Repositorio

Los temas a discusión en este portal ya han sido analizados por múltiples actores. En este repositorio la SG/OEA reúne algunos de ellos, como una contribución más a la discusión. Este repositorio tiene dos secciones: En la de Políticas integraremos información sobre políticas relevantes a los temas a debate que estén siendo implementadas por los Estados Miembros, Estados Observadores y otros Estados del mundo. En la de Estudios incluiremos análisis, informes y reportes publicados por instituciones académicas, centros de pensamiento, organizaciones internacionales y multilaterales, organizaciones no gubernamentales y entes privados, todos ellos de reconocido prestigio, que sean relevantes para la conversación. La OEA publicará estos artículos e informes en su idioma original.

OECD: Environmental responses to the COVID-19

  • 2 septiembre 2020

The focus of this brief is on the immediate steps that governments can take to ensure that emergency measures implemented to tackle the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis do not derail their efforts to address pressing environmental challenges and improve the environmental health and resilience of societies

Perspectivas económicas provisionales de la OECD

  • 2 septiembre 2020

El crecimiento era tenue, pero estaba estabilizándose cuando golpeó el Covid-19. Las restricciones sobre los movimientos de personas, bienes y servicios, y las medidas de contención aplicadas, como el cierre de fábricas, han hecho retroceder al sector industrial y recortado la demanda interna en China. El impacto sobre el resto del mundo a través de los viajes de negocios y el turismo, las cadenas de suministro, las materias primas y la caída de la confianza, está agravándose.

Latin American Economic Outlook 2019

  • 2 septiembre 2020

Latin America and the Caribbean has seen remarkable socio-economic progress since the beginning of the century. The macroeconomic situation of individual countries has strengthened, living standards have improved, and poverty and inequality have declined. Yet large structural vulnerabilities remain and new ones have emerged. Many of these are linked to countries’ transition to higher income and development levels. The Latin American Economic Outlook 2019: Development in Transition (LEO 2019) presents a fresh analytical approach in the region. It assesses four development traps relating to productivity, social vulnerability, institutions and the environment. It outlines local opportunities for responding to those traps and seeks ways of improving global public goods to reinforce national agendas, all in the context of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. LEO 2019 calls for improving domestic capacities and adopting a new vision of international co-operation as a facilitator to support those efforts.

OCDE: El COVID-19 y la conducta empresarial responsable

  • 2 septiembre 2020

Esta nota, preparada por el Centro de la OCDE para la Conducta Empresarial Responsable, revisa los desafíos de la crisis del COVID-19 frente al comportamiento empresarial y la respuesta de los gobiernos y las empresas; describe los fundamentos y el método para adoptar un enfoque de conducta empresarial responsable frenta al COVID-19; y explica los posibles beneficios a corto y largo plazo de tal enfoque.

OECD: COVID-19 and Responsible Business Conduct

  • 2 septiembre 2020

This note, prepared by the OECD Centre for Responsible Business Conduct, reviews the challenges the COVID-19 crisis presents for business behaviour and outlines initial responses by governments and companies. It describes the rationale and method for adopting a responsible business conduct approach to address the crisis and sets down the potential short-term and long-term benefits of such an approach.

Government Support and the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • 2 septiembre 2020

The economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic call for urgent policy responses to support households and firms alike, but how this support is designed will be critical in ensuring that it does not result in enduring global market distortions. Support packages that are time-limited, targeted, cash-based, and consistent with longer-term objectives are the basis for ensuring a sustainable recovery. Transparency of support packages is critical for public trust, but also once the crisis is over in order to foster accountability and enable governments to learn from what worked best

A framework to guide an education response to the Covid-19 Pandemic of 2020

  • 2 septiembre 2020

This report aims at supporting education decision making to develop and implement effective education responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic. The report explains why the necessary social isolation measures will disrupt school-based education for several months in most countries around the world. Absent an intentional and effective strategy to protect opportunity to learn during this period, this disruption will cause severe learning losses for students. The report proposes that leaders of education systems and organizations develop plans for the continuation of education through alternate modalities, during the period of necessary social isolation. It offers a framework of areas to be covered by such plans. Based on a rapid assessment of education needs and emerging responses in ninety eight countries, the report identifies the most salient needs that should be addressed in these plans, as well as the areas likely to face more implementation challenges. It also examines the education responses of various countries to the crisis. Based on an analysis of data from the most recent administration of the PISA survey, the report also describes the challenges facing various education systems to depend on online education as an alternative modality.

