NATURAL HAZARD MITIGATION WORKSHOP

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

May 15 – 17, 2000

WORKSHOP REPORT

prepared by

Cassandra T. Rogers, Ph.D.

Lynette Atwell, B.A.; Dip. (Planning)

for

USAID / OAS

Post-Georges Disaster Mitigation Project

June 1, 2000


Table of Contents

  1. Introduction1
  2. Goals and Objectives1
  3. Workshop Description2
  4. Hazard and Resource Database3
  5. Outline Mitigation Plans3
    1. Recommendations from Groups3

5.2 Comments on Outline Mitigation Plans 4

6.0 Workshop Evaluation 4

7.0 Consultants’ Recommendations 5

 

List of Appendices

Appendix 1 Workshop Agenda 7

Appendix 2 List of Participants 9

Appendix 3 Availability of Hazard and Resource Data 10

Appendix 4 Mitigation Plan Outlines – Recommendations from Groups 12

Appendix 5 Workshop Evaluation 14

 


  1. Introduction

As part of the Post-Georges Disaster Mitigation Project, the USAID / OAS are assisting the Government of Antigua and Barbuda with the development of a natural hazard mitigation plan. As part of the 14-month process of plan development, two workshops on natural hazard mitigation and mitigation planning were held in Antigua and Barbuda from May 15 to 18, 2000. The first workshop, an introduction to natural hazard mitigation, was held from May 15 – 17 at the Royal Antiguan Hotel in St. John’s. The second workshop, designed to develop a workplan for the mitigation plan, was held on May 18 at the conference room of the National Office of Disaster Services (NODS) in St. John’s. This report summarises the activities and recommendations of the first workshop.

2.0 Goals and Objectives

The goal of the workshop was to introduce senior technical personnel in the public and private sector to the basic concepts and techniques of natural hazard mitigation and mitigation planning.

The objectives of the workshop were as follows:

    1. To sensitise participants to the characteristics of the natural hazards which affect Antigua and Barbuda and the wider Caribbean, and to the vulnerability of natural and human resources to these hazards;
    2. To outline a common vocabulary of terms and to demonstrate basic techniques of hazard and vulnerability assessment;
    3. To outline the importance of natural hazard mitigation in development planning;
    4. To present the mitigation plan development process and to develop outlines of national and sectoral mitigation plans;
    5. To establish a baseline of information on natural hazards and resources at risk.

3.0 Workshop Description

The workshop agenda is presented as Appendix 1. Dr. Cassandra Rogers and Mrs. Lynette Atwell facilitated the workshop and were the lead presenters. Other presenters included Mr. Patrick Jeremiah, Director of the Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Services (hurricanes and coastal storms) and Mr. Philmore Mullin, Deputy Director of the National Office of Disaster Services (floods; existing disaster mitigation approaches in Antigua and Barbuda).

A total of 23 persons, comprising senior personnel from the public and private sector, attended (See Appendix 2). Participants included district disaster coordinators, representatives from the National Office of Disaster Services (NODS), Public Works Division, Development Control Authority, Ministries of Planning, Health, Tourism and Environment, Commerce and Finance, the Antigua and Barbuda Public Utilities Authority, the Barbuda Council and the Protected Services (Police and Defence Force). The agriculture, fisheries, forestry, education, housing, engineering, insurance and private sectors were not represented.

The first day of the workshop was devoted to a discussion of the different types of natural hazards which impact or are likely to impact on the country and the wider Caribbean, the role and importance of hazard mitigation in disaster management and a discussion of techniques for natural hazard and vulnerability assessment.

Day 2 was devoted to mitigation planning, its role in development and the detailed procedures for the development of mitigation plans, policies and programmes. On the final day, participants documented sources of information on natural hazards and resources at risk and presented the outlines of several mitigation plans.

The lecture material was directly applicable to the Caribbean. Where material was available, case studies focused on Antigua and Barbuda. Participants also added to the discussion by sharing their experiences.

4.0 Hazard and Resource Database

Although prior to the workshop, the consultants had made a request for participants to bring relevant hazard and resource data to the workshop, none of the participants did so. Therefore, on the final day, participants were asked to document the relevant data types and sources available at national and sectoral levels, as a first step in developing the database. This information and other relevant data available (to date) to the consultants, is presented as Appendix 3.

