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Part VI - Concurrent Fora and Special Papers

Report of the Non-Government Organization Forum
Binational Management of the San Juan River Basin: From War to Cooperation
WATERDIALOGUE - A Communication Link for Water Resource Professionals in the Western Hemisphere
Interamerican Survey of Water Resource Professionals

Report of the Non-Government Organization Forum

Held on October 27, 1993, as part of the Concurrent Sessions of the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management

On the afternoon of October 27, 1993, the opening day of the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management, approximately 70 persons took part in a spirited NGO Forum at the Hotel Inter-Continental in Miami. The program, which was organized and conducted by the Global Tomorrow Coalition (GTC), in collaboration with the National Audubon Society, included presentations by:

· Mr. Peter A.A. Berle, President of the National Audubon Society, New York, USA
· Ms. Alicia Bárcena, Executive Director, The Earth Council, San Jose, Costa Rica
· Mr. Steven J. Parcells, National Audubon Society, Washington, DC, USA
· Mr. Donald R. Lesh, President, Global Tomorrow Coalition, Washington, DC
Among the materials available to participants was a four-page working paper entitled Water Quality as a Top Priority for the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development, which had been presented in New York at the opening session of the U.N. Commission in June 1993, on behalf of CAPE, a consortium of major U.S. environmental organizations.

The results of the ensuing animated discussion in the NGO Forum were later summarized in the following statement:

1. The Miami NGO Forum provided a unique and valuable opportunity to continue the NGO dialogue that preceded the 1992 U.N. Conference on the Environment and Development (Rio Earth Summit), and that has continued since the Summit, especially as it relates to water management and policy issues in the Western Hemisphere. NGO networking is a positive and an irreversible process that needs continuous strengthening and that is benefited from such fora as the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management.

2. Enhanced public access to and public participation in water management decision making is essential to more efficient and equitable use of water resources. NGO interests in greater public participation and access to information does not lessen the recognition for the need of bold new water management initiatives in areas such as the development of new, low-cost, the clean technologies, regional and national water conservation strategies, and least-cost, demand-side water management policies.

3. Public information capacity strengthening is needed in these three areas: 1) greater political access to water management decision making and information, 2) greater technical capability for absorbing and processing water resource information, and 3) more financial resources available to gather and analyze information.

4. NGOs suggested a number of instruments or mechanisms to achieve greater access to information: 1) an “international ombudsman” approach, 2) a telecommunications network, 3) a “troubleshooter” group, 4) a “clearinghouse” office, and 5) a set of user-friendly guidelines on how to start and track information on water projects.

5. Regarding activities of international financial institutions (IFIs) such as the World Bank, increased informed access by NGOs is essential, and increased democratization of operations of these institutions at the local level must continue. Also, priority setting among the IFIs should reflect the goals of Agenda 21 and include grater public involvement.

6. The Rio Declaration agreed upon by 170 governments, specifically acknowledges that individuals have the right to information at the national level (Principle 10). NGOs need to reinforce this affirmative obligation among the parties.

7. U.S. NGO involvement in other countries should be conducted in cooperation and openness with local NGOs.

8. Existing NGO information gathering, analyzing, and policy formulating facilities should be improved before the creation of redundant facilities.

9. There is the need for a “best practice” catalogue for innovative best water management practices, and it should be distributed widely.

It was agreed that this statement of the views of the participant in the October 27, 1993, NGO Forum would be included in these proceedings.

For additional copies of the paper Water Quality as a Top Priority for the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, (in English or Spanish) please contact Mr. Steve Parcells, National Audubon Society, 666 Penn. Ave., SE, Washington, DC 20003, USA. Also, the Earth Council is disseminating, through a diskette, The Rio Agreements and the NGO Treaties at a cost of $2.00. Contact: Francisco Mata, Earth Council, P.O. Box 2323-1002, San Jose Costa Rica.

Binational Management of the San Juan River Basin: From War to Cooperation

a Roundtable Discussion held as part of the


Richard Hamann1, Thomas T. Ankersen1, Justin Bloom1 and Marco A. González2

1 Center for Governmental Responsibility, College of Law, University of Florida; 230 Bruton Geer, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7629, USA.

² Nicaraguan Foundation for Sustainable Development (FUDESOS); Apartado Postal 2313, Managua, Nicaragua.


The San Juan River has long been a focus of conflict. The strategic importance of the river as a route for trade and travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans has been recognized for centuries. More recent attention has been directed at the ecological significance of the tropical forests, wetlands and estuaries of the lower San Juan, which Nicaragua and Costa Rica have agreed to protect through the Si-A-Paz binational complex of protected areas. Disputes have continued, however, over alleged pollution of the river, rights to navigation and potential diversions of water from the river for irrigation and hydropower development. As part of the Dialogue, a group of attorneys and water managers from Nicaragua and Costa Rica met to discuss the potential for cooperative management of the watershed. Staff from the Center for Governmental Responsibility at the University of Florida College of Law and two of Florida's regional water management districts facilitated the discussions. A broader regional perspective was provided by the participation of environmental lawyers from Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico. This paper will describe the background of the discussions and the resulting conclusions.


1. The San Juan River.

The San Juan River (Rio San Juan, also called Desaguadero) flows from the southeastern end of Lake Nicaragua at San Carlos, Nicaragua and flows approximately 199 kilometers (124 miles) into the Caribbean Sea at San Juan del Norte (formerly Greytown). The river forms approximately 115 kilometers (72 miles) of the border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Along its southeasterly course, its largest tributaries are the San Carlos and Sarapiquí Rivers from Costa Rica. In addition, numerous smaller watercourses flow into the River from both countries. Near its mouth the San Juan divides into three distinct arms that flow into the Caribbean Sea, forming a highly productive estuary. As the river branches off, the Juanillo Menor and the San Juan proper flow to the north and the Rio Colorado, the largest branch, flows south through Costa Rica. Navigation is impeded by rapids at Toro, El Castillo, and Machuca and is limited to boats with a shallow draft.

During the western migrations in the United States between 1850 and 1870, immigrants to California transferred at San Juan del Norte from Atlantic steamers to small boats which went up the river and across Lake Nicaragua. They then travelled overland to the Pacific port of San Juan del Sur. This same route was once considered as a possible canal route between the Caribbean and the Pacific.

