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Annex 3 Contributions by workshop participants

A. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in Latin America
B. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in the Caribbean

A. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in Latin America

Lima, Peru, 19-22 September 1995




Technology Profiles

Case Studies



Nicolás Ciancaglini

- Artificial recharge of aquifers

Irrigation using clay pots in Mendoza


- Desalination using reverse osmosis

- Irrigation using clay pots

Valeria Mendoza


- Artificial recharge of aquifers

Reuse of domestic effluents for irrigation in Mendoza


- Water management model using conservation

- Reuse of domestic effluents for irrigation

- Optimization of water resources

- Management of potable water systems

- Utilization of surface water in dams

Eduardo Torres


- Rainwater harvesting roofs/cisterns

Natural and artificial recharge of underground reservoirs in Mendoza


- Rainwater harvesting (natural low areas)

- Use of well buckets in groundwater extraction

- Artificial recharge of aquifers

Alberto Vich

- Rainwater harvesting (paved roads)

Water traps for runoff diversion, rainwater harvesting, and recharge of aquifers in mountain areas

- Rainwater harvesting and aquifer recharge

Adrián Vargas

- Utilization of river beds

Utilization of river beds in Santiago del Estero



Freddy Camacho V.


- Hand pumps

Use of hand pumps in the high plateau of Bolivia


- Use of desalination in irrigation

- Totora as a water quality treatment agent

- Use of native products in clarifying water

- Irrigation using clay pots



Everaldo R Porto

- Rainwater harvesting (roofs/cisterns)

Use of rural cisterns in northeastern Brazil

- Rainwater harvesting (paved and unpaved roads)

- Irrigation with clay pots and porous capsules

Luiza T. de L. Brito

- Rainwater harvesting (in situ)

Underground dams in northeastern Brazil

- Runoff collection and storage (dams/dikes)

- Underground dams

Pedro C.S. Mancuso

- Use of continuous vertical reactors for wastewater treatment and reuse

Continuous vertical reactors

Marco Antonio Palermo

- Runoff collection and storage

Optimization of runoff storage and distribution in the state of Sao Paulo

- Water basin diversion and reuse

- Reuse and utilization of saline waters

Claudison Rodrigues

- Desalination using reverse osmosis

Desalination of well water in northeastern Brazil using reverse osmosis

- Desalination using solar distillation

- Desalination using electrodialysis

Gertjan B. Beekman

- VLF-WADI method to locate fractures in crystalline rocks

Small systems of dams in river basins of Paraiba



Roberto Espejo Guasp

- Fog harvesting (Camanchacas)

Water supply using fog harvesting in Poposo, Chile

- Desalination using reverse osmosis

- Desalination using distillation

- Treatment and recycling of non-potable water

Johannes Wrann

- Fog harvesting (camanchacas)

Rainwater harvesting and utilization of surface water runoff from sloping watersheds for forestation in Chile

- Rainwater harvesting


Guillermo Sarmiento

- Wastewater treatment technologies

Biological treatment of domestic wastewater using hydroponic cultivation and comparison with other wastewater treatment technologies in Colombia

Costa Rica


Jorge Faustino Manco

- Rainwater harvesting (roofs/cistems)

Runoff storage in irrigation ditches in various regions of Central America

- Water conservation agricultural practices

- Runoff storage in irrigation ditches

- Use of lagoons for runoff collection and storage

William Murillo Montero

- Comprehensive utilization of water resources (basin transfer)

Comprehensive use of surface water resources in Costa Rica (water transfer from the Arenal to the Tempisque river basin)

- Sustainable use of aquifers

- Efficient use of irrigation methods in small areas (use of pressurized systems)

Dominican Republic


Milagros Martinez Esquea

- Rainwater harvesting using house roofs

Irrigation with interconnected clay pots in Dominican Republic

- Irrigation with clay pots

José O. Payero


- Artificial lagoons

Home water purification systems in Dominican Republic


- Rainwater harvesting using collection pipes

- Cloud seeding

- Water distribution by cistern trucks

- Bottling of water

- Development of small watersheds

- Water storage in homes

- Water purification systems

- Wastewater treatment technologies



Felipe Cisneros Espinoza


- Rainwater harvesting

Rainwater harvesting through runoff storage in reservoirs in the southern region of Ecuador


- Distribution of potable water

- Water transfer by pumping

- Disinfection/purification

- Use of clay pots in irrigation

El Salvador


Saul Rodríguez


- Cyclic rope pump

Utilization of cisterns for rainwater harvesting in El Salvador


- Chlorine production in situ

- Home made artesian filters

- Potable water by filtration using slow sand dripping filters



Luis Alfredo Ochoa


- Rainwater harvesting

Use of potable water from rainwater harvesting in Guatemala


- Water purification using sodium hypochlorite in rural areas

- Stabilization lagoons (Jacintos)

- Water quality treatment using seeds of Monringa oleifera

- Pilot project on the use of pre-filters

- Irrigation with treated water



Emesto Bondy Reyes


- Rainwater harvesting (roofs, cisterns, and lagoons)

