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4.5 Other water conservation practices

The importance of water conservation and water loss reduction should always be an integral part of the management of freshwater resources and needs to be given prominence in freshwater resources planning. As is suggested by the three interlinking arrows in the recyclable materials symbol, reduction of waste is the first of the several means of resource conservation (the other means being reuse and recycling, both of which are covered elsewhere in this volume). An excellent reference book is Efficient Water Use, edited by Hector Garduño and Felipe Arreguín-Cortés.

For water management purposes, the community can be divided into two basic groups: system users (such as households, industry, and agriculture) and system operators (such as municipal, state, and local governments and privately owned suppliers). These users have a choice of a number of different practices, which promote or enhance the efficiency of their use. These practices fall into two basic categories: engineering practices, based on modifications to hardware (e.g., plumbing and fixtures) and/or water supply operational procedures, and behavioral practices, based on changing water use habits.

Engineering practices are generally technical or regulatory measures, while behavioral practices typically involve market-oriented measures. Collectively, these measures, which affect water use and reduce waste and loss from the source, are known as "demand management" measures. Such measures include leak detection; waste reduction (encouraging consumers to cut out wasteful uses); investment in appliances, processes, and technologies that reduce water input without reducing consumer satisfaction and/or output; treatment of industrial effluents and wastewaters to a standard suitable for recycling and reuse; and reallocation of freshwater resources to the area of greatest social good. The policies that encourage demand management include pricing water at an economic rate, charging for pollution or community-based pollution control practices, regulating and restricting specific water uses, exhorting and informing the consumer of the ways and means of use reduction and recycling, and encouraging water trading among and between users.

Figure 42: Typical Breakdown of Interior Water Use.

Source: USEPA, Cleaner Water Through Conservation, Washington, D.C., 1995 (Report No. EPA- 841/B-95-002).

Technical Description

Water conservation practices can be followed by residential users, industrial and commercial users, and agricultural users. They can also be followed by local utilities and/or regional water supply plants. Table 21 shows some of the more common practices recommended for use by the different user groups. A brief description of the most common conservation practices follows.

Table 21 Recommended Water Conservation Practices

User Group

Engineering Practices

Behavioral Practices



Plumbing changes

Changing water use habits

Low-flush toilets


Toilet tank volume displacement devices

Public information and education

Low-flow showerheads

Lawn irrigation scheduling

Faucet aerators

Drought management practices


Pressure reduction devices

Gray Water reuse landscaping

Drought-tolerant plants

Xeriscaped landscapes




Irrigation scheduling


Low volume irrigation technologies

Wastewater reuse and recycling

Soil management

Industrial and commercial


Water reuse and recycling

Monitoring water use

Cooling water recirculation

Enforcing water use practices

Wash water recycling

Educational programs on water

Landscape irrigation

Source: USEPA, Cleaner Water Through Conservation, Washington D.C., 1995 (Report No. EPA-841/B-95-002).

· Residential Users Conservation Measures

Low-flow plumbing fixtures and retrofit programs are permanent, one-time conservation measures that can be implemented with little or no additional cost over the lifetime of the fixtures. In some cases, these fixtures can even save the residents money over the long term. The most commonly recommended low-flow plumbing fixtures are pressure reduction devices, faucet aerators, toilet displacement devices, low-flush toilets, low-flow showerheads, and plumbing modifications for gray water reuse. A typical breakdown of residential water use is shown in Figure 42.

Pressure Reduction. Homeowners can reduce the water pressure in a home by installing pressure reducing valves. A reduction in water pressure can save water in other ways: it can reduce the likelihood of leaking water pipes, leaking water heaters, and dripping faucets.

Faucet Aerators. Faucet aerators, which break the flowing water into fine droplets and entrain air while maintaining wetting effectiveness, are inexpensive devices that can be installed in sinks to reduce the volume of water used. Aerators are easily installed and can reduce the volume of water use at a faucet by as much as 60% while still maintaining a strong flow. More efficient kitchen and bathroom faucets that use only 7.5 l/min, in contrast to standard faucets, which use 12 to 20 l/min, are also available.