2. A History of Conflict.

The river has been the scene of conflict for centuries. During the last half of the 17th century, the Miskito Coast was controlled by the English, who harassed the Spanish by sailing up the San Juan to attack Nicaragua's largest city at that time, Granada. British and American forces, and their allies, contested control of the river during the mid-1800's, with devastating consequences for the region. Although both U.S. and British interests had secured equal access to a potential canal route across Nicaragua,1 the flood of immigrants to the gold fields of California could not wait for such developments. At the height of the California Gold Rush 2000 people per month traveled this route. The entire journey from the Eastern seaboard of the United States to California took only 22 days.² Cornelius Vanderbilt controlled the route, though with British financing. The potential for British control of the route was of sufficient concern to the U.S. government that it apparently encouraged invasion of Nicaragua by an American adventurer named William Walker. Walker intended to annex Nicaragua to the U.S. as a new slave state. Ultimately, a Central American force, led by the Costa Rican President Juan Rafael Mora and supported by British funds and a naval blockade, defeated Walker.³

During the Nicaraguan Civil Wars from 1977-1987, the San Juan River was again a scene of conflict. Those years were marked by repeated skirmishes along the border and the escalation of political tension between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. As the violence has subsided, attention is being focused on the environmental degradation of the San Juan watershed and use of the River in the growing tourism market. Even though Nicaragua has possession of almost all the river bed, approximately 80% of the watershed lies within Costa Rica. The Costa Rican estuary, in turn, receives about 80% of the river's flow through the Rio Colorado branch. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an institutional framework for binational watershed management.

3. Legal Status.

The present legal status of the section of the river that forms the border between the two countries is defined by the Cañas-Jerez Treaty of 1858, as clarified through President Cleveland's arbitral awards in 18$8 and subsequently in 1905 when the joint border was drawn.4 Under the Treaty, the river lies entirely within Nicaragua, while Costa Rica retains possession of the southern shore and rights to navigation for its citizens and for the transportation of “goods of commerce” and a right of consultation regarding development of the river.

4. Si-A-Paz.

The International System of Protected Areas for Peace or Si-A-Paz5 is a binational system of protected areas along the lower San Juan River. A significant portion of the watershed of the San Juan River lies within this protected area complex. The idea for Si-A-Paz was developed in the 70's and was first proposed in 1988. After numerous bilateral agreements and declarations over the years, Costa Rican President Rafael Calderón and Nicaraguan President Violeta Chamorro signed an official agreement in April 1993 that designated nearly five million acres of land in the two countries as Si-A-Paz International Park. Si-A-Paz is one of the binational protected areas designated for priority protection in the recently signed Convention on Biological Diversity and Priority Wild Areas in Central America.6

In Costa Rica, Si-a-Paz includes three protected areas: Tortuguero National Park, Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge and Caño Negro Wildlife Refuge. Much of the land in the wildlife refuges and in the corridors that connect these parks remains privately owned. In addition, banana plantations, cattle ranching, and logging operations have increased within the region, and within the watershed of the Rio San Juan.

In Nicaragua, Si-A-Paz divides the southern portion of the country into three zones under different levels of protection. This scheme is based on the concept of “directed colonization.” The western zone is open to development, the eastern zone is set aside as a forest reserve where farming is prohibited, and the middle zone is to serve as a buffer zone where land use is limited to “sustainable farming.” With peace, however, the region has begun to attract landless Nicaraguan farmers. The migration of agricultural colonists to the Southern frontier has grown to approximately 8,500, most having arrived within the last two years.


1. Use of the River.

Tourism on the San Juan River has become an increasingly lucrative trade. Although political unrest and inadequate infrastructure have hampered Nicaraguan efforts to promote travel, Costa Rican guides are now transporting tourists on the River and obtaining the economic benefits of a growing ecotourism market. Nicaragua contends that this violates the 1858 Cañas-Jerez Treaty, since tourists do not constitute “goods of commerce” within the meaning of the agreement. At the time the Treaty entered into force tourism was not an issue and the phrase “goods in commerce” had an accepted meaning. Costa Rica had no viable means of transportation to the sea in the region and was compelled to use the San Juan to ship its agricultural goods to Caribbean ports. The question now presented by this agreement is whether it was the intent of the drafters to limit “goods of commerce” to agricultural goods and if not, do tourists fall within the scope of “goods of commerce?”

In an effort to resolve this aspect of the dispute, a binational commission was created and has made improvements in regulating the transportation of tourists between the two countries on the River. Foreign tourists, but not Costa Rican nationals, are now required to obtain visas to travel on the river and to pay a small fee to local officials for the privilege. In addition, each country has formed a national commission to follow these issues and coordinate each nation's institutional actions regarding the joint border and its problems.

2. Diversion of Water.

Although most of the flow of the San Juan River originates in Costa Rica, Lake Nicaragua makes a substantial contribution.7 The only current diversion is to support irrigated agriculture along the Tempisque River in Costa Rica. There may be pressure to expand the extent of that diversion in the future. The greatest concern, however, stems from consideration by Nicaragua of the potential to cut a channel from Lake Nicaragua to the Pacific Ocean and harness the resulting flow of water for hydroelectric power production. Such a development could lower the lake and significantly reduce flow to the river, especially during the dry season. Both Nicaragua and Costa Rica have substantial fisheries at the mouth of the river that could be adversely impacted by freshwater diversions. Costa Rica, in particular, derives considerable income from foreign anglers who come to pursue such estuarine-dependent species as snook and tarpon.

3. Contamination of the San Juan River.

There is increasing concern that pollution of the San Juan river, particularly from intensive agricultural practices within the Costa Rican portion of the watershed, has had an adverse impact on water quality within the River. There have been reports within the last two years of substantial fish kills downstream from the major Costa Rican tributaries, the Sarapiquí and San Carlos Rivers. Studies conducted by the Nicaraguan Center for Research on Water Resources (Centro de Recursos Acuáticos) found high levels of pesticides. There is also concern for pollution by nutrients, sediments, and solid waste (principally the plastic bags used in banana cultivation). Costa Rica has been unwilling to accept the results of studies conducted by Nicaragua.

In August 1992, the Foreign Ministers of Costa Rica and Nicaragua signed a joint declaration in which they agreed to carry out environmental impact studies on their respective sides of the border. Nicaragua has also brought the water quality issues associated with the San Juan River to the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), a recently formed regional environmental integration organization. The CCAD is charged with developing plans and strategies relating to regional environmental protection. It is comprised of cabinet-level ministers from each of the Central American countries with responsibility for natural resource management. The CCAD is seeking to have a neutral international organization, the Interamerican Institute for Cooperation for Agriculture (IICA), to carry out research to assess the river's condition and the sources of its contamination, but currently lacks funding to undertake the kinds of studies necessary to assess the magnitude of the problem and determine appropriate remedial measures.


The Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management provided an opportunity to evaluate ongoing efforts and develop new approaches to the binational management of the San Juan River Basin. A balanced group of Nicaraguans and Costa Ricans was invited to participate and funding to support travel was provided by the North South Center at the University of Miami. It was agreed that the discussions would be informal and that none of the participants would be representing their governments. Thomas T. Ankersen, an attorney working at the University of Florida College of Law's Center for Governmental Responsibility was chosen to facilitate the discussions. Three different sessions were held during the Dialogue.

