June 13- 15, 2000


prepared by Cassandra T. Rogers, Ph.D. and Lynette Atwell, B.A.; Dip.


USAID / OAS Post-Georges Disaster Mitigation Project

July 2, 2000

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Goals and Objectives
  3. Workshop Description
  4. Outline Mitigation Plans
    1. Recommendations from Groups
    2. Comments on Outline Mitigation Plans
  5. Workshop Evaluation
  6. Consultants’ Comments and Recommendations

List of Appendices

1.0 Introduction

As part of the Post-Georges Disaster Mitigation Project, the USAID / OAS are assisting the Government of St. Kitts and Nevis with the development of a natural hazard mitigation plan. As part of the 14-month process of plan development, two workshops on natural hazard mitigation and mitigation planning were held in St. Kitts and Nevis from June 13 to 16, 2000. The first workshop, an introduction to natural hazard mitigation, was held from June 13 to 15. The second workshop, designed to develop a workplan for the mitigation plan, was held on June 16. Both workshops were held at the Ocean Terrace Inn in Basseterre. This report summarises the activities and recommendations of the first workshop.

2.0 Goals and Objectives

The goal of the workshop was to introduce senior technical personnel in the public and private sector to the basic concepts and techniques of natural hazard mitigation and mitigation planning.

The objectives of the workshop were as follows:

    1. To sensitise participants to the characteristics of the natural hazards which affect St. Kitts and Nevis and the wider Caribbean, and to the vulnerability of natural and human resources to these hazards;
    2. To outline a common vocabulary of terms and to demonstrate basic techniques of hazard and vulnerability assessment;
    3. To outline the importance of natural hazard mitigation in development planning;
    4. To present the mitigation plan development process and to develop outlines of national and sectoral mitigation plans;
    5. To establish a baseline of information on natural hazards and resources at risk.

3.0 Workshop Description

The workshop agenda is presented as Appendix 1. Dr. Cassandra Rogers and Mrs. Lynette Atwell facilitated the workshop and were the lead presenters. Other presenters included Mr. Ellsworth Warner (hurricanes) and Mr. Don Grant (floods) of the St. Kitts and Nevis Meteorological Services.

A total of 41 participants, comprising senior personnel from the public and private sector, attended more than one day of the workshop (See Appendix 2). They included representatives from the National Emergency Management Agency, Public Works Division, Water Services Department, Physical Planning, Economic Planning, Human Resources, Agriculture, Lands and Housing, Health, Community and Social Development, Education, Tourism, Environment, Human Resources, Port Authority, Protected Services (Police and Fire), Insurance, the Contractors Association and the Red Cross and Information Services. The PGDM Project Manager also attended.

The first day of the workshop was devoted to a discussion of the different types of natural hazards which impact or are likely to impact on the country and the wider Caribbean, the role and importance of hazard mitigation in disaster management and a discussion of techniques for natural hazard and vulnerability assessment.

Day 2 was devoted to mitigation planning, its role in development and the detailed procedures for the development of mitigation plans, policies and programmes. On the final day, participants documented sources of information on natural hazards and resources at risk and presented the outlines of several mitigation plans.

The lecture material was directly applicable to the Caribbean. Where material was available, case studies focused on St. Kitts and Nevis. Participants also added to the discussion by sharing their experiences.

4.0 Outline Mitigation Plans

On Day 2 participants were divided into five groups; each group was required to develop the detailed outline of a mitigation plan. The groups selected were multisectoral in nature and were required to emphasize team-building and inter-agency collaboration. The following plans were developed:

On the final day, each group made 15-minute oral presentations of the plan outlines and also submitted written reports.

4.1 Recommendations from Groups

Each mitigation plan outline included several recommendations. These are presented in Appendix 4.

4.2 Comments on Outline Mitigation Plans

The reports submitted were of a high standard. The recommendations of the groups reflected concerns with the major hazards which confront St Kitts and Nevis. Based on the presentations, it was clear that there was a general understanding of the requirements for the development of a mitigation plan. The groups made a number of recommendations, some of which can be used in the proposed natural hazard mitigation plan for the country.

5.0 Workshop Evaluation

A summary of the responses to the workshop questionnaire is presented in Appendix 5. All participants rated the course as good or very good, and felt that the course had met its objectives and that it was very relevant to their jobs. All expressed, by questionnaire or during discussion, that the workshop was interesting and informative and rated the course very highly in terms of its success in improving understanding of natural hazards and hazard mitigation planning. The performances of both lead presenters were rated on average as good to very good. 95% of the participants felt that handouts were helpful. 40% rated the course length as poor or fair, while 60% rated it as good or very good. The large majority rated the physical facilities highly, although the majority felt that the availability of computers was poor or fair. Participants also noted that the approach taken at the workshop, in which they were they were required to research information for use in the development of plan outlines, enhanced their understanding of hazard mitigation and the mitigation plan development process.