5.0 Outline Mitigation Plans

On Day 2 participants were divided into four groups; each group was required to develop the detailed outline of a national or selected sectoral mitigation plan. The groups selected were multisectoral and were required to emphasize team-building and inter-agency collaboration. The following plans were developed:

On the final day, each group made 10-minute oral presentations of the plan outlines and also submitted written reports.

5.1 Recommendations from Groups

Each mitigation plan outline included several recommendations. These are presented in Appendix 4.

5.2 Comments on Outline Mitigation Plans

Participants appeared to have some difficulty in completing the exercise, and one group did not complete the exercise. There was general understanding of what was required to prepare a mitigation plan outline. However, participants seemed somewhat confused about the appropriate structure of their reports, in spite of the fact that they were provided with an outline of requirements. In addition, three groups proposed preparedness activities in their plan outlines. Some of the difficulty appear to be related to i) the limited time allocated to cover the subject material vis a vis the quantity of material to be presented and ii) unclear understanding on the part of some participants of the concept of mitigation. Participants’ comments in the workshop evaluation confirmed this.

6.0 Workshop Evaluation

A summary of the responses to the workshop questionnaire is presented in Appendix 5. All participants rated the course as good or very good, and felt that the course had met its objectives. All expressed, by questionnaire or during discussion, that the workshop was interesting and informative and rated the course highly in terms of its success in improving understanding of natural hazards and hazard mitigation planning. Many indicated specific ways in which they would use the information gleaned in their individual organisations. The performance of both lead presenters was rated as good or very good. Participants felt that handouts were helpful but that they should have been distributed at the beginning of the course. The vast majority felt that the course was too short in length. Many felt that the course could be improved if participants were exposed to more of the subject material, given more handouts, more exercises and more time to develop outline mitigation plans. Several participants also suggested that more key agencies should have attended and that the course should be presented to government ministers.

7.0 Consultants’ Recommendations

It is to be noted that the consultants had recommended a four-day programme and had prepared an agenda for same. This recommendation was based on their wide experience in delivering this course in other countries over the last year. The consultants continue to recommend that future workshops are four days in length.

Several key sectors did not attend, including the agriculture, forestry, fisheries, education, housing, engineering, insurance and private sectors. In addition, public works was not adequately represented. In particular, the Mitigation Committee and local coordinator, the group which will have responsibility for executing the plan, was not yet formed by the time of this workshop. The absence of these key players at this workshop may adversely affect the quality of the mitigation plan and the time allocated to complete same.

 


Appendix 1

Workshop Agenda

 

USAID/OAS NATURAL HAZARD MITIGATION WORKSHOP

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

May 15- 17, 2000

Facilitators: Dr. Cassandra Rogers, Mrs. Lynette Atwell

 

Monday 15 May 2000

9.00 – 9.45 Opening Ceremony

9.45 – 9.55 Break

Session 1 Natural Hazards in the Caribbean / Antigua

10.00 – 10.15 Overview

10.15 – 10.35 Hurricanes and Coastal Storms (P. Jeremiah)

10.35 – 10.50 Coffee Break

10.50 – 11.10 Earthquakes and Tsunamis

11.10 – 11.30 Volcanoes

11.30 – 11.50 Flooding (P. Mullin)

11.50 – 12.10 Landslides

12.10 – 1.10 Lunch

1.10 - 1.20 Review

1.20 – 1.40 Economic, social and environmental consequences of natural disasters

Session 2 Hazard Mitigation and Disaster Management

1.40 – 2.00 Hazard mitigation and the disaster management cycle

Session 3 Hazard Mitigation Stages

2.00 – 2.20 Hazard mapping and assessment

2.20 – 2.50 Vulnerability assessment

2.50 - 3.10 Mitigation measures

3.10 – 3.25 Break

3.25 – 4.00 Task 1 - Development of baseline of available hazard information

Tuesday 16 May 2000

Session 4 Natural Hazard Mitigation Planning

8.30– 9.00Why Hazard Mitigation Planning

9.00 – 9.30 Existing Hazard Mitigation Approaches, Antigua and Barbuda (P. Mullin)