The representatives from Nicaragua were Marco González, an attorney specializing in international and environmental law, Jose León Talavera, Chairman of the Environment and Natural Resources Committee of the Nicaraguan legislative assembly, and Javier López Medina, an engineer working for the Nicaraguan environment ministry, IRENA (Instituto Nicaragüense de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente). The representatives from Costa Rica were Rodrigo Barahona, an attorney and President of the Centro de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales (CEDARENA) and Joaquín Tacsan, an attorney at the Arias Foundation. A broader regional perspective was provided by the participation of Alejandra Sobenes, an attorney from Guatemala and President of the Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y Desarrollo Sostenible (IDEADS), Clarissa Vega, an attorney from Honduras, and Diana Ponce-Nava, an attorney from Mexico and consultant to the United Nations Environmental Programme. Substantial technical assistance was contributed by three scientists and engineers from two of Florida's water management districts, Pat Frost and David Stites from the St. Johns River Water Management District and Horacio Wheelock from the South Florida Water Management District. All three had worked in Nicaragua.

After extensive discussion of the facts and issues described above, the participants came to several conclusions. Greatly enhanced cooperation in management of the basin was strongly supported by the group. There was recognition of the need to establish an institutional basis for such cooperation. Rather than seeking to establish new institutional structures, it was agreed that development of cooperative basin management should be pursued through the processes established for management of Si-A-Paz. To this end, the Costa Rican and Nicaraguan Parliamentary Commissions are planning a joint meeting, with part of the meeting to be held in Los Chiles, Costa Rica and part in San Carlos, Nicaragua.

The most pressing issues relate to water quality. There was concern that there is inadequate information currently available on the water quality characteristics of the San Juan River and its tributaries and on the water quality impacts of various land uses. A study that would be acceptable to both Nicaragua and Costa Rica is needed. A technical subgroup therefore met separately to develop the technical parameters of such a study.8 The study they designed would be based on a compilation of available topographic, hydrologic, socio-economic and physiochemical data on the river. It would include three field trips: a reconnaissance trip to identify sampling sites and arrange logistics, and sampling trips during the dry and wet seasons. The entire study, including the presentation of a final report to the joint commission, could be accomplished within 18 months. The cost could be significantly reduced by the contribution of time and expertise by water resource professionals from Florida's water management districts, other interested agencies or the private sector. Although the importance of estuarine conditions was recognized, they would require a separate study.


These efforts merit presentation to the water management community as a model for international cooperation in water resource management and peaceful conflict resolution. During the course of the roundtable, it became apparent that similar binational watershed management issues exist throughout the region. The development of an appropriate approach to transboundary water management of the San Juan River may provide a model for similar frontiers in Central America, such as the Gulf of Fonseca, shared by Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua, the Coco River Basin, shared by Honduras and Nicaragua, and the Sixaloa, dividing Costa Rica and Panama.9 All of the participants felt that they would have benefited from understanding how other binational and multilateral efforts at river basin management have worked.10


1. The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 guaranteed equal access to both nations and forbid efforts to colonize the region.

2. Diane Jukofsky, Along the San Juan, Lacsa's World 22, 21-23 (undated).

3. RALPH LEE WOODWARD, JR., CENTRAL AMERICA: A NATION DIVIDED, 137-145 (Second Edition, 1985 Oxford University Press).


5. The Spanish acronym for Sistema Internacional de Areas Protegidas para la Paz means “Yes to Peace”.

6. The nations of Central America have committed themselves under this agreement to establishing a system of protected areas extending throughout the region. Convention for the Conservation of Biological Diversity and Protection of Priority Wild Areas, Managua, Nicaragua (June, 1992). See generally, T. Ankersen & R. Hamann, The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor: The Legal Framework for an Integrated System of Protected Areas, Proceedings of the International Wildlife Management Congress, September, 1993, San Jose, Costa Rica; T. Ankersen, The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor: A Model Legal Framework for an Integrated Regional System of Protected Areas, Background Document (September, 1993, Center for Governmental Responsibility, University of Florida College of Law, Gainesville, Florida).

7. See generally, Claudio Gutierrez Huete, Caracterización de la Cuenca del Río San Juan (June 27, 1991).

8. The group consisted of Pat Frost, Javier López, David Stites and Horacio Wheelock.

9. All of the attorneys who participated in the roundtable are currently working together with colleagues from each of the other countries in Central America, Panama and Mexico on the MesoAmerican Biodiversity Legal Project, analyzing legal regimes for the management of protected areas in the region. The group plans to focus on watershed management in the near future. For further information, contact Tom Ankersen or Richard Hamann at the University of Florida College of Law, 230 Bruton-Geer Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7629. (904) 392-2237 Internet: CGRTOM@NERVM.NERDC.UFL.EDU.


WATERDIALOGUE - A Communication Link for Water Resource Professionals in the Western Hemisphere

James W. MacIntyre1

1 Director, The Together Foundation for Global Unity, 130 South Willard Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
The Together Foundation is providing a pilot network communications platform upon which the Interamerican Water Resource Network (WATERDIALOGUE) can host conferences, maintain a shared information base and provide intercommunicative services to its members. Network services are being custom configured for the membership at the direction of the Policy Council established at the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management in October, 1993.

The Together Foundation is actively expanding its network, TogetherNetä, in the Americas. Currently the Together Foundation operates host computer sites in New York, NY; Burlington, Vermont at the University of Vermont; and in Caracas, Venezuela. The Foundation is presently installing a host computer sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Geneva, Switzerland. The Foundation is actively seeking other organizations in the Americas to support network nodes. Members of the network not located in a city with a host computer node will have access the network via telephone call to the nearest network node. The network will be connected to SprintNet, an X.25 packet-switching network. Cost saving X.25 access will be available to WATERDIALOGUE members in the fourth quarter of 1993. Access to TogetherNet is also available through the global Internet.

The TogetherNet system is an advanced communications and information sharing system that makes access and operation extremely simple for its users. TogetherNet users with Macintosh and MS-Windows computers are able to use the system through advanced graphic user interfaces that ease operation and optimize participation in the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management working group. TogetherNet continuously upgrades network software and hardware to optimize its effectiveness for users given the advent of new hardware, software and telecommunications technologies.

The purpose of The Together Foundation and TogetherNet is to facilitate cooperation related to sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21. Many organizations are already using the TogetherNet system for these purposes. Currently, TogetherNet is one of the major platforms in use by the United Nations information dissemination systems. Together Foundation maintains a liaison office in New York to assist in the management and distribution of information through the TogetherNet system. This has resulted in an additional benefit to TogetherNet members, since vast amounts of resources and valuable information on topics such as environment, human rights, democratization and poverty are daily updated and discussed in this electronic forum.

The Together Foundation's network will be made available to members to all interested members the Interamerican Water Resource Network. The Foundation is pleased to grant access to these services to (30) charter members of WATERDIALOGUE for the years 1994 and 1995 at the discretion of the Dialogue Project Manager and Policy Council. Other parties interested in joining WATERDIALOGUE will be given (3) month trial memberships to the system at no cost. After the (3) month trial period members will be billed a flat $10 per month not including telecommunications costs.

