incarcerated persons.

    H. Community safety has also been a major thrust of the government and number of social intervention programmes were developed and implemented or are being implemented to empower residents who live in at risk communities. These include:
    i. Citizens’ Security and Justice Programme
    ii. Poverty Reduction Programme
    iii. Community Security Initiative
    iv. Inner City Basic Services Programme
    v. Basic Needs Trust Fund
    vi. Jamaica Violence Prevention, Peace and Sustainable Development Programme
    vii. Peace Management Initiative
    viii. Enhancing Civil Society Participation in Local Governance for Community Safety Programme

    The government has also embarked on a Community Renewal Programme aiming to improve the lives of residents in the most volatile and vulnerable communities through a process of coordination and harmonization of programmes/projects and resources, targeting of specific groups, scaling up of best practices and using of evidence based research.
    • Data:  21/03/2012    Parágrafos: 73
    Even with improvements in the security sector if cases are not resolved in a timely fashion there will be implications for crime and violence as persons seek their own justice through retaliation. Therefore, the GoJ has been working on a number of initiatives in the justice sector chief of which is the Justice Sector Reform Programme. Under this programme efforts have been made to improve the delivery of justice in Jamaica. This includes:

    A. Reducing the backlog of cases in the courts which is being facilitated through the employment of additional prosecutors, special court sittings and the setting up of special courts to deal with specific matters such as civil proceedings. Criminal Justice Boards were also established to monitor and provide guidance in addressing case backlog.

    B. Introduction of a Criminal Case Management System which is currently being piloted in six courts. A Court Management System has also been introduced.

    C. Modernisation of physical infrastructure which include erecting new court houses and refurbishing some existing ones.

    D. Embarking on a programme of Restorative Justice which provides opportunity for persons who have committed certain types of crimes to be diverted into special programmes outside of the formal justice system and offers restitution to victims and their families. A Restorative Justice Policy has also been prepared. The Restorative Justice Programme is being piloted in four communities.

    E. A Child Diversion policy has been prepared to provide options other than incarceration for juveniles who have committed certain categories of offences. Implementation of this policy is being facilitated under the National Plan of Action for Child Justice 2010 – 2014.
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