Toilet Displacement Devices. Non-toxic bricks or plastic containers (e.g., milk jugs filled with water or pebbles) can be placed in a toilet tank to reduce the amount of water used per flush. By placing between one and three such containers in the tank, more than 41 of water can be saved per flush. A toilet dam, which holds back a reservoir of water when the toilet is flushed, can also be used instead of the displacement device to save water.

Low-Flush Toilets. Conventional toilets use 15 to 201 of water per flush, but low-flush toilets use only 61 of water or less. Since low-flush toilets use less water, they also reduce the volume of wastewater produced. A schematic of a low-flush toilet is shown in Figure 43. Even in existing residences, replacement of conventional toilets with low-flush toilets is a practical and economical water-saving alternative.

Low-Flow Showerheads. Showers account for about 20% of the total indoor water use in an household. By replacing the standard 18 l/min showerheads with 10 l/min showerheads, which cost less than $5 each, a family of four can save approximately 80,000 l/year. Properly designed low-flow showerheads, currently available, are able to provide the quality of water delivery found in higher volume models.

Gray Water Use. Domestic wastewater composed of washwater from kitchen sinks and tubs, clothes washers, and laundry tubs is called gray water. Gray water can be used by homeowners for home gardening, lawn maintenance, landscaping, and other uses that do not require potable water. The level of contamination of gray waters is minimal; however, the plumbing modifications needed to make use of this water should not allow its contamination by wastes from the toilets, which have the potential to spread disease, cause undesirable odors, and result in aesthetic degradation of homestead yards and gardens.

Figure 43: Gravity Design of a Low-Flush Toilet.

1. The 6 liter flush design of this gravity toilet has a different flush mechanism.

2. Steep bowl sides and a narrow trapway to allow the siphoned water to gain velocity for more effective removal of waste.

3. This is where the water pushes waste into the trapway.

4. Stored water flows into the bowl.

Source: USEPA, Cleaner Water Through Conservation, Washington B.C., 1995 (Report No. EPA-841/B-95-002).

· Landscaping Water Conservation Practices

Drought-Tolerant Plants. Water conservation in landscaping can be accomplished through the use of plants that need little water, thereby saving not only water but labor and fertilizer as well. Careful landscape design can significantly reduce water use; it can also take advantage of native plants which have evolved water-saving or water-tolerant characteristics ideally suited for the local climatic conditions. Use of native plants can also help to minimize the spread of exotic plant species that disrupt local ecosystems. In addition to the selection of the plant species to be used in landscaping, practices such as the use of low precipitation rate sprinklers that have better distribution uniformity, bubbler/soaker systems, and/or drip or point irrigation systems can also conserve water used for landscaping purposes.

Xeriscaping. Xeriscaping is an innovative approach to landscaping that promotes water conservation and pollution prevention. Traditional landscapes might incorporate one or two principles of water conservation, but xeriscaping uses planning and design, soil analysis, selection of suitable plants, practical turf areas, efficient irrigation, use of mulches, and appropriate maintenance to create an appropriate landscape for a given climatic condition. Xeriscaping is most successfully practiced in arid and semi-arid areas, where it has proved useful for minimizing irrigation and external maintenance needs while presenting an attractive appearance.

· Agricultural Water Conservation Practices

Water saving irrigation practices fall into three categories: field practices, management strategies, and system modifications. Examples of these practices include, respectively, the chisel plow aeration of extremely compacted soils, furrow diking to prevent uncontrolled runoff, and leveling of the land surface to distribute water more evenly. A number of these practices have been previously detailed in chapters 2 and 3.