The Together Foundation will assist the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management in the creation of a virtual organization composed of WATERDIALOGUE members from the Americas. These members are from different organizations in various locations and intend to cooperate to “Link International Water Resources Networks.” The Together Foundation will be available to support WATERDIALOGUE members in the effective use of network communication services. Toll-free technical and customer support will be available Monday through Friday. The Foundation has created a prototype WATERDIALOGUE section within the TogetherNet system while working with Mr. Alberto J. Palombo, Dialogue Project Manager. More information is available about the TogetherNet system is available directly from the Together Foundation in Burlington, Vermont, USA, or by telephone (802) 862-2030.

Interamerican Survey of Water Resource Professionals

Note of the Editor: This survey instrument was designed and administered by the Global Tomorrow Coalition as directed by the Policy Council of the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management. The Secretariat intends to continue the administration of this survey for the near future. If you need copies of the survey, please contact the Organization of American States - Department of Regional Development and Environment, Washington, DC, USA.


The Interamerican Survey of Water Resource Professionals is intended to assess the potential benefits and services of an expanded Water Resource Partnership linking existing networks, associations, government agencies, businesses, organizations, and institutions in the Western Hemisphere. Since July 1993, it has been circulated to approximately 800 water resource professionals throughout the Americas to determine: (1) which water management networks are already functioning in the Western Hemisphere; (2) which information sources and services could be expanded through a new partnership to link these networks together with other water resource agencies, businesses, and institutions; and (3) how such a partnership might be established.

An interim report covering the first 105 responses was prepared and circulated at the time of the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management in Miami, Florida, on October 27-30, 1993. A second, updated report was completed on January 31, 1994 as a part of the Grant Fulfillment Report presented to the South Florida Water Management District.

This third and final report is based on the answers contained in the total of 177 completed surveys received by the Global Tomorrow Coalition through March 25, 1994, of which 73 are South American and 104 are North American. The conclusions are intended to highlight those areas in which the views of water resource professionals from North America and South America coincide, and those in which they do not. Following the success of the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management, it is important to build on the foundation of agreement, and to reconcile areas of disagreement, in order to foster stronger and more effective cooperation between water resource professionals in the Western Hemisphere.


The water resource professionals responding to this survey from both South America and North America have extensive experience with the issue of water resource management. More than a third of those from South America (34%) and from North America (38%) indicated that they had been active in the water resource field for over 20 years. Approximately the same percentages from both areas (30% as compared to 32%) indicated that they had spent at least 13 years on water resource issues.

Most respondents also have extensive educational backgrounds. Among South Americans, 41% have received a B.A. degree, and virtually the same percentage have an M.A. The remaining 16% have received a Doctorate. In comparison, 20% of North American respondents indicated that they have received a B.A. degree, 40% have an M.A., and fully 36% have received a Doctorate.

An area in which significant contrasts emerged among the respondents is that of their knowledge of each other's language. Fully 36% of South Americans reported “high” proficiencies in spoken and written English, and nearly two-thirds (61%) of South Americans indicated that they have “low” to “medium” proficiency in spoken English, and 64% in written English. On the other hand, an overwhelming majority of North American respondents characterized their proficiency as “low” or “none” in spoken Spanish (76%) and written Spanish (79%).

Except among Brazilian respondents, the knowledge of Portuguese was at a modest level among South Americans and was very low among North Americans, only 12% of whom indicated any ability to speak or read Portuguese. This suggests that language competence will be among the obstacles to be overcome if a true water resource partnership is to be created in the Americas.


A full tabulation of answers to all questions in the survey is contained in Appendix I. Appendix II contains the names and addresses of all the respondents, while Appendix III is a tabulation of all other associations or networks with which the respondents reported an affiliation. These are selected issues on which the level of agreement or disagreement between South American and North American respondents seemed worthy of attention.

Water Management Problems

Almost equal numbers of respondents from South America and North America (56% and 65%, respectively) felt that greater emphasis should be placed on ecosystem-based approaches in dealing with water resource problems. There was a significant difference, however, in the numbers of South Americans (56%) and North Americans (22%) who saw sanitation treatment systems as a major water management problem.


On adequacy of communication among water resource professionals and institutions, there was a significant convergence of opinions. Very few respondents rated existing communication in their country highly (4%-9%), while many from both South America and North America (47%-56%) characterized it as only “medium” at best, Indeed, 49% of South Americans and 35% of North Americans rated communication at their national level “low” or “poor.”

Sound Water Resource Management

Approximately two-thirds of all respondents (68% from South America and 62% from North America) indicated that funding was a hindrance to the implementation of sound, sustainable water resource management in their immediate areas. On the other hand, 52% of South Americans cited institutional capacity as an obstacle in achieving their goals, while a small minority of North Americans (30%) indicated that it was a “major problem.” Significant majorities (55%-76%) ranked public understanding in the latter category as well.

Water Resource Entities

When asked which international and national entities are prominent in water resource management in their area, the respondents assigned highest rankings to federal/national, state/provincial, and district agencies, with significant majorities of North American respondents citing the latter two. Fully 25% of South American respondents indicated that universities were important to water resource management, while only 14% of North Americans agreed with them. Not surprisingly, 22% of South Americans cited United Nations agencies as important in their area, while only a small minority of North Americans (3%) did so.

Need for Stronger Partnership

There was near-unanimity among all respondents (96% from South America and 94% from North America) that there is a need for a stronger partnership among water resource professionals in the Western Hemisphere.

Potential Benefits

Strong majorities of the respondents from both areas (77%-74%) felt that improved exchange of information among water resource professionals would be a benefit from the creation of a stronger water resource partnership in the Americas. Among South American respondents, even larger majorities cited enhanced communication, cooperation, and technology exchange (70%, 70%, and 78%, respectively) as potential benefits. While a majority of North Americans agreed on communication and cooperation (76% and 64%, respectively), only 54% ranked the exchange of technology highly. Almost precisely equal numbers of respondents from both South and North America (56%-54%) indicated environmental education as a strong benefit of a closer partnership. Fully 70% of South Americans ranked training as “high” as opposed to only 35% of North Americans.

Establishing a Partnership

When asked about important factors to consider in the establishment of an interamerican partnership, 75% of South Americans and 61% of North Americans assigned highest priority to access to financial support. Similarly large majorities (64%-55%) cited access to professional staffing. The next most important issue for both South Americans (59%) and for North Americans (45%) was that of the location and ease of access to the proposed partnership. The independence of such an institution was regarded as less important, with high rankings by considerably less than half of the respondents (45%-20%).

Location of the Partnership

There was a distinct difference in view on the appropriate location of such a partnership. Among South Americans, 51% expressed high preference for a location in South America (only 10% of North Americans agreed), and 64% of North Americans felt that it should be located in North America (only 41% of South Americans agreed). Both South and North Americans (16% and 10% respectively) accorded Canada low preference as the site for the partnership. Approximately one-third (34%) of South American respondents and two-thirds (64%) of North Americans, however, agreed that the site of the partnership was “not important”.