  1. Consultants’ Comments and Recommendations

July 2, 2000

Appendix 1: Workshop Agenda



June 13-15, 2000

Facilitators: Dr. Cassandra Rogers, Mrs. Lynette Atwell



Tuesday 13 June 2000

9.00 – 9.45 Opening Ceremony

9.45 – 10.00 Break

10.00 – 10.15 Introduction

Session 1 Disaster Management and Natural Hazard Mitigation

10.15 – 10.35 Disaster management

Role and importance of mitigation

10.35 – 10.50 Coffee Break

10.50 – 11.10 Mitigation measures


Session 2 Hazard Mitigation Stages

Session 2A Hazard Identification, Mapping and Assessment

11.10 – 12.00 Natural Hazards in the Caribbean / St. Kitts and Nevis

12.00 – 1.00 Lunch

1.00 – 2.45 Natural Hazards in the Caribbean / St. Kitts and Nevis (cont’d)

2.45 – 3.00 Break

Session 2B Hazard / Vulnerability Assessment

3.00 – 3.25 Hazard mapping and assessment

3.25 – 3.50 Vulnerability assessment

3.50 – 4.00 Review

4.00 – 4.30 Exercise 1– Compilation of Available Hazard Data


Wednesday 14 June 2000

Session 3 Natural Hazard Mitigation Planning

8.30– 9.00 Why hazard mitigation Planning

9.00 – 9.30 Existing Hazard Mitigation Approaches, St. Kitts and Nevis

9.30 – 12.30 The Hazard Mitigation Plan Process

12.30 - 1.30 Lunch

Session 4 Development of Mitigation Plan Outlines

1.30 – 2.00 Exercise 2: Group Assignment - Presentation

2.00 - 4.30 Exercise 2: Group Assignment - Breakout


Thursday 15 June 2000

9.00 - 12.00 Exercise 2: Group Assignment - Breakout (Continued)

12.00- 1.00 Lunch

1.00 – 1.30 Exercise 2: Group Assignment - Breakout (Continued)

1.30 – 3.00 Presentation of Outline Mitigation Plans

3.00 – 3.15 Break

3.15 – 3.45 Discussion of Presentations

3.45 – 4.15 The Way Forward

4.15 – 4.45 Closing Ceremony

Appendix 2: List of Participants

Glen Bart SKN Information Service Assistant Manager 465-2521 466-4504
Lester Blackett Public Works Department, Nevis Director 469-1763 469-0199
Ivor W. Blake St. Kitts-Nevis Police Divisional Commander 465-3137/2241 465-7078
Rhon Boddie Department of Lands & Housing Urban Planner & Building Inspector 465-2521 ext.1114
Elmeader Brookes Department of Tourism, Nevis Director 469-1042 469-1066
Goldwyn Caines NEMA Public Relations Director 466-5100 466-5310
Hensley Daniel Vision 21 LTD., Nevis Managing Director 469-2589 469-1786
Osbert Desuza Planning Unit BNTF Project Manager 465-2521/1054 466-7398
Kingsley Elliott Ministry of Health, Nevis Health Services Adminis. 469-5521 469-5629  
Anthony Evelyn SKN Contractor Association President 465-8053 465-5623  
Natalie Fough Red Cross Director, St. Kitts Branch      
Carl Francis Public Works Department Engineer 465-2521 ext. 1122 465-5501
Dwight Francis Department of Lands & Housing Chief Surveyor 465-2521 ext. 1116 466-9876
Bronte Gonsalves Nevis Education Department Planner 469-5521 469-1440
Don Grant Civil Aviation ATC/Meteor. Officer 465-2750/49 465-9122
Ellis Hazel NEMA "Intern" 466-5100 466-5310
David Hendrickson Port Authority, Nevis Chief Security Officer 469-2001 469-2004
Berneece Herbert Planning and Development, Nevis Economic Planner 469-5521, ext. 2141 469-5485
Keith Heyliger Department of Lands & Housing Housing & Planning Officer 465-2521 466-9876
Simeon Hill Nevis Housing and Land Dev. Corp. Land Surveyor 469-5951 469-5761
Venetta Hobson-Moving Human Resources, Nevis Permanent Secretary 469-5521 469-1207
V. Ray John Observer Disaster Consultant 465-1353