Irrigation Scheduling. Improved irrigation scheduling can reduce the amount of water required to irrigate a crop effectively by reducing evaporative losses, supplying water when most needed by the irrigated plants, and applying the water in a manner best suited to the plants being irrigated. A careful choice of the rate and timing of irrigation can help farmers to maintain yields with less water. In making scheduling decisions, irrigators should consider:

· The uncertainty of rainfall and the timing of crop water demands.

· The limited water storage capacity of many irrigated soils.

· The finite pumping capacity of most irrigation systems.

· The price of water and changes in water prices as additional operators increase water demand.

Irrigation Management. Management strategies involve monitoring soil and water conditions and collecting information on water use and efficiency. The methods include measuring rainfall, determining soil moisture levels, monitoring pumping plant efficiency, and scheduling irrigation. Typical system modifications include the addition of drop tubes to a center pivot irrigation system, retrofitting wells with smaller pumps, installing a surge or demand irrigation system, and/or constructing a tailwater or return flow recovery system.

· Industrial and Commercial Users Water Conservation Practices

Water recycling is the reuse of water for the same application for which it was originally used. Recycled water might require treatment before it can be reused. Cooling water recirculation and washwater recycling are the most widely used water recycling practices. The following guidelines should be used when considering water reuse and recycling in industrial and commercial applications:

· Identification of water reuse opportunities: Are there areas within the factory or in the production process that currently use water only once that would be amenable to reuse?

· Determination of the minimum water quantity needed for the given use: Are there areas within the factory or in the production process where more water is being supplied than is needed to accomplish the purpose?

· Identification of wastewater sources that satisfy the water quality requirements: Does the process require potable water or water of a lesser standard? Can the same result be achieved with lower-quality water?

· Determination of how the water can be transported to the new use: What modifications, if any, in the process or factory may be needed to permit recovery and recirculation/recycling of the water currently sent to waste? What additional treatment may be necessary to reuse this water? What is the relative cost of the required modifications versus the cost of the raw water over the life of the modifications?

Cooling Water Recirculation. Recycling water within a recirculating cooling system can greatly reduce water consumption by using the same water to perform several cooling operations. The water savings are generally sufficiently substantial to result in an overall cost saving to industry. Such savings can be even greater if the waste heat is used as a heat source elsewhere in the manufacturing process. Three cooling water conservation approaches are typically used to reduce water consumption: evaporative cooling, ozonation, and heat exchange.

Washwater Recycling. Another common use of water by industry is in the use of fresh or deionized water for removing contaminants from products and equipment. Deionized water can generally be recycled after its first use, although the reclamation treatment cost of recycling this water may be as great as or greater than the cost of purchasing raw water from a producer and treating it. The same processes required to produce deionized water from municipal water can be used to produce deionized water from used washwater. It is also possible to blend used washwater with raw water, which also would result in an overall water saving. The reuse of once-used deionized water for a different application within the same factory should also be considered as a water conservation option. For example, used washwater may be perfectly acceptable for washing vehicles or the factory premises.

· Water Conservation Practices for Water Utilities

Common practices used by water supply utilities include metering, leak detection, repairing water lines, well capping, retrofitting programs, pricing, wastewater reuse, and developing public education programs and drought management plans.

Metering. The measurement of water use with a meter provides essential data for charging fees based on actual customer use. Submetering may also be used in multiple-unit operations such as apartment buildings, condominia, and mobile homes to indicate water use by individual units within a complex. In such cases, the entire complex of units might be metered by the main supplier, while the individual units might be monitored by either the owner or the water utility.

Leak Detection. It has been estimated that in many distribution systems up to half of the water supplied by the water treatment plant is lost to leakage; even more may be lost due to unauthorized abstraction. One way to detect leaks and identify unauthorized connections is to use listening equipment to survey the distribution system, identify leak sounds, and pinpoint the locations of hidden underground leaks. Metering can also be used to help detect leaks in a system. It is not unusual for unaccounted water losses to drop by up to 36% after the introduction of metering and leak detection programs.