The following is a copy of the survey distributed by the Policy Council. The number of South American and of North American respondents who answered particular questions are expressed in percentages. The first number always represents South American respondents, while the second number always represents those from North America.

1. How long have you been active in the water resource field? 16%-12% 1-5 years, 19%-19% 6-12 years, 30%-32% 13-20 years, 34%-38% over 20 years

2. What is your level of formal education? 0%-0% high school degree, 41%-20% university bachelor's degree, 42%-40% university master's degree, 16%-36% university doctorate, 0%-4% other

3. What is your level of proficiency in the following languages?



































4. Did you or your institution/business/agency/organization participate in preparations for, or conduct of, the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development? 52%-33% Yes 48%-66% No

5. Are you familiar with recommendations from the following initiatives?



Dublin Conference



Agenda 21



Mar del Plata Action Plan



6. Are you familiar with the following publications?



Our Own Agenda



Compact for A New World



Our Common Future



Changing Course



Water Quality 2000



7. Are you a member of one or more professional associations and/or networks dedicated to water resource issues? 66%-68% Yes 34%-32% No.

Five most mentioned South American associations/networks:

1. Programa Hidrologico Internacional


2. Asociacao Brasileira de Recursos Hidricos


3. Asociacion Chilena Ingenieria Hidraulica


4. Red Latinoamericana para el Manejo de Cuencas Hidrograficas


5. Asociacion Mexicana de Hidraulica


Five most mentioned North American associations/networks

1. American Water Resources Association


2. American Society of Civil Engineers


3. American Water Works Association


4. International Water Resources Association


5. Tennessee Valley Authority


What is the main focus of these groups and what services do they provide?

South American respondents:

1. Programa Hidrologico Internacional: Founded 18 years ago, this group focuses on the analysis and the solution of water use and conservation problems. It provides water resource education, information exchange, technical assistance, and help in the development of water use projects.

2. Asociacao Brasileira de Recursos Hidricos: Since 1973, ABRH has worked in the field of water resource management. It organizes symposia, seminars, courses, etc.

3. Asociacion Chilena de Ingenieria Hidraulica: In the past 25 years, ACIH has dealt with the development and scientific investigation of water resources. It acts as a forum for water resource experts.

4. Red Latinoamericana para el Manejo de Cuencas Hidrograficas: For 12 years, this network has facilitated the transfer of watershed management technology between countries in South America.

5. Asociacion Mexicana de Hidraulica: Since its founding 20 years ago, the AMH has sponsored the dissemination of technical information and organized bi-annual congresses and monthly conferences.

North American respondents:
1. American Water Resources Association: In the past 29, years AWRA has concerned itself with American water resources policy by acting as a professional networking and development agency, and as a forum for communication between specialists.

2. American Society of Civil Engineers: Since its founding 141 years ago, the ASCE has as its objective “the advancement of the science and profession of engineering.” It does so by publishing monthly journals and holding meetings.

3. American Water Works Association: For over 50 years, AWWA has been involved in water supply and conservation issues. It provides water supply and utility standards.

4. International Water Resources Association: Since the early 1970s, the IWRA has focused on international water resource problems and issues. It publishes a journal and sponsors an annual international conference.

5. Tennessee Valley Authority: For 25 years, the TVA has worked on river navigation and economic development. It is a liaison with government agencies, and sponsors seminars.

8. Please rank the priority of water management problems in your immediate area (expand list as needed):




Sanitation Treatment Systems




Water Supply




Ecosystem-Based Approaches




Riparian Management




Health & Water-Borne Diseases




Water Policies and Laws








Non-Point Source Runoff




Underground Aquifers




9. How would you rate existing communication among water resource professionals in your:





Immediate Area















Three most common comments in this question:

South American respondents:


Communications and activities are poorly coordinated and organized.



There is a lack of publications and of methods for exchanging information.



Water resource professionals and the political sphere do not coordinate their efforts well.


North American respondents:


Networking and communication are well established at the local level.



Coordination and communication among professionals is very poor at the national level.



There are too many conflicting interests in water resource management for communication to be good.


10. What were the major benefits that you derived from attending water-related conferences, symposia, or training sessions in the last three years? Top three responses:


Learning about new methodologies, technologies, policies, and ideas from peers.



Comparison of management experiences and problem solving strategies at the national and international level.



A chance to meet other water resource specialists and to make new contacts.



A chance to meet other water resource professionals, network with them, and make new contacts.



Information can be disseminated and collected, thus furthering professional development.



Through discussions, papers, and personal contacts ones knowledge base is expanded.


11. In your own view, what are the major needs in the development and implementation of sound, sustainable water resource management in your immediate area? Please rank the priority of the following (expand list as needed):








Legal Framework




Institutional Capacity




Technical Assistance
















Enhancement of Expertise




Public Understanding




Political Will




12. Please rank the turnover rate in water resource jobs in your immediate area:

30%- 6% High 52%-43% Medium 18%-51% Low

13. Please rank the prominence of the following entities in water resource management at the present time in your immediate area:




United Nations Agencies




Org. of American States




Federal/National Agencies




State/Provincial Agencies




District Agencies




Private Sector




Nongovernmental Orgs.








Multilateral Lending Inst.




Individual Users




14. Are you incorporating the concept of integrated watershed management in projects within your institution/agency/business/NGO? 71%-69% Yes 29%-31% No.

Top three responses:


In formulating and executing watershed management projects.



By treating watersheds in a comprehensive manner so as to protect the resource.



By fostering case studies on integrated water management.



Through protection and the restoration of the entire ecosystem of a watershed.



In the field of water supply planning watersheds must be viewed in a comprehensive manner.



In the development and implementation of multipurpose water use plans.


15. Do you believe that sustainable development-meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs - should become the unifying principle for sound water resource policies and practices in the Western Hemisphere? 94%-91% Yes 6%-9% No. Four most relevant comments:


Both the quality and the quantity of our resources must be maintained for future generations.



There is no other rational alternative solution to the



problems we face today. It should become the unifying principle for managing all natural resources.



Sustainable development can be used to coordinate our efforts and institutions and to reduce conflict.



Sustainable development is the key to ensuring the survival of our planet.



The concept needs to be improved because it is a buzzword and has few applications for the short term.



Every aspect of nature should be managed sustainably and natural resource needs should be a priority.



It must become the common goal of all concerned with the welfare of our planet and of future generations.


16. Do you feel there is a need for stronger partnership among current water resource management networks, government agencies, businesses, and institutions in the Western Hemisphere? 96%-94% Yes 4%-6% No. Top three comments:


In order to gather and exchange data, methodologies, and other information partnerships must be strengthened.



It could be used to enhance the level of communication and coordination among water resource specialists.



The present overlapping of activities and excessive expenditures could be reduced.



It would benefit the exchange of information and of problem-solving techniques between specialists.