Tax administration responses: business continuity consideration

  • 2 septiembre 2020

This document, as well as any data and any map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area

Supporting the financial resilience of citizens

  • 2 septiembre 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has wide implications for the socio-economic fabric worldwide. In addition to health fears, citizens are facing a host of financial uncertainties stemming from the temporary closure of businesses, schools, public facilities and quarantines, as well as instability in the stock market and retirement income uncertainties. These can result in lost income, trouble paying bills, and meeting other financial obligations, as well as the risk of falling victim to scams and fraud. Policy makers worldwide need to increase the awareness of citizens about effective means to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its potential long-term consequences for their financial resilience and well-being. Taking domesticcontextsintoaccount,governmentscouldconsiderthefollowinginitialmeasures

Women at the core of the fight against COVID-19 crisis

  • 2 septiembre 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic is harming health, social and economic well-being worldwide, with women at the centre. First and foremost, women are leading the health response: women make up almost 70% of the health care workforce, exposing them to a greater risk of infection. At the same time, women are also shouldering much of the burden at home, given school and child care facility closures and longstanding gender inequalities in unpaid work. Women also face high risks of job and income loss, and face increased risks of violence, exploitation, abuse or harassment during times of crisis and quarantine.Policy responses must be immediate, and they must account for women’s concerns. Governments should consider adopting emergency measures to help parents manage work and caringresponsibilities, reinforcing and extending income support measures, expanding support for small businesses and the self-employed, and improving measure to help women victims of violence. Fundamentally, all policy responses to the crisis must embed a gender lens and account for women’s unique needs, responsibilities and perspectives

Country Policy Tracker

  • 2 septiembre 2020

What are countries doing to contain the spread of the coronavirus? How are countries helping people, small businesses and the economy to weather the crisis and beyond? This Country Policy Tracker helps you to navigate the global response.

Learning Remotely When Schools Close: Insights from PISA

  • 1 septiembre 2020

As school after school shuts down in the face of the Covid-19 crisis (in now more than 140 countries), online learning opportunities have been elevated from a bonus extracurricular facility to a critical lifeline for education.

The opportunities digital technologies offer go well beyond a stop-gap solution during the crisis. Digital technology allows us to find entirely new answers to what people learn, how people learn, where people learn and when they learn. Technology can enable teachers and students to access specialised materials well beyond textbooks, in multiple formats and in ways that can bridge time and space. Alongside great teachers, intelligent online learning systems do not only teach us science; they can simultaneously observe how we study, how we learn science, the kind of tasks and thinking that interest us, and the kind of problems we find boring or difficult.

The systems can then adapt the learning experience to suit our personal learning style with far greater granularity and precision than any traditional classroom setting possibly can. Similarly, virtual laboratories give us the opportunity to design, conduct and learn from experiments, rather than just learning about them.

That being said, the Covid-19 crisis strikes at a point when most of the education systems covered by the OECD’s latest round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) are not ready for the world of digital learning opportunities. Below are some sobering numbers. The data were collected as part of the global PISA assessment in 2018, and are based on representative samples from 79 education systems involving over 600,000 15-year-olds. Unless otherwise noted, numbers refer to the average across the 36 OECD countries. Data not provided in this note are accessible through the PISA database

Cities policy responses

  • 23 julio 2020

This note was developed by the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities (CFE) in collaboration with the OECD Working Party for Urban Policy and the OECD Champion Mayors Initiative for Inclusive Growth. It is an update of the version released on 27 March, which expands the examples of measures taken by cities to respond to COVID-19 and provides analysis on issues related to the economic impact, density, resilience and collaboration with national governments. Short and medium term responses provided by cities are clustered around six categories: i) social distancing; ii) workplace and commuting; iii) vulnerable groups; iv) local service delivery; v) support to business; and vi) communication, awareness raising and digital tools. The note also includes new information on how cities are progressively exiting the lockdown and on lessons learned in terms of density, mobility and digitalisation. It concludes with action-oriented guidance to build back better cities, building on previous work on urban resilience. Annex A provides more detailed information on the inventoried city initiatives. Annex B maps efforts from selected organisations and city networks to collect city responses and foster knowledge and experience sharing. This is a working and living document, whose next version will be released by the end of June