Water Distribution Network Rehabilitation. A water utility can improve the management and rehabilitation of its water distribution network by a well-planned preventive maintenance program based on a sound knowledge of the distribution network. This knowledge is often embodied in a distribution system database that includes the following data:

· An inventory of the characteristics of the system components, including information on their location, size, and age and the construction material(s) used in the network.

· A record of regular inspections of the network, including an evaluation of the condition of mains and degree of corrosion (if any).

· An inventory of soil conditions and types, including the chemical characteristics of the soils.

· A record of the quality of the product water in the system.

· A record of any high or low pressure problems in the network.

· Operating records, such as of pump and valve operations, failures, or leaks, and of maintenance and rehabilitation costs.

· A file of customer complaints.

· Metering data.

Through the monitoring of such records, advance warning of possible problems can be achieved. For example, excessive water use, or numerous complaints or demands for spare parts, could be early warning signs of an impending breakdown in the system. This system should also include a regular program of preventive maintenance to minimize the possibility of system failures.

Well Capping. Well capping is the sealing of abandoned wells. In the case of artesian wells, rusted casings can spill water in a constant flow into drainage ditches, resulting in evaporative loss or runoff losses. In non-artesian wells, uncapped abandoned wells form points of entry for contaminants into the groundwater system.

Pricing. Placing an economic value on freshwater is the principal means of achieving water conservation. Pricing provides a financial incentive to conserve water. Rate structures may be variable and/or graduated, with prices fixed on the basis of class of service (residential versus industrial or agricultural, for example) and quantity used (for example, the unit price for quantities below 400 l/day might be significantly lower than for quantities which exceed that amount for a single-family residence). Pricing has the advantage of minimizing the costs of overt regulation, restrictions, and policing, while providing a high degree of freedom of choice for individual water customers.

Retrofit Programs. Retrofitting involves the replacement of existing plumbing fixtures with equipment that uses less water. The most successful water-saving fixtures are those which operate in the same manner as the fixtures being replaced; for example, toilet tank inserts, faucet aerators, and low flow showerheads do not significantly change the operation of the systems into or onto which they are placed, but they do result in substantial water savings.

Water Audit Programs. Various types of audits can be undertaken. For example, residential water audits may involve sending trained water auditors into participating households, free of charge, to encourage water conservation efforts, or providing them with record sheets to note down their water use for external analysis. Water audits may also be undertaken in commercial and industrial facilities, and may be combined with an assessment of the potential for implementing water reuse and recycling programs. A pre-implementation and post-implementation water audit in factories adopting a reuse and recycling program would be a valuable means of demonstrating and quantifying the water savings achieved.

Public Information and Education. Public information and education programs can be undertaken to inform the public about the basics of water use and conservation. Programs should be developed for specific applications and may be targeted at specific user groups or age groups; for example, at housekeepers, to encourage domestic water conservation, or at schoolchildren, to provide information on the wider implications of water conservation for future consumption, the environment and other uses. Basic information should include the following:

· How water is delivered and how wastewater is disposed of.
· The costs of water and water supply services.
· Why water conservation is important.

The programs should provide guidance on how the user groups and individuals can participate in conservation efforts. It should be noted that there is a large body of public information and education materials available, particularly in the United States, which may be obtained from a variety of public agencies and NGOs at little or no cost and form the basis of a local public awareness initiative.

· Drought Management

Given the vagaries of the modem climate, in this period of climate change, it seems that droughts may be more severe or extensive than is the past. Many water conservation projects constructed to alleviate drought-induced water shortages are themselves victims of drought. Whether this may simply reflect changes in land use within a watershed that allow less water to infiltrate into the groundwater system, or results from population growth, which places greater demands on finite water resources, is not clear and rarely proved. In any case, many communities are currently experiencing a need to have drought management plans in place to ensure the greatest possible availability of freshwater during periods of below average rainfall.