Since many resources cross political boundaries, they require cooperative efforts to be preserved.



We must avoid the duplication of both the efforts and the errors we have made in the past.


17. Considering your own specific needs, please rank the potential benefits and services you would anticipate from such a partnership.




Enhanced Communication








Technology Exchange








Capacity Building








Information Exchange




Environmental Education




Peer Review




Contact Directory




Joint Projects




18. What information, assistance, or services do you think you and your agency/organization/business could contribute to such a partnership? Top three answers:


Information exchange on South American watersheds, management experiences, policies, etc.



Technical exchange and assistance in the development and implementation of water management plans.



Experience and expertise in the management of water resources at local and national levels.



Expertise in water management, policy development and implementation, and conflict resolution.



Information on water management, conservation, flood control, reclaiming, etc.



Technical assistance and transfer of technology for project design and implementation.


19. Please rank the following communication mechanisms in order of their importance and effectiveness in meeting your own needs.




Computer Bulletin Board
































Technical Exchanges




20. From your own point of view, please rank the importance of the following considerations in establishing such a partnership (expand list as needed):




Location-Easy Travel Access








Linkage to Existing Inst.




Revolving Secretariat




Permanent Secretariat




Access to Professional Staff




Access to Financial Support




21. Please indicate your preference among the following areas for the site of the headquarters of such a partnership:








United States








Central America




Caribbean Islands




South America




Not Important


22. In any area that you marked as “High” in the previous question, please specify a preferred location, if any, such as a city within that area or country:


Toronto, Ontario


United States

Miami, Florida



Mexico City


Central America

San Jose, Costa Rica



Puerto Rico


South America

Mendoza, Argentina




23. Please list in priority order the 5 agencies, institutions, NGOs, businesses, and/or development banks that you believe would be important to involve to enhance the effectiveness of this proposed new partnership:

South American Respondents


Interamerican Development Bank



Organization of American States



World Bank



United Nations





North American Respondents


World Bank



Environmental Protection Agency



Interamerican Development Bank



Organization of American States



American Water Resources Institute



Latin American Respondents

Name: Francisco I. Ferrando Acuña
Title: Geografo
Address: Marcoleta 250, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 222-6509 ext. # 272
Fax: 222-9522

Name: José Claudio Alfaro
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: Superintendencia Servicios Sanitarios
Address: Moneda #673, Piso 7, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 639-5241

Name: Ximena V.E. Iriarte Alonso
Title: Ingeniero Ejecucion Electrica
Affiliation: Ministerio de Obras Publicas
Address: Morande 59, 5o Piso, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 672-4506 ext. 2581
Fax: 671-0178

Name: Javier Aparicio
Title: Professional Development Coordinator
Affiliation: Mexican Institute of Water Technology
Address: Paseo Cuahuahuac 8532 Progreso Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico 62550
Tel: (73) 193-946
Fax: (73) 193-801

Name: Adrian Vargas Aranibar
Title: Licienciado en Geologia
Address: Avenida Belgrano 210, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 242-005
Fax: (54) (61) 380-251

Name: Ximena Veronica Valdivieso Arza
Title: Geografo
Affiliation: Ilustee Municipalidad de Quillota
Address: Maipú # 330, Quillota, Chile 6D Quillota
Tel: (033) 310-363/(033) 311-550
Fax: (033) 310-363

Name: José Luis Gomez Avendaño
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: Centro de Informacion de Recursos Naturales
Address: El Cultrun #7575, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 274-8946
Fax: 209-6407

Name: Graciela Elena de Bagiui
Title: Ingeniera Agronoma
Address: Lamadrid 753 D3, Capital, Mendoza. Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 292-681

Name: Eddy Ramirez Bejarano
Title: Ingeniera Agricola
Address: Av. Gulliermo Quiñones A-2, Pisco Playa, Peru
Fax: (034) 262-512

Name: Lawson F.S. Beltrame
Title: Professor, Director IPH
Affiliation: IPH/UFRES
Address: Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Campus do Vale-Agronomia, P.O. Box 15029, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 91501-970
Tel: (051) 228-1633
Fax: (051) 336-0457

Name: Ricardo Bensan
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: Codelco-Division Andina
Address: 119 Staff, Saladillo, Los Andes, 5a Region, Chile 6-a
Tel: (56)(34) 495-026
Fax: (56)(34) 495-028

Name: Alejandro Vergara Blanco
Title: Abogado, Doctor en Derecho
Address: Casilla 3004, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 632-8291
Fax: 632-8291

Name: Benedito Braga, Jr.
Title: Director, Hydrology Division
Affiliation: Centro Tecnologico de Hidraulica
Address: Av. Prof. Lucio M. Rodrigues, 120, Sao Paulo, Brazil 05508-900
Tel: (55)(11) 814-6303
Fax: (55)(11) 813-5217
E-Mail: Benbraga@Brusp.Bitnet

Name: Ramon Cabrero
Title: Civil Engineer
Affiliation: Comision Nacional del Agua-Gerencia Regional Noreste
Address: Mariano Otero 600-A, San Luis Potosí, Mexico 78250
Tel: (91)(48) 137-874 ext. 2900
Fax: (91)(48) 130-819

Name: Claudia Candanedo
Title: Chief, Hydrometeorology Dept.
Affiliation: Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion
Address: Av. Justo Arosemena y Calle 36 Este, Edificio Hatillo, Entrepiso Apartado 5285, Zona 5, Panama City, Panama
Tel: (507) 628-770
Fax: (507) 274-767

Name: Richard V. Cant
Title: Assistant General Manager for Family Islands
Affiliation: Water and Sewerage Corporation
Address: P.O. Box 3905, Nassau, Bahamas
Tel: (809) 323-3944
Fax: (809) 328-0579

Name: Wilfredo Henan Alfaro Catalan
Title: Ingeniero Forestal
Affiliation: Corporation Nacional Forestal (CONAF)
Address: Av. Bulnes #259, Departamento 506, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 699-1703 ext. 223
Fax: 671-5881

Name: Nicolas Carlos Ciancaglini
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo
Affiliation: Operacion y Conservacion Sistemas de Riego
Address: INCYTH - Centro Regional Andino, Casilla Correo #6, Capital, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 244-998
Fax: (54) (61) 380-251

Name: Jaime Collado
Title: Head of Hydrology and Water Resources Department
Affiliation: Mexican Institute of Water Technology
Address: P.O. Box 4-476, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico 62431
Tel: (52)(73) 19-4049
Fax: (52)(73) 19-4341

Name: Peter Collins
Title: Chief Engineer
Affiliation: Public Works Department
Address: c/o PWD Grand Turk, Turks & Caicos Islands
Tel: (01) (809) 946-2526
Fax: (01) (809) 946-2900

Name: Tatiana Cuevas
Title: Ingeniero Civil Industrial
Affiliation: Ministerio de Obras Publicas
Address: Morande 59, Piso 8, Oficina 828, Santiago, Chile
Tel: (56)(2) 672-3765/696-2939
Fax: (56)(2) 698-5341