SME policy responses

  • 15 julio 2020

This note discusses how SMEs are affected by the current COVID-19 pandemic, reports on early evidence and estimates about the impact, and provides an inventory of country responses to foster SME resilience. Given the rapid pace of developments, the overview of country responses is not comprehensive and in some cases includes intended policy responses that are still a work in progress, or simply at the stage of public announcements. This overview will be updated periodically

The territorial impact of COVID-19

  • 16 junio 2020

This paper is developed by the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities (CFE). It focuses on the territorial dimension of the COVID-19 crisis and the importance of the integrated response to the crisis across levels of government. The first draft of this note takes into account the developments of the crisis as of 3April2020.1It will support the work on the crisis and impact of COVID-19 of the OECD Regional Development Policy Committee. The note is a living document that will be regularly updated in the coming weeks. An updated version will be released in May

COVID-19 and international trade: Issues and actions

  • 12 junio 2020

In an unprecedented global health crisis, trade is essential to save lives and livelihoods; and international co-operation is needed to keep trade flowing. In the midst of significant uncertainty, there are four things we can do: 1)boost confidence in trade and global markets by improving transparency about trade-related policy actions and intentions; 2)keep supply chains flowing, especially for essentials such as health supplies and food; 3)avoid making things worse, through unnecessary export restrictions and other trade barriers; and 4)even in the midst of the crisis, think beyond the immediate. Government support today needs to be delivered in a way that ensures it serves the public interest, not vested interests, and avoids becoming tomorrow’s market distortions. OECD is working with other IOs to support governments through timely and objective evidence and analysis to inform policy choices

The initial impact of containment measures on economic activity

  • 10 junio 2020

The increasing spread of the coronavirus across countries has prompted many governments to introduce unprecedented measures to contain the epidemic. These are priority measures that are imposed by a sanitary situation, which leave little room for other options as health should remain the primary concern. These measures have led to many businesses being shut down temporarily, widespread restrictions on travel and mobility, financial market turmoil, an erosion of confidence and heighted uncertainty. In a rapidly changing environment, it is extremely difficult to quantify the exact magnitude of the impact of these measures on GDP growth, but is clear that they imply sharp contractions in the level of output, household spending, corporate investment and international trade. This note provides illustrative estimates of the initial direct impact of shutdowns, based on an analysis of sectoral output and consumption patterns across countries and an assumption of common effects within each sector and spending category in all countries.

OECD Investment Policy Responses to COVID 19

  • 4 junio 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has led, in addition to dramatic health implications for people around the globe, to an almost immediate and profound economic up heaval in many economies. The health and economic crises have governments scrambling for responses to limit the damage and impact on their societies and economies. This note considers the implications and challenges for international investment and offers initial responses from the OECD investment policy community as economies around the world address the crisis and prepare for the recovery.

COVID-19: Tourism policy responses

  • 2 junio 2020

This note has been prepared by the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities (CFE) for discussion by the OECD Tourism Committee1. The Tourism Committee analyses and monitors policies and structural changes affecting the development of domestic and international tourism. It also serves as an important repository of tourism policy responses in times of crisis

Tax and fiscal policy: Strengthening confidence and resilience

  • 19 mayo 2020

This report focuses on how tax policy can aid governments in dealing with the COVID-19 crisis. The report finds that governments have taken decisive action to contain and mitigate the spread of the virus and to limit the adverse impacts on their citizens and their economies. Through various measures, countries are helping businesses stay afloat, supporting households and helping preserve employment. This readiness to act helps boost confidence. However, further action, with broader and stronger measures, is needed. Policies will need to be adapted to the evolving health and economic challenges. Containment measures may only be removed gradually, so recovery may be uneven. Where recovery is weak, fiscal action can strengthen it. In this context, multilateral collaboration will be vital for recovery and to strengthen the global economy’s resilience to future shocks. The report finds that specific support will be necessary for developing countries, including through international coordination, financial support and adaptation of tax rules that benefit all countries. Public finances will eventually need to be restored. All options should be explored, including revamping old tools, introducing new ones, and bolstering ongoing efforts to address the international tax challenges posed by the digitalisation of the economy. Tax and Fiscal Policy in Response to the Coronavirus Crisis: Strengthening Confidence and Resilience

1234