David Keith OAS/USAID Local Coordinator, PGDM 466-4203 466-4205
Gene Knight Department of Agriculture Agricultural Engineer 465-2335 465-2928
Gene Laurenzi Observer Newspaper   466-4994    
Marlene D. Liburd Dept. of Community & Social Develop. Director 465-2521 ext.1154 465-1778  
Jovil Martin Dept. of Community & Social Develop. Counsellor 465-2521 ext.1307 465-1778
Lewis Newton Physical Planning Unit, Nevis Physical Planning Officer 469-5521 ext.2040 469-5485
Llewellyn Newton NEMA, Nevis Disaster Coordinator 469-1423 469-5407
Nathaniel Nisbett Fire Services, Nevis Officer G/C 469-3444    
Athill Rawlins Water Services Department Manager/Water Engineer 465-0183 466-7901
Edith Rogers British American Insurance Supervisor 465-2348 465-7858
Raymond Solomon Department of Environment Director 465-4040 ext. 128 466-3915  
Sheldon Thomas Civil Aviation Meteorological Officer 465-2749 465-9122  
Telca Wallace NEMA CWO District Coordinator 466-5100 466-5300
Ellsworth Warner Civil Aviation ATC/Meteor. Officer 465-2750/49 465-9122  
James Warner Fire Officer Fire Service Officer 465-8444 465-7078  
Jasemin Warner Planning Unit Project Officer I 465-2521/1249 466-7398
Cromwell Williams Water Services Department Assistant Engineer 465-0183 466-7901
Patrick Williams Physical Planning Division Senior Physical Plan. Offr. 465-2277/4702 466-7398
Steven Stichter OAS Project Manager- PGDM 202-458-3300 202-458-3560
Lynette Atwell OAS Consultant Planning Consultant 868-676-8730
Cassandra Rogers OAS Consultant Lecturer, UWI 868-662-2002 ext. 3440 868-645-7691

Appendix 3: Availability of Hazard and Resource Data


Data Type

Coverage and Data Format



General Hazard map of St. Kitts

SK, 1: 25000; paper map, not digitised

Physical Planning Unit (PPU)

  • shows recorded flood events, channels for potential pyroclastic flows, potential sites for liquefaction, potential sites for destructive storm surges, areas of high landslide potential
  • generalised map, Author Graeme Browne, UNDP/UNCHS
Storm Surge Storm surge atlas for St. Kitts and Nevis National; GIS- compatible CIMH
  • Seismic hazard (peak ground acceleration, maximum Mercalli Intensity, Maximum Velocity)
  • Shallow, intermediate and deep seismicity
National; GIS-compatible Seismic Research Unit
Floods Flood prone areas National; GIS-compatible PPU (SKN)
Landslides National; analogue
General data

(none digitised)

  • Slope map of St. Kitts
  • Slope map No. 1, St. Kitts
  • Rainfall and water management data
  • Land capability classes
  • Geology map of SK
  • St.Kitts contour map
  • - St. Kitts contour map- Sensitivity map



  • SK
  • SK
  • SK

SK; 1:25000







Original map scale 1:25000, this map seen as legal size photocopy; slope divisions <20%, 21-40%, 41-60%, >60%

UNDP Planning Office, 1973; 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, >20 degrees


Original map 1: 78125, seen as legal size photocopy

Based on geology maps of Martin Kaye and Baker; seen as legal size copy

Actual size seen, blueprint, no author indicated; Steep slope (>200),medium slope (100-200), gentle slope (50–100), low slope (20–50) with guts, ponds, water catchments

General data St. Kitts
  • General land use
  • Population distribution by settlements, St. Kitts
  • Land ownership in St. Kitts
  • Future land use proposal for St. Kitts


National Plan to reduce the vulnerability of school buildings to natural hazards in St. Kitts and Nevis


St. Kitts

St. Kitts, 1:25000













Bentley Associates, 1998

Seen on legal size photocopy





with tech assistance from UNDP/UNCHS, 1998

OAS-ECHO report


Appendix 4: Mitigation Plan Outlines - Recommendations from Groups


  1. Establish an interagency task force to oversee the establishment of a Hazard Mitigation Unit in the Department of Public Works.
  2. Develop the legal framework for the establishment of a local framework for a Hazard Mitigation Department within the Public Works Department.
  3. Design a budget to support institutional requirements with respect to mitigation.
  4. Procure and maintain appropriate heavy duty equipment for use in the Public Works Department


  1. That funding be provided for a hazard mitigation officer for Nevis
  2. That technical assistance is provided for the development of mitigation strategies for districts in Nevis.
  3. That a standard format is prepared for documenting the impacts of natural hazard events.
  4. That an all hazards safety programme is developed for all government buildings in Nevis.
  5. That wells be designed and constructed in ghauts to stabilize ghaut levels and to control flow direction
  6. That rock revetments be designed and constructed for threatened coastal areas in Nevis
  7. That a hazard mitigation awareness campaign is developed for i) the general public and ii) all schools at the primary level


This group made recommendations for selected hazards.