Name: Joao Lopez Cupertino
Title: Irrigation and Drainage Researcher
Affiliation: EMPAER-MS. Empresa de Pesq. Assist. Tec. Ext. Rural, de MS.
Address: AV. Euler de Azevedo, km 10 BR 080 - MS., Campo Grande, MS, Brazil 79. 114-000
Tel: (067) 761-3555
Fax: (067) 726-4234
E-Mail: Joao C dep 001 - EMPAER

Name: Abelardo del Valle
Title: Coordinador Planeacion Acueducto
Affiliation: Empresas Publicas de Medellin
Address: Carrera 64A #48-20, Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia 0940
Tel: 264-7388
Fax: 260-4680

Name: Mario Alfaro Del Valle
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Address: San Isidro del General, San José, Costa Rica 259-8000
Tel: 712-149
Fax: 711-292

Name: Aldemaro Romero Diaz
Title: Director Ejecutivo
Affiliation: Fundacion Bioma
Address: Avenida Este 2, Edificio Camara de Comercio de Caracas, Piso 4, Los Cabos, Caracas, Venezuela 1010-A
Tel: (582) 571-8831
Fax: (582) 571-1412
E-Mail: Bioma@dino.conicit.Ve

Name: Alejandro Antonio Drovandi
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo
Address: Belgrano (Oeste) 210, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 241-993
Fax: (54) (61) 380-251

Name: Carlos Vargas Fallas
Title: M.Sc.
Address: Apartado 5120-1000, San José, Costa Rica 5120-1000
Tel: 21-5129

Name: Pedro Carlos Fernandez
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo
Address: Infanta Mercedes de San Martin 640, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (061) 245-957
Fax: (061) 380-251

Name: Eni Garcia de Freitas
Title: Bachalerado em Biologia
Affiliation: Conselho Regional de Biologia
Address: Rua Leandro Dupré, 204 10th andar, sala 104, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. Brasil 04025-010
Tel: (011) 571-0743
Fax: (011) 575-9470

Name: Ricardo Daniel Gabrielli
Title: Ingeniero Sanitario
Address: Saez Peña 1044, Godoy Cruz, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 220-668

Name: Jorge Galvez
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Address: Morande 59, Oficina 522, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 699-2233
Fax: 698-2969

Name: Martin R. Garcia
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo M.S.
Affiliation: Ministerio del Ambiente de Venezuela
Address: Calle 2 #566. Urb. Chucho Boiceno, 3a etapa, Cabudare, Lara, Venezuela 3023
Tel: 051-62670

Name: Rodolfo Garcia-Agreda Bitume
Title: Ingeniero
Address: Edificio Alborada, Calle Juan de la Riva #1406, La Paz, Bolivia
Tel: (00591) (2) 366-682

Name: Carmen Luz Gutierrez Briceño
Title: Secretaria Regional Ministerial Obras Publicas, V Region
Affiliation: Ministerio de Obras Publicas
Address: Montana # 869, Vina del Mar, Chile
Tel: (032) 680-554
Fax: (032) 687-682

Name: Ramon Hernan Daza Hurtado
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo, Candidato a Magister en Ingenieria Agricola
Address: San Martin 1062, 3er Piso, Concepcion, Region del Biobio, Chile
Tel: 228-380

Name: Emiko Kawakami de Resende
Title: PhD in Natural Sciences
Affiliation: Kiyomi Kawakami & Etsuko Kawakami
Address: Rua Projetada S/N, Quadra 3, Setor 3, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil 70931-902
Tel: (067) 726-4045
Fax: (067) 726-3662

Name: Arend Van de Kerk
Title: Country Environmental Engineer
Affiliation: Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization
Address: P.O. Box 1834. Belize City, Belize
Tel: 501-2-44885
Fax: 501-2-30917

Name: Patrick Lachassagne
Title: Hydrogeologist
Affiliation: Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres
Address: BP 8039 Didier, Fort de France, Martinique, France 97259
Tel: (596) 718-868
Fax: (596) 633-046

Name: Armando Llop
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo
Address: Araoz Alfaro 2276, Godoy Cruz, Mendoza, Argentina 5501
Tel: (54) (61) 393-530
Fax: (54) (61) 241-833

Name: Javier Lopez
Title: Asesor del Ministro
Affiliation: Instituto Nicaraguense de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente
Address: P.O. Box 5123, Km. 12.5 Carretera Norte, Managua, Nicaragua
Tel: (505)-2-31868
Fax: (505)-2-631273

Name: Ricardo Martinez
Title: Ingeniero Quimico
Affiliation: IRENARE
Address: Paraiso, Ancon, Panama
Tel: 32-43-17

Name: Amelia Clara Simone de Masagli
Title: Licienciada en Ciencias Politicas y Sociales
Address: Olegario Andrade 824, Capital, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 248-115

Name: Jorge Adolfo Maza
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Address: Mansilla 511, San José, Mendoza, Argentina 5519
Tel: (54) (61) 310-498
Fax: (54) (61) 380-251

Name: Aníbal Mejía R.
Title: Gerente Nacional de Ingeniería
Affiliation: Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion
Address: Apartado 5285, Zona 5, Panama City, Panama
Tel: 272-564
Fax: 270-360

Name: Emilio Kort Micaly
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo
Address: 21 de Mayo 785, Quillota, Chile
Tel: 310-328/310137

Name: Carlos Mauricio Salvador Mirabile
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo
Affiliation: Riego-Drenajo-Recuperacion de Suelos Salinos
Address: Suipacha 367, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 241-993
Fax: (54) (61) 380-251

Name: Miguel Monserrat
Title: Director General Control de la Contaminacion
Affiliation: Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente
Address: Darragueira 2382 3o, Capital Federal, Argentina
Tel: 774-7102

Name: German Araya Montezuma
Title: Ingeniero Civil y Sanitario
Address: Edificio la Llacuna, San José, Costa Rica 5120-1000
Tel: 570-315
Fax: 225-062

Name: José Antonio Morábito
Title: Ingeniero Agronomo
Address: Belgrano (Oeste) 210, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 241-993
Fax: (54) (61) 380-251

Name: Ramon Ochoa Acuña
Title: Director Ejecutivo
Affiliation: Proyecto Especial Chira-Piura
Address: Mz. L1 Lt94 Urb. Covima - La Molina, Lima 12, Peru
Tel: (51-74) 331-777
Fax: (51-74) 328-870

Name: Rodolfo Leite de Oliveira
Title: Director General
Affiliation: Departamento Recursos Hidricos de Minas Gerais
Address: Rua Santa Catarina, 1354-Lourdes, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil 30.170-081
Tel: (031) 337-1819
Fax: (031) 337-3283

Name: Rogelio A. Pinilla R.
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion
Address: 6-5082, El Dorado, Panama City, Panama
Tel: 628-339
Fax: 629-469