9.30 – 12.30 The Hazard Mitigation Plan Process

- Basic Principles for Plan Preparation

- Plan Formulation

- Tools and Techniques

- Co-ordinating plan preparation and resource sharing

- Stakeholders

12.30 - 1.30 Lunch

1.30 – 2.30 Group Assignments, Review and discussion

2.30 - 4.30 Group Assignments - Breakout

 

Wednesday 17 May 2000

9.00 - 12.00 Group Assignments - Breakout (Continued)

12.30- 1.00 Lunch

1.00 – 1.30 Group Assignments – Breakout (Continued)

1.30 – 2.30 Presentations

2.30 – 3.00 Discussion of Presentations

3.00 – 3.15 Break

3.15 – 3.45 Review; The Way Forward

3.45 – 4.15 Closing Ceremony

 


Appendix 2

List of Participants

NAME SURNAME

ORGANISATION

POST

TEL.

FAX

EMAIL

Claudette Anthony

Min. of Finance

Princ. Asst. Sec.

462-4860/1

462-1622

Ian Bailey

S. Mary's North

Shelter Manager

462-7134

462-3733

Joyce Baldwin

Royal Police Force/Fire Dept.

Asst. Supt. Police

460-7203

462-0044

Atkinson Beazer

Barbuda Council

Deputy Chairman

460-0077; 562-1505

460-0410

barbudacouncil@candw.ag

Adelle Blair

Min. of Tourism-Env. Div.

Environmental Officer

462-6265

462-6265

adelb@candw.ag

Adelta Burton

All Saints East and St. Luke

Coordinator

560-3013

kelafe@candw.ag

Brenda Cornelius

Min. of Commerce

Asst. Secretary

462-1628

Charlesworth Davis

Min. Public Works, Design Div.

Chief Architect

462-1825

462-1825

cbarrydavis@netscape.net

Major Glyne Dunnah

AB Defence Force

CO, Serv. And Supp. Unit

462-9576

462-2716

dunnah@candw.ag

Desiree Edwards

Min. of Tourism

Tourism HRD/Training Officer

462-4625

462-6348

mintourenv@candw.ag

desed@hotmail.com

Joan Gomes

Soc. Improv. Sector

Social Dev. Officer

562-2574

Almira Henry

Min. of Planning

Social Sector Planner

462-6428

psplanning@candw.ag

Eric R. Henry

Min. of Health

Administrative Secretary

462-5522

462-5003

henry@antigualife.com

Gillian Henry

Min. Foreign Affairs

Foreign Service Officer

462-1052

462-2482

min-foreign@candw.ag

Patrick Jeremiah

Meteorological Services

Director

462-3229

462-4606

metoff@candw.ag

Egbert Joseph

Rural South Disaster Comm.

Chairperson

463-4764

Fiona Lewis

St. Pauls Disaster Group

Senior Clerk

460-3275

-

Jack Martindale

Carib. Dev. Bank

Technical Officer

Victor Meade

APUA

T&D Engineer

727-7244

Clarence L. Mitchell

APUA

Plant Engineer

480-7452

480-7469

Clarencelmitch@hotline.com

Philmore Mullin

NODS

Deputy Director

562-2244

462-4742

nods@candw.ag

Milton Pringle

APUA

Planning Coordinator

480-7256

Veronica Yearwood

APUA

Hydrologist

480-7063

480-7338

veronica_yearwood@hotmail.com

Steven Stichter

OAS

Project Manager, PGDM Project

202-458-3300

sstichter@oas.org

Lynette Atwell

OAS Consultant

Planning Consultant

868-676-8730

atwell@tstt.net.tt

Cassandra Rogers

OAS Consultant

Lecturer, UWI

868-662-2002, ext. 3440

868-645-7691

crogers@carib-link.net

 


Appendix 3

Availability of Hazard and Resource Data

 

HAZARDS

 

Data Type

 

Coverage and

Data Format

Source

Comments

Hurricanes

 

 

 

 

 

Earthquakes

 

 

 

Floods

Landslides

Erosion

  • Tracks and maximum wind speeds for Hurricanes Gabrielle and Hugo (1989), Luis and Marilyn (1995), Georges (1998), Tropical Storms Iris (1995)
  • Storm surge maps for Luis and Georges

 

  • Seismic hazard (peak ground acceleration, maximum Mercalli Intensity, Maximum Velocity)
  • Shallow, intermediate and deep seismicity
  • Flood prone areas, Hurricane Lenny
  • Landslide prone areas
  • Erosion risk