  1. That there should be technical training for persons involved in construction of tourism plants.
  2. That physical structures used for activities related to tourism are upgraded using relevant building codes.


  1. That there is the need to increase the expertise with respect to the following:
  2. - infrastructure development
    - land use planning
    - risk and hazard mapping
    - hazard vulnerability

  3. That there is a need to revegetate nature trails and waterways.
  4. That external funding for a mitigation research and development programme for flooding should be sought.


  1. That access should be provided to monitoring equipment for volcanic activity.
  2. That a local data base for volcanic activity needs to be developed in conjunction with the Seismic Research Unit.



  1. That existing buildings which house telecommunication facilities should be redesigned to resist earthquakes.
  2. That existing facilities are strengthened to resist wind loading.
  3. That there should be regular inspection of underground cables to ensure that there is no build up of excess water.
  4. Where possible, relocate the main fibre optic ring away from the coastline.
  5. Relocate, redesign and construct retaining walls to reduce hazard impacts.


  1. Carry out studies to inform the development of drainage systems in major developments, so that roads are not adversely affected.
  2. Develop methods to stabilize slopes so that roads are not affected by runoff.


  1. That reservoirs and pipelines are designed to resist earthquakes
  2. That pipelines and electrical wires to pumps are placed underground to avoid wind damage.
  3. That reservoirs are sited in areas removed from lava flow.
  4. That all water intakes are removed to lower elevations to avoid the impact of volcanoes
  5. That proper drainage and soil conservation measures be undertaken on slopes.
  6. Redesign intakes so that they are not susceptible to silting up from landslides.


  1. That a bund wall 18 to 24 inches high around the power station is constructed to avoid road damage.
  2. That an underground system is developed for power lines.


  1. That the proposed Development and Planning Act is enacted to provide the legal basis for planning and development control in St. Kitts and Nevis.
  2. That a Development and Planning Authority is established under the aegis of the proposed Development and Planning Act.
  3. That planning and development control procedures are made available to the public through the compilation and publication of the following manuals:
    1. A planning procedures manual
    2. EIA procedure manuals
    3. A manual for developers
  4. That a comprehensive National Physical Development Plan is prepared every five years.
  5. That comprehensive land use plans are prepared for each community.
  6. That a GIS section should be established in the Physical Planning Department to facilitate the needs of the planning agency as well as other agencies.
  7. That the required regulations are put in place to support the Planning and Development Act.
  8. That the draft infrastructure, planning standards and building code manual prepared by OECS, NRMU and UNCHS should be reviewed, refined and streamlined in accordance with local needs.
  9. That zoning and subdivision regulations should be introduced.
  10. Standards for Hazardous Areas
    1. In areas subject to coastal erosion a distance of 30 times the annual rate of erosion for the particular coastal area be used as the set back for residential buildings.
    2. In areas subject to coastal erosion a distance of 60 times the annual rate of erosion be used as the setback for multi family residences and hotel structures greater than 5000 sq. ft.
    3. In hazard prone areas developers should be given the option of concentrating development on portions of the site deemed low risk.
    4. That incentive zoning regulations are adopted for high hazard areas, allowing bonuses for developments where amenities or concessions are made by developers.
  11. That a differential taxation programme is adopted for coastal hazard areas to reduce the property tax on undeveloped parcels of land thereby reducing the pressure o convert the lands to more intensive uses.
  12. That the adoption of "impact fees" is considered where public expenditure is required to recoup or mitigate the overall impacts of a project or development
  13. That an "Emergency Management Preparedness and Assistance Trust Fund" is established. This Fund will impose a surcharge on insurance premiums on properties to be developed in high – hazard areas.
  14. That a public awareness programme is undertaken before the onset of the hurricane season to inform residents of:
    1. the nature and location of hazard zones
    2. how to windproof and flood proof their homes
    3. actions that can be taken to enhance the integrity of their existing structures to reduce property damage.

Appendix 5: Workshop Evaluation




June 13 – 15, 2000


Workshop Questionnaire

(20 respondents)

In an effort to improve the quality of subsequent courses, please answer the following questions.

1 = Very Poor; 2 = Poor; 3 = Fair; 4 = Good; 5 = Very Good; n/a = not applicable.

1. How would you rate the following:

2. Were the handouts helpful in improving your understanding of the course material? 4.3

3. Was the course helpful in improving your understanding of natural hazards and hazard mitigation planning: In your current job? 4.3

4. Did the course meet its objectives? 4.2

5. How would you rate the course on an overall basis? 4.5

6. Do you intend to use this information directly in your current job? Explain.

  7. How could the course be improved?

  8. Add any additional comments here.