Prepared with the support of the Department of Transportation of the United States of America as part of the Western Hemisphere Transport Initiative (WHTI)
February 28, 2001
List of Figures
Appendix A (Spanish): Cuestionario para Encuestas
Appendix B (Spanish): Autoridades que Respondieron las Encuestas
Appendix C (Spanish): Convenio de Asistencia Mutua para la Reducción de Vulnerabilidad de Daños en la Infraestructura del Sector Transporte en Centroamérica ante la Ocurrencia de Eventos Naturales Peligrosos
Appendix D (Spanish): Pautas para un Proceso Prelicitatorio
During the preparation of this document, many institutions and individuals gave freely of their time, knowledge and experience to help collect, analyze and comment on the current and future state of mutual assistance in case of damage to transportation sector infrastructure and its vulnerability reduction in Central America. While it is impossible to adequately acknowledge all those who contributed to the preparation of this document, it is possible to mention the contributions from the collaborators identified below.
Representatives of the different transportation modes in Central America were generous in providing information through the survey forms, as well answering questions and commenting on conclusions and recommendations as they were drafted.
Lic. José A. Estrada Vega
Gerente Aeropuerto El Salvador
Comisión Ejecutiva Porturia Autónoma
Mauricio E. Rival Rodas
Dirección General de Transporte Aéreo del Salvador
Lic. José R. Rodriguez Gutierrez
Director General de Transporte Aéreo
Cap. Javier A. García
Director General de Aeronáutica Civil
Aeropuerto La Aurora
Lic. Luis R. Leiva Teruel
Director General de Aeronáutica Civil
Lic. Uriel Lanzas Gallo
Director General de Aeronáutica Civil
Aeropuerto Internacional de Managua
Jaime I. Fábrega Q.
Dirección de Aeronáutica Civil
Lic. Eduardo Marin
Uriel Urbizo Fley
Juan R. Rivera
Junta de Administración Portuaria y de Desarrollo Económico (JAPDEVA
Ing. Guillermo Ruiz Castro
Instituto Costarricense de Puertos del Pacífico (INCOP)
Alfredo Walker Brown
Departamento de Planificación, JAPDEVA
Comisión Ejecutiva Portuaria (CEPA)
Comisión Portuaria Nacional
Empresa Portuaria Nacional (EPN)
Juan A. Manelia
Jefe de Control de Contaminación
Autoridad Marítima de Panamá
Alvaro Escamilla Gutierrez
Director General de Emergencias
Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Transportes
Oscar A. Diaz Ruiz
Director Unidad de Planificación Vial
Ministerio de Obras Públicas
Edelberto A. Teos Morales
Jefe del Departamento de Gestión Ambiental
Dirección General de Caminos
Ing. Ana María Pavón
Jefe Unidad Apoyo Técnico
Secretaria de Estado en los Despachos de Obras Públicas, Transporte y Vivienda
Dirección General de Carreteras
Jefe de Planificación
Ministerio de Transporte
Ing. Federico Bequer
Director Nacional de Mantenimiento
Ministerio de Obras Públicas
In addition, Joan W. Bauerlein, Division of Finance and Basic Infrastructure, Inter-American Development Bank, was helpful in coordinating with Central American aviation officials and in counseling on aviation issues. Carlos Gallegos of the Inter-American Committee on Ports at the OAS facilitated contacts and cooperation with the maritime transportation authorities. Carl Sobremisana and his team from the U.S. Maritime Administration (U.S. MARAD) provided helpful insights into port vulnerability issues. Raul Leclair and Rafael Perez facilitated an exchange of information with the highway transportation sub-sector personnel in Central America. Bernard Becq, World Bank transportation engineer, contributed information on related post disaster reconstruction projects.
Several private company officials provided background information on corporate relationships with governments and emergency officials. The Clean Caribbean Cooperative provided particularly useful examples related to its agreement and procedures.
