Multilateral Treaties

 B-45: INTER-AMERICAN CONVENTION ON GENERAL RULES OF PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW   


        ADOPTED AT: MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY                                         

              DATE: 05/08/79

CONF/ASSEM/MEETING: SECOND INTER-AMERICAN SPECIALIZED CONFERENCE ON PRIVATE     
                    INTERNATIONAL LAW                                           
                            ,
  ENTRY INTO FORCE: 06/10/81   ONE YEAR AFTER THE RESERVATION MADE BY URUGUAY   
                               WAS CONSULTED                                    

        DEPOSITORY: GENERAL SECRETARIAT, OAS (ORIGINAL INSTRUMENT AND           
                    RATIFICATIONS)                                              
                            ,           ,
              TEXT: OAS, TREATY SERIES, NO. 54                                  

   UN REGISTRATION: 06/28/89  No. 24637   Vol.       

      OBSERVATIONS: This Convention shall remain open for signature by the      
                    Member States of the OAS and for accession by any other     
                    state.                                                      

               GENERAL INFORMATION OF THE TREATY: B-45               

===============================================================================
SIGNATORY COUNTRIES    SIGNATURE REF   RA/AC/AD REF   DEPOSIT INST  INFORMA REF
===============================================================================
Argentina ...........   12/01/83       11/07/83       12/01/83 RA     /  /     
Bolivia .............   08/02/83         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Brazil ..............   05/08/79       08/31/95       11/27/95 RA     /  /     
Chile ...............   05/08/79         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Colombia ............   05/08/79       06/09/81       09/10/81 RA     /  /     
Costa Rica ..........   05/08/79         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Dominican Republic ..   05/08/79         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Ecuador .............   05/08/79       04/27/82       05/18/82 RA     /  /     
El Salvador .........   08/11/80         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Guatemala ...........   05/08/79       12/15/87       01/13/88 RA     /  /     
Haiti ...............   05/08/79         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Honduras ............   05/08/79         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Mexico ..............   08/03/82  R 1  01/21/83  R a  04/19/84 RA     /  /     
Panama ..............   05/08/79         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Paraguay ............   05/08/79       07/05/85       08/16/85 RA     /  /     
Peru ................   05/08/79       04/09/80       05/15/80 RA     /  /     
Uruguay .............   05/08/79 D  2  02/12/80 DR b  05/15/80 RA     /  /     
Venezuela ...........   05/08/79       11/06/85       12/18/85 RA     /  /     
===============================================================================
REF = REFERENCE                                      INST = TYPE OF INSTRUMENT
       D = DECLARATION                                      RA = RATIFICATION
       R = RESERVATION                                      AC = ACCEPTANCE
INFORMA  = INFORMATION REQUIRED BY THE TREATY               AD = ACCESSION
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                                              
         B-45. INTER-AMERICAN CONVENTION ON GENERAL RULES                     
                   OF PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW                               
                                                                              
                                                                              
1. Mexico:                                                                    
                                                                              
   Signed ad referendum.                                                      
                                                                              
     (Reservation made at the time of signature)                              
                                                                              
   Mexico interprets Article 2 to mean that it creates an                     
obligation only when the existence of the foreign law has been                
proved before the judge or authority or its provisions are made               
known to them in some other way.                                              
                                                                              
2. Uruguay:                                                                   
                                                                              
   (Declaration made at the time of signature)                                
                                                                              
   The scope of public order:                                                 
                                                                              
   Uruguay wishes to state that it expressly ratifies the line of             
thought enunciated in Panama at CIDIP-I, reaffirming its genuine Pan          
American spirit and its clear and positive decision to contribute             
with its ideas and endorsement to the successful development of the           
legal community.                                                              
                                                                              
   This line of thinking and conduct has been evidenced in                    
undoubtable form by the unreserved ratification by Uruguay of all             
the Conventions of Panama, approved by law number 14,534 in 1976.             
                                                                              
   In line with the foregoing, Uruguay gives its affirmative vote             
to the formula regarding public order.  Nevertheless, Uruguay wishes          
to state expressly and clearly that, in accordance with the position          
it maintained in Panama, its interpretation of the aforementioned             
exception refers to international public order as an individual               
juridical institution, not necessarily identifiable with the                  
internal public order of each state.                                          
                                                                              
   Therefore, in the opinion of Uruguay, the approved formula                 
conveys an exceptional authorization to the various States Parties            
to declare in a nondiscretionary and well-founded manner that the             
precepts of foreign law are inapplicable whenever these concretely            
and in a serious and open manner offend the standards and principles          
essential to the international public order on which each individual          
state bases its legal individuality.                                          
                                                                              
                                                                              
a. Mexico:                                                                    
                                                                              
   (Reservation made at the time of ratification)                             
                                                                              
   Consultation began April 19, 1983, in conformity with Resolution           
AG/RES. 102 of 1973.  The period of twelve months for the                     
consultation expired April 18, 1984, without any objection being              
raised to the reservation.                                                    
                                                                              
   The text of the reservation is the same formulated at the time             
of signing the Convention.                                                    
                                                                              
b. Uruguay:                                                                   
                                                                              
   (Declaration made at the time of ratification)                             
                                                                              
   With the declaration made at the time of signature.                        
                                                                              
   (Reservation made at the time of ratification)                             
                                                                              
   The Government of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay makes a                 
reservation with respect to Article Six of the Inter-American                 
Convention on General Rules of Private International Law by                   
understanding:                                                                
                                                                              
   First - That its admissibility would signify introducing a new             
exception to the normal application of the regularly compe- tent              
foreign law according to the rule of conflict;                                
                                                                              
   Second - That the exception would function only when the                   
application of the law itself has been affected;                              
                                                                              
   Third - That it introduces an element of subjectivity that is              
difficult to perceive, by opening the door to presumptions of                 
doubtful validity in the face of the clear text of the rule in                
conflict;                                                                     
                                                                              
   Fourth - In many cases it would go against the principle of the            
choice of law of the parties and considering the clearly objective            
nature of many points of contact, such as the domicile, it would be           
eliminating the texts approved in the Conference on that point of             
contact such as Article Two of the Convention on Domicile of Natural          
Persons;                                                                      
                                                                              
   Fifth - Uruguay will acknowledge that fraud has been committed             
in the law in cases that can be prejudicial to the interests of the           
country but not in those concerning merely                                    
private relations;                                                            
      Sixth - If the point of contact is established fraudulently in          
order not to comply with the law, the point of contact does not               
exist.                                                                        

Text of the Treaty