Drought Management Planning. When rainfall is less than usual, there is less water to maintain normal soil moisture levels, stream flows, and reservoir levels and to recharge groundwater. Because of these varied sources and the multiple demands placed upon freshwater resources, a drought management plan should address a range of issues, from political and technical matters to public involvement. Some of the components of a typical drought management plan include the following:

· Identification of the available water resources.

· Tabulation of the multiple sectoral demands for freshwater.

· Description of possible shortfalls between supply and demand.

· Definition of the management measures required for various eventualities, and an agreed allocation schedule in the event that water rationing becomes necessary.

· Provision for user and public involvement in the drought management program.

· Promulgation of legislation, agreements, rules, and procedures to ensure a timely and equitable response to the onset of drought conditions.

· Issuance of a drought management event plan and public information materials to make it known.

Demand Management. Demand management is closely linked with water conservation practices. Table 22 shows, in summary form, short-term measures that can be used to reduce demand during periods of drought and the expected levels of reduction. These measures may also be considered in concert with other conservation measures noted above.

Table 22 Short-Term Measures to Reduce Water Demand and Their Effectiveness

Creation of Public Awareness: 0-15%

Voluntary Measures: 15-25%

Mandatory Measures (after a drought determination): 25-39%

Explain water conservation practices.

Encourage voluntary restrictions on use.

Adopt regulatory measures.

Implement a public information program.

Conduct water audits of water-intensive customers.

Develop water rationing, with penalties.
Restrict annexations and new connections.

Intensify conservation efforts.

Implement conservation-related rate structures.

Source: Ramesh Bhatia, et al., Water Conservation and Reallocation: Best Practice Cases In Improving Economic Efficiency and Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995 (A World Bank-ODI Joint Study).

Extent of Use

Water conservation measures have been practiced primarily in the United States, although some Latin American countries have implemented specific measures. For example, in Brazil, the pharmaceutical, food processing, and dairy industries were required to pay effluent charges that contributed to reductions in water use and wastewater production of between 42% and 62%. In Mexico, increased water prices contributed to an increase in wastewater reuse and the recycling of cooling water.

Chile is the only country in the region with a comprehensive water law that has encouraged the development of water markets. The 1981 National Water Law established secure, tradable, and transferable water use rights for both surface and groundwaters. As a result, during periods of low rainfall, farmers shift from the production of water-intensive crops, such as corn and oilseeds, to higher-valued and less water-intensive crops, such as fruits and vegetables.

Water recycling is used at a Container Corporation of America Mill in Santa Clara, California (U.S.A), that manufactures paperboard from the recycled fibers of newspapers, corrugated cardboard clippings, and ledger paper. Historically, water has been used in this process for a variety of purposes. In recent years, however, the mill has begun recycling water used in its rinsing processes after clarification. The mill has also installed a closed loop cooling tower, which has resulted in an additional reduction in water use. These water conservation and use efficiency practices have resulted in an estimated saving of approximately 2.8 million l/day, compared to its 1980 water use rates. These water reductions amount to approximately 900 million l/year and saved the company approximately $348 200 per year.

Operation and Maintenance

Given the variety of measures that might be undertaken to address conservation needs within a specific geographic area, of which a number are mechanical but many may be technological or informational, it is difficult to identify specific operational requirements. However, some of the more obvious requirements include the following: low-flow water conservation devices require periodic maintenance and repair; leak detection equipment and meters require periodic testing and repair; drought and water conservation management strategies, such as pricing and user charges, require monitoring and enforcement; and well-capping programs require monitoring and trained personnel in order to be effective. Maintenance requirements range from regular inspections of mechanical devices to the review of legislation and conservation plans to ensure their continued relevance.

