Repositorio

Los temas a discusión en este portal ya han sido analizados por múltiples actores. En este repositorio la SG/OEA reúne algunos de ellos, como una contribución más a la discusión. Este repositorio tiene dos secciones: En la de Políticas integraremos información sobre políticas relevantes a los temas a debate que estén siendo implementadas por los Estados Miembros, Estados Observadores y otros Estados del mundo. En la de Estudios incluiremos análisis, informes y reportes publicados por instituciones académicas, centros de pensamiento, organizaciones internacionales y multilaterales, organizaciones no gubernamentales y entes privados, todos ellos de reconocido prestigio, que sean relevantes para la conversación. La OEA publicará estos artículos e informes en su idioma original.

UNDP: The Fast and the Curious

  • 2 septiembre 2020

Whether it’s climate change, plummeting biodiversity rates, or unchecked consumption and waste, we already face unprecedented planetary challenges.
Now, the coronavirus COVID-19 has added an extra, deadly layer of complexity to the paths we must forge.
And we have a very limited time left in which to make the big changes that will create a sustainable and just future.
Now more than ever, there are no one-size-fits-all answers; new ways of thinking are needed.

OECD: Environmental responses to the COVID-19

  • 2 septiembre 2020

The focus of this brief is on the immediate steps that governments can take to ensure that emergency measures implemented to tackle the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis do not derail their efforts to address pressing environmental challenges and improve the environmental health and resilience of societies

OCDE: El COVID-19 y la conducta empresarial responsable

  • 2 septiembre 2020

Esta nota, preparada por el Centro de la OCDE para la Conducta Empresarial Responsable, revisa los desafíos de la crisis del COVID-19 frente al comportamiento empresarial y la respuesta de los gobiernos y las empresas; describe los fundamentos y el método para adoptar un enfoque de conducta empresarial responsable frenta al COVID-19; y explica los posibles beneficios a corto y largo plazo de tal enfoque.

OECD: COVID-19 and Responsible Business Conduct

  • 2 septiembre 2020

This note, prepared by the OECD Centre for Responsible Business Conduct, reviews the challenges the COVID-19 crisis presents for business behaviour and outlines initial responses by governments and companies. It describes the rationale and method for adopting a responsible business conduct approach to address the crisis and sets down the potential short-term and long-term benefits of such an approach.

Government Support and the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • 2 septiembre 2020

The economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic call for urgent policy responses to support households and firms alike, but how this support is designed will be critical in ensuring that it does not result in enduring global market distortions. Support packages that are time-limited, targeted, cash-based, and consistent with longer-term objectives are the basis for ensuring a sustainable recovery. Transparency of support packages is critical for public trust, but also once the crisis is over in order to foster accountability and enable governments to learn from what worked best

Learning Remotely When Schools Close: Insights from PISA

  • 1 septiembre 2020

As school after school shuts down in the face of the Covid-19 crisis (in now more than 140 countries), online learning opportunities have been elevated from a bonus extracurricular facility to a critical lifeline for education.

The opportunities digital technologies offer go well beyond a stop-gap solution during the crisis. Digital technology allows us to find entirely new answers to what people learn, how people learn, where people learn and when they learn. Technology can enable teachers and students to access specialised materials well beyond textbooks, in multiple formats and in ways that can bridge time and space. Alongside great teachers, intelligent online learning systems do not only teach us science; they can simultaneously observe how we study, how we learn science, the kind of tasks and thinking that interest us, and the kind of problems we find boring or difficult.

The systems can then adapt the learning experience to suit our personal learning style with far greater granularity and precision than any traditional classroom setting possibly can. Similarly, virtual laboratories give us the opportunity to design, conduct and learn from experiments, rather than just learning about them.