 

 

National;

GIS- compatible

 

Antigua; GIS-compatible

 

National; GIS-compatible

 

National; GIS compatible

Antigua; GIS

Antigua; GIS

Antigua; GIS

Antigua Meteorological Office, CIMH

Antigua Meteorological Office, CIMH

Seismic Research Unit

Seismic Research Unit

DCA, NODS

DCA, NODS

DCA, NODS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regional maps of the Caribbean Basin

 

Regional maps of the Caribbean Basin

Accuracy to be checked

"

"

General data
  • Coast
  • Contours at 25’ intervals
  • Cadastral boundaries

Antigua only

  • Hydrology, water courses
  • Geology

Barbuda

  • Ponds and sinkholes, cliffs

National; GIS

To be verified

Island; GIS

 

 

 

Island; GIS

DCA

 

 

DCA

 

 

 

DCA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESOURCE DATA

 

Data Type

 

Coverage and

Data Format

Source

Comments

General data

Antigua only

  • Parish boundaries
  • Enumeration districts
  • Electoral districts
  • Settlements
  • Roads (main and secondary)
  • Hotels

Power stations

Gas stations

Schools

Churches

Shelters

Generalisd Land Use

Historical Sites

Agricultural Land Capability

 

 

Island; GIS

 

 

 

 

 

 

To be verified; GIS

DCA

 

 

 

 

 

 

DCA

To be verified

 

 

 

 

 

 

To be verified

 

 

 


Appendix 4

Mitigation Plan Outlines - Recommendations from Groups

 

NATIONAL NATURAL HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN

    1. That mitigation should form an integral part of the development process
    2. That communities should be provided with the necessary mitigation tools to:
    1. reduce loss of life;
    2. ensure that they are able to continue to earn a livelihood in order to reduce poverty caused by disasters.

 

NATURAL HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN FOR THE HEALTH SECTOR

    1. That disaster mitigation should be dealt with in a holistic manner
    2. That there should be coordination among all sectors and agencies
    3. That networking between the private and public sector should be fostered
    4. That there is the need to review the existing legislation as it relates to natural hazard mitigation
    5. That there is the need to preserve and treat supplementary water supplies.

 

NATURAL HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN FOR THE INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR

    1. That opportunities exist to strengthen construction practice and building codes through application of standards
    2. That the existing land use legislation/regulations need to be enforced
    3. That there is the need for public awareness, education and training in natural hazard mitigation.

 

 

NATURAL HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN FOR THE TOURISM SECTOR

    1. That a natural hazard mitigation plan is developed for the tourism sector
    2. That a mitigation committee is formed to develop a mitigation plan for the sector
    3. That a methodology is developed for assessing the effectiveness of the plan as a mitigation tool, and that based on this methodology, the proposed tourism mitigation plan is revised annually
    4. That operators within the tourism sector are sensitized to the vulnerability of the sector to natural hazards so that they are aware of the locational and structural requirements for tourist infrastructure
    5. That the land use planning agency is strengthened
    6. That the existing building code is enforced
    7. That hotels are constructed at a specified distance from the high water mark. This should be a legislative requirement.
    8. That the existing beach protection legislation is updated and enforced
    9. That sand mining on the beaches is monitored.
    10. That continuous training and education on natural hazard mitigation are carried out for the sector.

 


Appendix 5

Workshop Evaluation

USAID/OAS

POST-GEORGES DISASTER MITIGATION PROJECT

WORKSHOP ON NATURAL HAZARD MITIGATION

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

May 15 – 17, 2000

 

Workshop Questionnaire

(23 respondents)

In an effort to improve the quality of subsequent courses, please answer the following questions.

1 = Very Poor; 2 = Poor; 3 = Fair; 4 = Good; 5 = Very Good; n/a = not applicable.

1. How would you rate the following:

 

2. Were the handouts helpful in improving your understanding of the course material?

3. Was the course helpful in improving your understanding of natural hazards and hazard mitigation planning: 4.2

4. Do you intend to use this information directly in your current job? Explain.

5. Did the course meet its objectives?

6. How would you rate the course on an overall basis? 4.5

7. How could the course be improved?

  8. Add any additional comments here.