Level of Involvement

The installation and maintenance of low-flow household and irrigation devices may require governmental incentives in order to be accepted. In some cases, employees of the water utility may install and maintain these systems at little or no charge in order to effect the desired water savings. Alternatively, government regulations may be necessary to provide incentives for the implementation of industrial and agricultural water conservation measures. Government action is required in the promulgation of plumbing codes for new construction that will contribute to the adoption of residential water conservation measures. Government or utility involvement is also needed for leakage detection and the repair of distribution systems. Metering, in addition to requiring technical personnel and equipment to be effective, generally requires governmental action to implement and government authority to establish or regulate water tariffs. However, community participation and voluntary conservation are a key element if this technology is to be effective.


The cost of water conservation measures varies with the cost of any equipment required and with size and location. The cost of replacing a conventional toilet with a low-flush toilet is about $250 per unit. Low-flow showerheads, in contrast, cost about $5 each. Meter installation costs range from about $200 for interior meters to $500 for external meters. Leak control has been estimated at $40/million liters.

Costs associated with water conservation are often offset by cost savings incurred after implementation. For example, the use of treated wastewater for cooling at an industrial plant in California, U.S.A., resulted in a saving of $150 000 in 1989, while modifications to the sinks in a computer manufacturing plant in Denver, Colorado, resulted in a saving of $81 000, also in 1989. Close monitoring of water use in a packing facility in Santa Clara, California, produced an annual saving of $40 000. Elsewhere, the introduction of water markets in Chile in 1993 increased agricultural profits by $1.5 billion.

Effectiveness of the Technology

Water conservation measures are highly effective. However, this technology may not be too popular with consumers, who may be asked to pay a higher price for the water they consume, and can be, politically, very unpalatable. Nevertheless, studies carried out in Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., reported the following results from water conservation measures:

· According to detailed data on the performance of low-flow water devices in 308 single-family residences, indoor per capita water use dropped 6.4% after low-flow showerheads were installed.

· Easily installed aerators reduced water use at a faucet by as much as 60% while still maintaining a strong flow.

· A reduction in water pressure from 100 pounds per square inch (psi) to 50 psi at an outlet resulted in a water flow reduction of about one-third of the pre-existing use.

· Gray water reuse saved a volume of water equivalent to that needed to supply more than 7 000 residences and businesses.

· Outdoor water use was reduced by restricting watering times to the early morning or late evening; watering on cooler days, when possible, also reduced outdoor water use. All these measures contributed to reduced evaporative losses.

· As many as 600 l of water were saved when washing a car by turning the hose off between rinses; additional benefits and water savings were achieved by washing the car on the lawn, which both watered the lawn and reduced runoff.

· Sweeping sidewalks and driveways, instead of hosing them down, saved about 200 l of water every 5 minutes.

In other studies, such as an industrial water conservation project in California, the conversion of an industrial process from a single-pass freshwater cooling system to a closed-loop cooling system, with circulating chilled water, has saved an estimated 20 000 to 28 000 l/day, while cities in the hemisphere that have large, old, deteriorating systems, leak detection programs have been especially efficient in minimizing water losses.


Water conservation measures are suitable and recommended for all public water supply systems, industries with high water use, agricultural enterprises, and individual residential users in Latin American countries and the Caribbean islands.


Residential water users:

· Low-flow devices result in water use savings of 20% to 40%.

· Pressure reductions save up to 33% of the water normally consumed.

· Conservation-based landscape irrigation practices also produce significant water use savings.

Industrial/commercial users:

· Water recycling greatly reduces water use.

· Deionized water can be recycled after its first use at little or no additional cost, using the same equipment used to produce the deionized water from the municipal supply.

· Proper scheduling of landscape irrigation optimizes water use by minimizing evaporative losses.

Agricultural users:

· Water savings can be achieved through a combination of field practices, monitoring, and system modifications.

· Wastewater reuse can produce significant water savings. Water supply plants:

· Widespread leakages and illegal connections may account for 30% to 50% of the water loss in a distribution system.

· Metering allows for greater accountability and assists in the development of a pricing structure that is fair and appropriate to the individual water supply system and that provides incentives for conservation.