Rainwater harvesting using roofs, cisterns, and lagoons in Honduras


- Rope and bucket homemade wells

- Use of mulch to control soil humidity and sediments

- Photovoltaic energy for pumping systems

- Alternative pumping systems



Polioptro F Martinez


- Fog harvesting

Non-conventional devices for use in intermittent irrigation in Mexico


- Quarry filters

- Gravitational tank irrigation system

- Device for intermittent irrigation in furrows

Carlos Solís Morelos

- Stabilization lagoons

Modified stabilization lagoon system for municipal wastewater treatment in the Lerma River basin in Mexico


Javier García Romano

- Microbasin management

Microbasin management in Nicaragua



Icela Márquez de Rojas

- Mini-dams

Utilization of spring waters for rural aqueducts in Panama

- Irrigation with clay pots

- Agriculture and aquaculture water use

María Concepción Donoso

- Water recycling in rice cultivation and aquaculture system

Utilization of wind energy to augment water supply in the central provinces of Panama


- Drip irrigation

- Use of wind energy for pumping systems

- Aqueducts


Eugenio Godoy Valdovinos

- Rainwater harvesting using roofs and cisterns

Artificial recharge ofgroundwater in Central Chaco in Paraguay

- Rainwater harvesting using cultivation

- Artificial recharge of groundwater



Hugo Rodríguez

- Harvesting use and storage of water with raised beds (Waru Waru) cultivation

The agro-ecosystem of Waru Waru: an alternative technology for agricultural development in the plateau of Puno

Juan Ocola Salazar

- Wastewater treatment using native plants (totora)

Treatment in oxidation lagoons using native plants (Totora) in Puno

Pablo Sánchez

Poncho Verde project in Cajamarca

Miguel Hadzich Marín

Pumping systems in Peru


Lourdes Batista

- Utilization and regulation of watersheds

Regulation, water use, and development plan for the region of Rocha in Uruguay



Carmen Fermín Regardiz


- RunotF collection and storage using road dikes

Use of road dikes in the state of Nueva Esparta


- Artificial lagoons

- Storage tanks with galvanized plates

- Toroba

Hernán López Herrera

- River basin rehabilitation

Rehabilitation of the Moron River basin in Venezuela


Julio Moscoso

Use of effluents from stabilization lagoons in aquaculture and agriculture in San Juan, Peru

B. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in the Caribbean

Barbados, October 24-27,1995




Profiles of Technology

Case Study

Antigua and Barbuda

Vincent Sweeney

- Transportation of water by barges


- Desalination: reverse osmosis and distillation


Theofilo Damian

- Desalination: multistage flash evaporation system

Rainwater harvesting in dams for agricultural purposes in Aruba

- Wastewater treatment


Cadrington Coleby

- Desalination: reverse osmosis

Barging/tanking water from neighboring islands in the Bahamas

- Trench wells for groundwater extraction

- Barging



John Bwalya Mwansa


- Rainwater harvesting

Sam Lord's Castle Hotel's treated wastewater reuse scheme, Barbados


- Surface runoff impoundments

- Artificial recharge of groundwater

- Wastewater treatment and reuse

British Virgin Islands

Rajkumar Roopchand*

- Rainwater harvesting

Implementation of seawater desalination on the island of Virgin Gorda

- Seawater/brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis


Bernardine Georges*

- Rainwater harvesting

Rainwater cistern in Miragoane, Haiti

- Hand pumps

- Winch

Michael Merisier

Photovoltaic system to pump water in St. Jean du Sud, Haiti



Basil Fernandez


- Rainwater harvesting

Artificial groundwater recharge of a karstic limestone aquifer using sinkholes as injection points in Jamaica


- Transportation of water by pipeline; interbasin transfer

- Artificial recharge of groundwater

- Wastewater treatment and reuse

- Recycling of industrial effluent


Margaret Dyer-Howe

- Rainwater harvesting

Floating chlorinator and gas chlorinator in Montserrat

Netherlands Antilles

Martha Pinedo-Medina

- Rainwater harvesting

Water desalination by distillation in Curaçao (multistage flash evaporation system)

- Artificial recharge of groundwater

- Wastewater treatment

Saint Lucia


Vincent Sweeney

- Rainwater harvesting

Root zone wastewater treatment in Saint Lucia

- Root zone wastewater treatment

- Dual distribution system

Martin Satney

- Rainwater harvesting

Transportation of water by canal/pipeline for irrigation in Saint Lucia

- Runoff harvesting

- Wastewater reuse


Moekiran Amatali

- Rainwater harvesting

The use of the manmade Lake Brokopondo in Suriname

- Storage in natural wetlands

- Storage in dammed-up feat lands

Turks and Caicos Islands

Joseph Williams

- Rainwater harvesting

Rainwater harvesting in the Turks and Caicos Islands

- Desalination; reverse osmosis

- Dual distribution systems

- Groundwater exploration

U.S. Virgin Islands

Henry Smith

- Rainwater harvesting

Mandatory rainwater harvesting for residential use in the U.S. Virgin Islands

- Dual distribution system

- Desalination

* Mr. Rajkimar Roopchand and Ms. Bernardine Georges were not able to participate in the workshop, but sent their contributions.

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