According to this publication, Latin American governments are lagging behind the rest of the world with the United Nations’ Security Council’s Agenda on Women, Peace and Security. The region has the highest homicide and feminicide rates in the world. Economic and gender inequality; organized crime; land disputes; and systemic violence are some of the factors that adds to the victimization in the region. The authors argue that national and regional laws will be insufficient in solving this issue; call for gender issues to be included in security agendas; and propose additional methods to fill the gap.
The article is divided in following sections:
- The context of violence and the regional system to protect the rights of women in Latin America;
- Drug trafficking, women and the serious violations of their rights;
- The epidemic of violence and its dimensions in gender and forced migration in the case of the Northern Triangle in Central America; and
- The challenges of traditional peoples and communities and gender-based violence in the case of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil.
The context of violence and the regional system to protect the rights of women in Latin America
The authors argue that in addition to direct violence, women are the primary victims of indirect violence, including trauma from losing someone due to the lack of access to the justice system, lack of access to formal education, and economic dependency. Black and indigenous women face unique challenges that are often not discussed in plans to reduce violence. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has tried various cases regarding indirect and direct forms of violence against women, various examples include: gender-based discrimination; gender-based violence and sexual violence; and indigenous women’s displacement due to armed conflict. The eight resolutions of the UN’s Security Council on the Agenda on Women, Peace, and Security can also help in the prevention of violence that women face in the region.
Drug trafficking, women and the serious violations of their rights
Organized crime, especially drug trafficking, presents grave consequences for women. Women who become involved with drug trafficking - whether if transporting drugs nationally or internationally or in small quantities – tend to come from a specific social demographic that makes them more susceptible to enter the business of drug trafficking. They are usually heads of household, poor, with limited opportunities to enter the job market, from an ethnic minority, and face other vulnerabilities. Incarceration then creates separation in families and the women face high social stigmatization and more difficulty than men to reintegrate in their communities. The authors propose measures that will reduce women’s exposure to violence while empowering them.
The epidemic of violence and its dimensions in gender and forced migration in the case of the Northern Triangle in Central America
The article states that a large portion of forced migration in Latin America is from the Northern Triangle of Central America, which coincides with the worlds’ highest rate of homicide. In addition, the region faces high propensity of violence which directly affects women in their neighborhoods, and while at home women face an epidemic of domestic violence. When they migrate, women can become the victims of sexual abuse, forced prostitution, and/or human trafficking.
The challenges of traditional peoples and communities and gender-based violence in the case of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil
This section discusses gender-based, cultural, and land dispute violence that indigenous women face, their resistance, and the organizations that help them. The authors focus on the case of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil and the issues that indigenous women there have faced. The 2010 census demonstrated that Mato Grosso do Sul has Brazil’s largest population of indigenous people and it is the most dangerous place for indigenous people, especially women, in the country.
In conclusion, the article reiterates the importance of the UNSC Agenda on Women, Peace and Security in the Latin American to contribute to a more stable region. This includes promoting gender equality, improving participation, protecting their rights in conflict, and conflict prevention. The article demonstrates how crucial it is to acknowledge and understand the direct and indirect violence that women in the region face in order to reduce and prevent violence.
|Autor:||Renata Avelar Giannini, Ana Paula Pellegrino, Carol Viviana Porto, Luisa Lobato, Maiara Folly and Mariana Gomes da Rocha|