Repository

The topics for discussion on this portal have already been analyzed by multiple actors. In this repository, the GS / OAS brings together some of them, as one more contribution to the discussion. This repository has two sections: In the Policy section, we will integrate information on policies relevant to the issues under discussion that are being implemented by Member States, Observer States and other States of the world. In Studies we will include analyzes, reports and reports published by academic institutions, think tanks, international and multilateral organizations, non-governmental organizations and private entities, all of them of recognized prestige, which are relevant to the conversation. The OAS will publish these articles and reports in their original language.

New Study Reveals Oxford Coronavirus Vaccine Produces Strong Immune Response

  • 20 July 2020

A team of scientists at Oxford University’s Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group has taken the next step towards the discovery of a safe, effective and accessible vaccine against coronavirus. The results of the Phase I/II trial published today in the scientific journal, The Lancet, indicate no early safety concerns and induces strong immune responses in both parts of the immune system.

COVID-19 in Emerging Markets: Firm-Survey Evidence

  • 16 July 2020

Using survey responses across nearly 500 listed firms in 10 emerging markets from early April, we find the vast majority of firms were negatively affected by COVID-19. Firms reacted by reducing investment rather than payroll. There is a surprising degree of support vis-à-vis employees, customers, other stakeholders and broader society. Although stock prices initially reacted to the impact of the crisis, delayed stock price reactions suggest evidence of inefficient markets. Furthermore, we find evidence that stakeholder-centric firms experienced lower stock price declines during the crisis drawdown.

New Report on COVID-19 and Democracy Calls for Urgent Measures by Governments and Civil Society

  • 15 July 2020

The report, endorsed by 11 pro-democracy institutions, is aligned with a recent ‘Call to Defend Democracy’ that was signed by almost 100 organizations from all over the world, as well as nearly 500 prominent individuals from 119 countries, including 13 Nobel Laureates and 62 former Heads of State or Government.

Special Commentary: COVID-19 US Army War College

  • 16 June 2020

SSI research professors and faculty consider the COVID-19 pandemic and its long-term, strategic implications for the U.S. Army and national security.  Each essay provides an independent, specialized view on a particular aspect of the challenges posed by COVID-19 and includes recommendations on how the Army and DoD should address those issues.

Money Laundering Could Stifle Latin America’s Response to COVID-19

  • 11 June 2020

Some of Latin America’s most serious challenges—violent crime, drug trafficking, economic inequality and public corruption—all have one thing in common: money laundering. In Mexico alone, the government’s Financial Intelligence Unit reported that drug cartels and other illicit actors laundered an estimated $50 billion in 2019— crucial revenue for cartels that has also contributed to Mexico’s record-high homicide rate in recent years. Money laundering has helped Brazilian gangs like the Primeiro Comando da Capital, or First Capital Command, expand their criminal networks into neighboring Paraguay and Bolivia. In Venezuela, it has enabled a dramatic theft of public resources by officials tied to President Nicolas Maduro’s government, while the average Venezuelan has starved because of widespread food shortages.

The Governance Competition in the Americas: “Criminal Charity” During COVID-19 Will Have Decade-long Consequences

  • 9 June 2020

Latin America’s criminal groups have leveraged the coronavirus pandemic to win the goodwill and support of local populations by delivering humanitarian assistance and co-opting public service provision in communities underserved by state institutions. Such levels of “criminal charity” could complicate the future efforts of Latin America’s weakest states to dismantle and defeat organized crime groups, whose power has grown in recent years.

COVID-19: The Regulatory and Supervisory Implications for the Banking Sector

  • 4 June 2020

This joint IMF-World Bank note provides a set of high-level recommendations that can guide national regulatory and supervisory responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and offers an overview of measures taken across jurisdictions to date.

Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The World Should Face the Reality

  • 1 June 2020
Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The World Should Face the Reality

Hand washing and maintaining social distance are the main measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to avoid contracting COVID-19. Unfortunately, these measured do not prevent infection by inhalation of small droplets exhaled by an infected person that can travel distance of meters or tens of meters in the air and carry their viral content. Science explains the mechanisms of such transport and there is evidence that this is a significant route of infection in indoor environments. Despite this, no countries or authorities consider airborne spread of COVID-19 in their regulations to prevent infections transmission indoors. It is therefore extremely important, that the national authorities acknowledge the reality that the virus spreads through air, and recommend that adequate control measures be implemented to prevent further spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, in particularly removal of the virus-laden droplets from indoor air by ventilation.

Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • 31 May 2020

Estimates point to a decline in global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020 that will be the largest in decades (by 2%) and to significant contractions in the volume of global trade (by between 13% and 32%).The drop in economic activity, particularly in China, the United States and Europe, is hurting trade volumes and prices in Latin America and the Caribbean, especially for commodities. Some key production sectors in countries of the region form part of global value chains in which the United States and China are fundamental. In addition, many countries will be severely affected by reduced remittances from migrants and the decline in tourism. The deterioration in global financial conditions has increased volatility in the region to record levels, and there have been massive capital outflows from emerging markets, most currencies have depreciated against the dollar and sovereign risk has risen sharply (ECLAC, 2020c).

Challenges and Opportunities in the Post-COVID-19 World

  • 31 May 2020

The COVID-19 crisis has affected societies and economies around the globe and will permanently reshape our world as it continues to unfold. While the fallout from the crisis is both amplifying familiar risks and creating new ones, change at this scale also creates new openings for managing systemic challenges, and ways to build back better.

The COVID-19 Response: Getting Gender Equality Right for a Better Future for Women at Work

  • 31 May 2020

Of the 740 million women working in the informal economy,11 42 per cent are found in the abovementioned high-risk sectors, compared to 32 per cent of men.12 Lockdowns and curfews, compounded by limited, if any, access to social protection provisions – including health care, income and food support, and maternity protection – worsen their social and economic situation. For instance, women homeworkers who produce for global supply chains are particularly affected by COVID-19, as their incomes depend heavily on now suspended orders from high-income countries.13 In this context, when gender intersects with other personal characteristics, such as ethnicity, nationality, age, disability or HIV status, there is a risk that both gender disparities and intra-women inequalities will widen further.

Foreign Direct Investment Flows in the Time of COVID-19

  • 31 May 2020

FDI flows are expected to fall by more than 30% in 2020 even under the most optimistic scenario for the success of the public health and economic support policy measures taken by governments to address the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting recession. FDI flows to developing countries are expected to drop even more because sectors that have been severely impacted by the pandemic, including the primary and manufacturing sectors, account for a larger share of their FDI than in developed economies.

COVID-19 Is Also a Reallocation Shock

  • 31 May 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to contain the virus are exacting a staggering economic toll in countries around the world. China’s economy shrank 6.8 percent in the first quarter of 2020 on a year-on-year basis, and Eurozone economies shrank at a14.8 percent annualized rate. In the United States, nearly 28 million persons filed new claims for unemployment benefits over the six-week period ending April 25. 1 The U.S. economy shrank at an annualized rate of 4.8 percent in the first quarter of 2020, and many analysts project it will shrink at a rate of 25% or more in the second quarter.2 Yet, even as much of the economy is shuttered, some firms are expanding in response to pandemic-induced demand shifts. As noted in a recent Wall Street Journal article, “The coronavirus pandemic is forcing the fastest reallocation of labor since World War II, with companies and governments mobilizing an army of idled workers into new activities that are urgently needed.”3 In other words, Covid-19 is also a major reallocation shock.

