The Walk Free Foundation’s 2016 Global Slavery Index (GSI), using data from 167 nationally representative surveys conducted by Gallup, estimated that 45.8 million people in the world were in some form of modern slavery. Fifty-eight percent of those who are in slavery live in India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Uzbekistan. Civil and political protections, social health and economic rights, personal security and refugee populations and conflict are four complex dimensions that impact the vulnerability of people to modern slavery. This report conducted an assessment of government responses of 161 countries. Of these governments: 124 have criminalized human trafficking; 96 have National Action Plans; and 150 provide services to victims of modern slavery.