That being said, the Covid-19 crisis strikes at a point when most of the education systems covered by the OECD’s latest round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) are not ready for the world of digital learning opportunities. Below are some sobering numbers. The data were collected as part of the global PISA assessment in 2018, and are based on representative samples from 79 education systems involving over 600,000 15-year-olds. Unless otherwise noted, numbers refer to the average across the 36 OECD countries. Data not provided in this note are accessible through the PISA database

Global Macroeconomic Scenarios of the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • 23 julio 2020

We then explore scenarios where the opening of economies results in recurrent outbreaks of various magnitudes and countries respond with and without economic shutdowns. We also explore the impact if no vaccine becomes available and the world must adapt to living with COVID-19 in coming decades. The final scenario is the case where a given country is in the most optimistic scenario (Scenario 1), but the rest of the world is in the most pessimistic scenario. The scenarios demonstrate that even a contained outbreak will significantly impact the global economy in the coming years. The economic consequences of the pandemic under plausible scenarios are substantial and the ongoing economic adjustment is far from over.

New Study Reveals Oxford Coronavirus Vaccine Produces Strong Immune Response

  • 20 julio 2020

A team of scientists at Oxford University’s Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group has taken the next step towards the discovery of a safe, effective and accessible vaccine against coronavirus. The results of the Phase I/II trial published today in the scientific journal, The Lancet, indicate no early safety concerns and induces strong immune responses in both parts of the immune system.

COVID-19 in Emerging Markets: Firm-Survey Evidence

  • 16 julio 2020

Using survey responses across nearly 500 listed firms in 10 emerging markets from early April, we find the vast majority of firms were negatively affected by COVID-19. Firms reacted by reducing investment rather than payroll. There is a surprising degree of support vis-à-vis employees, customers, other stakeholders and broader society. Although stock prices initially reacted to the impact of the crisis, delayed stock price reactions suggest evidence of inefficient markets. Furthermore, we find evidence that stakeholder-centric firms experienced lower stock price declines during the crisis drawdown.

New Report on COVID-19 and Democracy Calls for Urgent Measures by Governments and Civil Society

  • 15 julio 2020

The report, endorsed by 11 pro-democracy institutions, is aligned with a recent ‘Call to Defend Democracy’ that was signed by almost 100 organizations from all over the world, as well as nearly 500 prominent individuals from 119 countries, including 13 Nobel Laureates and 62 former Heads of State or Government.

Special Commentary: COVID-19 US Army War College

  • 16 junio 2020

SSI research professors and faculty consider the COVID-19 pandemic and its long-term, strategic implications for the U.S. Army and national security.  Each essay provides an independent, specialized view on a particular aspect of the challenges posed by COVID-19 and includes recommendations on how the Army and DoD should address those issues.

Money Laundering Could Stifle Latin America’s Response to COVID-19

  • 11 junio 2020

Some of Latin America’s most serious challenges—violent crime, drug trafficking, economic inequality and public corruption—all have one thing in common: money laundering. In Mexico alone, the government’s Financial Intelligence Unit reported that drug cartels and other illicit actors laundered an estimated $50 billion in 2019— crucial revenue for cartels that has also contributed to Mexico’s record-high homicide rate in recent years. Money laundering has helped Brazilian gangs like the Primeiro Comando da Capital, or First Capital Command, expand their criminal networks into neighboring Paraguay and Bolivia. In Venezuela, it has enabled a dramatic theft of public resources by officials tied to President Nicolas Maduro’s government, while the average Venezuelan has starved because of widespread food shortages.

The Governance Competition in the Americas: “Criminal Charity” During COVID-19 Will Have Decade-long Consequences

  • 9 junio 2020

Latin America’s criminal groups have leveraged the coronavirus pandemic to win the goodwill and support of local populations by delivering humanitarian assistance and co-opting public service provision in communities underserved by state institutions. Such levels of “criminal charity” could complicate the future efforts of Latin America’s weakest states to dismantle and defeat organized crime groups, whose power has grown in recent years.

COVID-19: The Regulatory and Supervisory Implications for the Banking Sector

  • 4 junio 2020

This joint IMF-World Bank note provides a set of high-level recommendations that can guide national regulatory and supervisory responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and offers an overview of measures taken across jurisdictions to date.

Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The World Should Face the Reality

  • 1 junio 2020
Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The World Should Face the Reality

Hand washing and maintaining social distance are the main measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to avoid contracting COVID-19. Unfortunately, these measured do not prevent infection by inhalation of small droplets exhaled by an infected person that can travel distance of meters or tens of meters in the air and carry their viral content. Science explains the mechanisms of such transport and there is evidence that this is a significant route of infection in indoor environments. Despite this, no countries or authorities consider airborne spread of COVID-19 in their regulations to prevent infections transmission indoors. It is therefore extremely important, that the national authorities acknowledge the reality that the virus spreads through air, and recommend that adequate control measures be implemented to prevent further spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, in particularly removal of the virus-laden droplets from indoor air by ventilation.

Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • 31 mayo 2020

Estimates point to a decline in global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020 that will be the largest in decades (by 2%) and to significant contractions in the volume of global trade (by between 13% and 32%).The drop in economic activity, particularly in China, the United States and Europe, is hurting trade volumes and prices in Latin America and the Caribbean, especially for commodities. Some key production sectors in countries of the region form part of global value chains in which the United States and China are fundamental. In addition, many countries will be severely affected by reduced remittances from migrants and the decline in tourism. The deterioration in global financial conditions has increased volatility in the region to record levels, and there have been massive capital outflows from emerging markets, most currencies have depreciated against the dollar and sovereign risk has risen sharply (ECLAC, 2020c).

Challenges and Opportunities in the Post-COVID-19 World

  • 31 mayo 2020

The COVID-19 crisis has affected societies and economies around the globe and will permanently reshape our world as it continues to unfold. While the fallout from the crisis is both amplifying familiar risks and creating new ones, change at this scale also creates new openings for managing systemic challenges, and ways to build back better.

The COVID-19 Response: Getting Gender Equality Right for a Better Future for Women at Work

  • 31 mayo 2020

Of the 740 million women working in the informal economy,11 42 per cent are found in the abovementioned high-risk sectors, compared to 32 per cent of men.12 Lockdowns and curfews, compounded by limited, if any, access to social protection provisions – including health care, income and food support, and maternity protection – worsen their social and economic situation. For instance, women homeworkers who produce for global supply chains are particularly affected by COVID-19, as their incomes depend heavily on now suspended orders from high-income countries.13 In this context, when gender intersects with other personal characteristics, such as ethnicity, nationality, age, disability or HIV status, there is a risk that both gender disparities and intra-women inequalities will widen further.

Foreign Direct Investment Flows in the Time of COVID-19

  • 31 mayo 2020

FDI flows are expected to fall by more than 30% in 2020 even under the most optimistic scenario for the success of the public health and economic support policy measures taken by governments to address the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting recession. FDI flows to developing countries are expected to drop even more because sectors that have been severely impacted by the pandemic, including the primary and manufacturing sectors, account for a larger share of their FDI than in developed economies.

COVID-19 Is Also a Reallocation Shock

  • 31 mayo 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to contain the virus are exacting a staggering economic toll in countries around the world. China’s economy shrank 6.8 percent in the first quarter of 2020 on a year-on-year basis, and Eurozone economies shrank at a14.8 percent annualized rate. In the United States, nearly 28 million persons filed new claims for unemployment benefits over the six-week period ending April 25. 1 The U.S. economy shrank at an annualized rate of 4.8 percent in the first quarter of 2020, and many analysts project it will shrink at a rate of 25% or more in the second quarter.2 Yet, even as much of the economy is shuttered, some firms are expanding in response to pandemic-induced demand shifts. As noted in a recent Wall Street Journal article, “The coronavirus pandemic is forcing the fastest reallocation of labor since World War II, with companies and governments mobilizing an army of idled workers into new activities that are urgently needed.”3 In other words, Covid-19 is also a major reallocation shock.

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