· Equipment repairs to water mains and valves, and capping unused wells, can reduce unnecessary water loss, and prevent contamination of both piped water and groundwater.

· Retrofit programs can produce long-term savings of water and money.


Residential users:

· The initial cost of low-flow devices can be high.
· Changes or modifications in water use habits are not readily accepted.

Agricultural users:

· Low-volume irrigation systems may be costly in some cases.
· The use of wastewater for irrigation may pose potential health risks.

Industrial/commercial users:

· Modifications to manufacturing processes may be required in some cases, incurring an initial capital charge to the user.

· Changes in the piping system within a plant can be costly.

Water supply plants:

· Implementation of leak detection, control and metering is costly.
· Meters and leak detection devices require regular maintenance.

Cultural Acceptability

Most conservation measures have been applied in response to government regulations or conservation programs. As was noted above, public acceptance is limited despite the economic benefits.

Further Development of the Technology

Improved equipment for use in leak detection and metering is required. Such devices need to be more robust and less costly. Meters should be able to withstand tampering. It would also be desirable for low-flow plumbing devices to be more cost effective so as to be more attractive to consumers. Implementation of educational programming on the necessity and the economic and environmental benefits of water conservation is also likely to lower consumer resistance to water conservation technologies.

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Rathnau, M.M. 1991. "Submetering = Water Conservation," Water Engineering and Management, 138(3), pp. 24-25,37.

Schlette, T.C., and D.C. Kemp. 1991. "Setting Rates to Encourage Water Conservation," Water Engineering and Management, 138(5), pp. 25-29.

Schoolmaster, F.A., and T.J. Fries. 1990. "Implementing Agricultural and Urban Water Conservation Programs: A Texas Case Study," The Environmental Professional, 12, pp. 229-240.

Strauss, S.D. 1991. "Water Management for Reuse/Recycle," Power, 135(5), pp. 13-23.

Texas Water Development Board. 1986. A Homeowner's Guide to Water use and Water Conservation. Austin, Tex.

Tennessee Valley Authority, n.d. Drought. Chattanooga, Tenn., U.S.A., TVA, Drought Management Task Force.

USEPA. 1990. Denver's Water Conservation Program. Compliance Review for 1989 Pursuant to the Foothills Consent Decree. Denver, Col., EPA Region VIII.

----. 1991a. Municipal Wastewater Reuse: Selected Readings on Water Reuse. Washington, D.C. (Report No. EPA-430/09-91-022)

----. 1991b. Fact Sheet: 21 Water Conservation Measures for Everybody. Washington, D.C. (Report No. EPA-570/9-91-100)

----. 1992. Manual: Guidelines for Water Reuse. Washington, D.C. (Report No. EPA-625/R-92-104)

----. 1993. Xeriscape Landscaping: Preventing Pollution and Using Resources Efficiently. Washington, D.C. (Report No. EPA- 840/B-93-001)

----. 1994. WAVE: Water Alliances for Voluntary Efficiency. Washington, D.C. (Report No. EPA-832/F-94-006)

Vickers, A. 1989. "New Massachusetts Toilet Standard Sets Water Conservation Precedent." Journal of the American Water Works Association, 81(3), p. 51.

----, and E.J. Markus. 1992. "Creating Economic Incentives for Conservation," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 84(10), pp. 42-45.

Virginia State Water Control Board. 1979. Best Management Practices: Agriculture. Richmond, Va, U.S.A., (Planning Bulletin 316)

Water Works Journal. 1990. "Florida Commission Makes Water Conservation Recommendations," 44(6), p. 7.

York, D.W. and J. Crook. 1990. "Florida's Reuse Program Paves the Way." In Municipal Waste-water Reuse, Washington, D.C., USEPA. p. 67-74. (Report No. EPA-43 0/09-91-422)

Table 23 Summary of Alternative Technologies Presented in the Source Book

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