THE COVID-19 Pandemic: Shocks to Education and Policy Responses

  • 31 May 2020

This report presents a set of policies to mitigate the impacts and groups them in three overlapping phases: Coping, Managing Continuity, and Improving and Accelerating. The guiding principle are to use every opportunity, in each phase, to do things better. This includes the provision of incentives, such as school feeding and school health programmes, to maximize reenrolment and attendance as schools reopen. By learning from innovations and emergency processes, systems can adapt and scale up the more effective solutions. In doing so, they could become more effective, more agile, and more resilient. A vision and proactive action will help not only mitigate the damage from the current crisis, but could turn recovery into real growth.

Coyuntura laboral en América Latina y el Caribe. El trabajo en tiempos de pandemia: desafíos frente a la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19)

  • 31 May 2020

Durante 2019 la escasa dinámica de la economía regional se puso de manifiesto en la debilidad de la generación de empleo asalariado —específicamente, de empleo registrado— y en el leve aumento interanual de la tasa de desocupación como promedio ponderado a nivel nacional. Los primeros meses de 2020 están marcados por la irrupción de la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19), que hizo necesaria la aplicación de políticas de confinamiento. Esta situación redundó en la interrupción de las actividades económicas a una escala nunca antes vista a nivel mundial. Los países de América Latina y el Caribe deberán enfrentar grandes caídas de su producto interno bruto con importantes consecuencias en sus mercados laborales, en un contexto de debilidad y vulnerabilidad macroeconómica.

COVID-19 is increasing the power of Brazil’s criminal groups

  • 28 May 2020

Data from various states suggest that COVID-19 lockdowns have done little to reduce the use of violence by criminal groups in Brazil. What has changed is governance, with criminal actors adapting to coronavirus by imposing curfews, restricting movement, promoting public-health messages, and discouraging price gouging – alongside their usual practices of extortion and drug trafficking. Such changes in violence and governance indicate that Brazil’s non-state armed groups continue to augment their power, and these gains may well persist once the pandemic has receded, write Ryan Berg (American Enterprise Institute) and Andrea Varsori (Urban Violence Research Network).

Ansiedad, miedo e incertidumbre en América Latina y el Caribe

  • 27 May 2020

41.000 personas en 9 países respondieron a una encuesta remota sobre cómo la COVID-19 ha afectado sus medios de vida, seguridad alimentaria y acceso a mercados. Las principales preocupaciones de las personas que aceptaron completar la encuesta realizada en línea fueron: incapacidad para cubrir sus necesidades alimentarias, pérdida parcial o total de ingresos debido a la crisis generada por la pandemia, y miedo a la propagación del virus.

Why a 17% Emissions Drop does not mean we are Addressing Climate Change

  • 27 May 2020

The global COVID-19 quarantine has meant less air pollution in cities and clearer skies. Animals are strolling through public spaces, and sound pollution has diminished, allowing us to hear the birds sing.

But these relatively small and temporary changes should not be mistaken for the COVID-19 pandemic actually helping to fix climate change. Quite the contrary: the pandemic that made the world stop offers a glimpse of the deep changes in lifestyles and economic structures that we need to implement if we are to effectively mitigate the worst of climate change.

Beyond the pandemic: Eight Proposals to Revive the Banking Union

  • 26 May 2020

In essence, the banking union is an exercise in risk diversification, achieved by pooling banking risks and regulatory controls among euro area countries. The strategy involved three interrelated lines of action: strengthening the solvency of banks; enhancing their efficiency; and fostering area-wide diversification and integration of the banking industry.

Coronavirus: una oportunidad real para el cambio global

  • 22 May 2020

“La crisis es el accidente más la desestabilización. Combina el desencadenamiento de dificultades, el desorden en el funcionamiento de las organizaciones y divergencias en cuanto a las opciones fundamentales. Con la crisis, la cuestión de la información del público se vuelve central. No se trata solamente de aplicar soluciones listas para ser empleada en problemas definidos. Será preciso legitimar la propia acción, mantener la credibilidad, hacer gala de eficacia en la ayuda a la población.”

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