William Medigovich and Janet Benini of the Office of Emergency Transportation (OET) at the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) provided unwavering support throughout the preparation of the document and were instrumental in assuring that this activity was included in the U.S. interagency program for post-Hurricane Mitch reconstruction as not only a contribution to Central America but also as a pilot for the Western Hemisphere Transportation Initiative (WHTI) Priority Action Area 3 on mutual assistance. Barbara Barajas and Tom Scott of OET provided needed administrative orientation and support.
Ray Lynch at the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) encouraged and facilitated a useful exchange of information with the other participants of the U.S. interagency program for post-Mitch reconstruction.
This document was prepared by Oliver Davidson and Susana Castiglione, independent international consultants whose experience, expertise and knowledge of the subject matter and development issues in Latin America and the Caribbean contributed greatly to the breath and depth to which the subject matter could be covered. Overall coordination of the design and preparation of the document was the responsibility of Stephen Bender with the assistance of Paula Tibabuzo, and contributions from Sylvana Ricciarini and Melanie Dillon, all from the Organization of American States, Unit for Sustainable Development and Environment (OAS/OSDE). Solidad MacKinnon, consultant, and Maria Eugenia Garcia, and Mauricio Martinez, interns, assisted with the translation and editing of the document.
The Ministerial Declaration adopted by the Western Hemisphere Transportation Initiative (WHTI) in December 1998, and the impact of Hurricane Mitch that same year became two of the catalysts for this report.
In December 1998, the Ministers of Transport of the Americas, who had gotten together before in the Summit of the Americas (Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 1996) and in Santiago (Chile, 1998), gathered in New Orleans and agreed to continue in a joint effort to face the common problems in the transportation sector and to promote the creation of the Western Hemisphere Transportation Initiative (WHTI). In the meeting, the Ministers of Transport created a Plan of Action in the main areas. Among the objectives to reach were: (a) to integrate transportation (all modes) policies and procedures among all the western hemisphere countries, and (b) to increase the efforts to prevent disasters that would involve the transportation system and the environment, as well as to improve the response mechanisms.
In that same meeting, among other actions, it was agreed: "Recognizing that weather-related or other destruction of essential transportation infrastructure hampers post-disaster relief efforts and that the rebuilding of such infrastructure is key to the economic recovery of countries in the region which experiences such disasters, we agree to develop a Western Hemisphere Transportation Disaster Response Plan to more effectively respond sub regionally and regionally to weather related disasters."
A regional approach
The impact of Hurricane Mitch has made more evident the need for a coordinated response to emergency situations and the vulnerability reduction of the transportation sector in Central America with cooperation among the Center for Natural Disaster Prevention in Central America (CEPREDENAC), the Commission of Ministries of Transport (COMITRAN), the Commission Central American Maritime Transportation Committee (COCATRAM), the Inter-American Committee on Ports (ICP), and national transportation and civil defense organizations.
In the twenty-first Summit of Presidents of Central America held in Guatemala in October 1999, the presidents subscribed the Declaración de Guatemala II which identifies 2000-2004 as the Central American Period for Vulnerability and Impact Reduction of Natural Hazards. They also appointed CEPREDENAC as the coordinating entity of the activities to be carried out to reach the summit goals. As part of that institution’s efforts, the Materials and Methods Laboratory at the University of Costa Rica (UC/LANAMME) prepared a project proposal on disaster reduction of the Central American transportation sector, which is part of the proposals to be considered by the Consultative Group process lead by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The first draft of this study was discussed in response to Resolution 01-99 adopted in its XXI Meeting in November 1999 of COMITRAN, which asked SIECA to organize a regional workshop so that an action plan for disaster prevention and mitigation in the transportation sector could be formulated. The workshop took place in San José, Costa Rica in March 2000, with the assistance of the Ministry of Transportation and Public Works of Costa Rica, OAS/OSDE, CEPREDENAC, and COCATRAM.
SIECA had also obtained support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to prepare a study on proposed regional norms and standards for development of primary national highways that form part of the Pan American Highway and auxiliary road transportation corridors in Central America. These two studies would complement the ongoing Central America Transportation Study (ECAT) aimed at defining long-term highway development needs in the region.
The participation of the OAS
The Unit for Sustainable Development of the Organization of American States (OAS/OSDE) has had an active role in vulnerability reduction to natural hazards and has been supporting disaster reduction activities related to the transportation sector. Prior to Hurricane Mitch the OAS/OSDE approached the Central American Secretariat for Economic Integration (SIECA) and COMITRAN on the need to begin a systematic evaluation of the Pan American Highway to natural hazards.
Following that disastrous event, and as part of the U.S. Government’s interagency support of reconstruction activities in the affected countries, which are coordinated by the USAID, the OAS/OSDE approached the U.S, Department of Transportation (USDOT) for financial support studies on the disaster reduction of the Central America transportation sector. One component of those studies is a the preparation of a document to identify existing and potential mechanisms for mutual assistance in case of damage to infrastructure and vulnerability reduction of the transportation sector in Central America. This study also forms part of USDOT’s support of the implementation of the Western Hemisphere Transportation Initiative (WHTI) through is action plan adopted at the WHTI meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana in December 1998.
Prior to undertaking the preparation of these studies, the OAS/OSDE with collaboration of other international institutions presented a series of regional workshops on Sustainable Cities and Trade Corridors: Vulnerability Reduction to Natural Hazards, Mandates and Future Actions, with one workshop taking place in Central America with the participation of the Infrastructure Department of SIECA. This workshop took place immediately prior to Hurricane Mitch in October 1998.
The OAS has identified a network of specialists, institutions, and operational entities that can assume the preparation of vulnerability assessments and training activities, together with further developing regional emergency response mechanisms for air, sea, and surface transportation modes. This network includes institutional and technical coordination and administration capabilities, political forums appropriate to formally address country participation, consultative technical support to those political forums, processes with the private sector and the technical capacity to undertake the relevant studies.
At the operational level, this report identifies tools so that the sector may act more efficiently when a natural disaster affects any transportation infrastructure. Also, it is anticipated that the principles and approaches may be of help for decision makers to understand and act upon as they recognize the importance of developing mechanisms for mutual assistance, vulnerability reduction and negotiations for international aid in Central America.
|ACI/LAC||Oficina Latinoamérica y el Caribe del Consejo Internacional de Aeropuertos|
Asociación de Estados del Caribe
|ALIDES||Alianza para el Desarrollo Sostenible|
|BID||Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo|
|CAM||Convenio de Asistencia Mutua|
Mercado Común del Caribe
Carretera Centro Americana
Clean Caribbean Cooperative
Agencia Caribeña de Respuesta a los Desastres
Comisión Ejecutiva Portuaria Autónoma (El Salvador)
|CEPREDENAC||Centro de Prevención de Desastres Naturales de América Central|
Comisión Interamericana de Puertos
Comité Interamericano para la Reducción de los Desastres Naturales
Comisión Centroamericana de Transporte Marítimo
Corporación Centroamericana de Servicios de Navegación Aérea
Comité de Emergencia Nacional (El Salvador)
Consejo de Ministros de Transporte de Centroamérica
Cooperación Técnica entre Países en Desarrollo
Departamento de Asuntos Humanitarios de las Naciones Unidas
Decenio Internacional para la Reducción de Desastres Naturales
Federal Aviation Administration (Estados Unidos de América)
Inter–Agency Task Force
Iniciativa de Transporte del Hemisferio Occidental
Instituto Costarricense de Puertos del Pacífico
Junta de Administración Portuaria y de Desarrollo Económico (Costa Rica)
Laboratorio Nacional de Materiales y Modelos Estructurales (Costa Rica)
Mainstreaming Disaster Reduction Development
Notice to Airmen
Organización de Aviación Civil Internacional
Oficina de Coordinación de Asuntos Humanitarios de las Naciones Unidas
Organización de los Estados Americanos
Organización Mundial de Aduanas
Organización Marítima Internacional
Organización Mundial de la Salud
Organización de las Naciones Unidas
Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo
Plan Regional de Reducción de Desastres
Sistema Económico Latinoamericano
Sistema de Integración Centroamericana
Secretaría de Integración Económica Centroamericana
Oficina de Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente
Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Transportation
|VAI||Working Group on Vulnerability Assessment and Indexing of the CIRDN|