Name: Nelson Medina Rocha
Title: President
Affiliation: Asociacion Nicaraguense de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ambiental
Address: Reparto Miraflores #134, Managua, Nicaragua
Tel: 661-361/667-910
Fax: 667-911

Name: Miguel Silva Rodriguez
Title: Constructor Civil
Affiliation: Direccion General de Aguas
Address: Prat 305, Arica, Chile
Tel: 231-086

Name: Salvador A. Rodriguez
Title: Vice Dean, College of Civil Engineering
Address: Ciudad Universitaria Octavio Mendez, Pereiro, P.O. Box 6-2894 El Dorado, Panama City, Panama
Tel: 638.000 ext. 214
Fax: (507) 641-832

Name: Gabriel Roldan
Title: Director Ejecutivo Cientifico
Affiliation: Coordinacion del Agua
Address: Calle 4 Sur #43A-195, Oficina 269, Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia
Tel: (57) 4 268-7324
Fax: (57) 4268-1055

Name: Joaquim Rondon Rocha Azevedo
Title: Executive Director
Affiliation: Sociedade de Defesa do Pantanal - SODEPAN
Address: Av. Americo Carlos da Costa 320, Parque de Exposicoes Laudicio Coelho, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil 79080-170
Tel: 55-067-742-1891
Fax: 55-067-742-3388

Name: Santa Esmeralda Salatino
Title: Ingeniera Agronoma
Address: Vallecitos M17-C11, 3o Jardin Municipal, Las Heras, Mendoza, Argentina 5539
Tel: (54) (61) 241-993
Fax: (54) (61) 380-251

Name: Carlos Salazar
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas
Address: Morande 59, Piso 8, Santiago, Chile
Tel: (56)(2) 699-2233
Fax: (56)(2) 698-5341

Name: Alberto Bordeu Schwarze
Title: Ingeniero Forestal
Affiliation: Corporacion Nacional Forestal, 5a Region
Address: 3 Norte 541, Vina del Mar, 5a Region, Chile
Tel: (032) 970-108
Fax: (032) 976-589

Name: Herber H. Sedelmeier E.
Title: Gerente Nacional de Desarrollo
Affiliation: Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion
Address: Edificio Poli, Segundo Piso, Av. Justo Arosemena, Apdo 5285, Zona 5, Panama City, Panama
Tel: (507) 627-370
Fax: (507) 629-993

Name: Teunis J. Spek
Title: Ingeniero Agricolo
Address: AESP, Ministerio de Agricultura, Castries, St. Lucia
Tel: 450-2497
Fax: 453-6314

Name: José Acero Suarez
Title: Jefe, Division de Cuencas Hidrograficas
Address: Carrera 10 #20-30, oficina 606, Santa Fé de Bogotá, Condinamarca, Colombia
Tel: (0057)(1) 283-5516
Fax: (0057)(1) 283-3458

Name: Heriberto Suarez
Title: Especialista de Ingenieria
Affiliation: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo
Address: 8403 Postoak Road, Potomac, MD 20854-3481
Tel: (202) 623-1868
Fax: (202) 623-1315

Name: Maria de Lourdes Vilela Tapparo
Title: Engenheira Civil
Affiliation: Vigilato Vilela Agelune-Maria Aprecida Alves
Address: Rua Pio Rojas 348-Bl-Q-Apt 32, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil 105
Tel: (067) 751-1994
Fax: (067) 382-1681

Name: Luis Andrés Arriagada Terán
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: Direccion General de Aguas
Address: P.O. Box 245, Santiago 35, Chile
Tel: 228-5645

Name: Iván Jaramillo Torres
Title: Licienciado en Ingenieria Civil
Affiliation: Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion
Address: 2600 Zona 7, Panama City, Panama
Tel: 359-076

Name: Oscar Ricardo Velez
Title: Ingeniero Sanitario
Address: Manuel A. Saez 433, Mendoza, Argentina 5500
Tel: (54) (61) 247-523

Name: Alberto Ismael Juan Vich
Title: Ingeniero en Recursos Hidricos
Address: Bo VJEMVI 2, Mza A, Casilla 15, Villa Nueva-Guaymallen, Mendoza, Argentina
Tel: (54) (61) 241-029
Fax: (54) (61) 380-370
E-Mail: ntcricyt%acriba@vchcevm (bitnet), (uucp)

Name: Jaime Vivanco
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: Colegio de Ingenieros de Chile A.G.
Address: Moneda 673, 7o Piso, Santiago, Chile
Tel: (56-02) 639-5241
Fax: (56-02) 639-5866

Name: Carlos Andaluz Westreicher
Title: Executive Director
Affiliation: PROTERRA
Address: Av. Esteban Campodonico 208, Urb. Santa Catalina, La Victoria, Lima 13, Peru
Tel: (5114) 723-800
Fax: (5114) 703-371

Name: Christian W. Winkel
Title: Director of Govt. Department
Address: Klein Kwartier 33, Curacao, Nederlands Antilles
Tel: (05999) 376-170
Fax: (05999) 370-723

Name: Armando Cubillos Zárate
Title: Ingeniero Civil
Affiliation: CIDIAT, Active member, American Water Works Association, Sociedad Colombiana de Ingenieros
Address: Apartado 219, Merida, Venezuela
Tel: (058) 744-4951 or 442-224
Fax: (058) 744-441-461

Name: Ronald Calvo Zeledoci
Title: Jefe, Division Estudios y Proyectos
Affiliation: Instituto Costarricense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados
Address: Av. Central, Edificio la Llacuna, 9o Piso, San José, Costa Rica 5120-1000
Tel: 228-436
Fax: 222-259

North American Respondents

Name: Bruce Adams
Title: Water Conservation Coordinator
Affiliation: South Florida Water Management District
Address: 3301 Gun Club Rd., P.O. Box 2460, West Palm Beach, FL 33416
Tel: (407) 687-6785
Fax: (407) 687-6010

Name: Lola F. Allen
Title: NW Hillsborough Basin Board
Affiliation: Southwest Florida Water Management District
Address: 7738 North Mobley Road, Odessa, FL 33556
Tel: (813) 920-5392

Name: Charles Aller
Title: Bureau Chief
Affiliation: Department of Environmental Protection
Address: 2600 Blair Stone Rd., Tallahassee, FL 32399-2400
Tel: (904) 488-3601
Fax: (904) 487-3618

Name: Bruce Anderson
Title: Chief Internal Auditor
Affiliation: Southwest Florida Water Management District
Address: 2379 Broad Street, Brooksville, Fl 34609
Tel: (904) 796-7211

Name: Marilyn L. Arnold
Title: Associate
Affiliation: Environmental and Energy Study Institute
Address: 122 C St., NW #700, Washington, DC 20016
Tel: (202) 628-1400
Fax: (202) 628-1825

Name: Nicholas G. Aumen, Ph.D
Title: Division Director
Affiliation: Kissimmee and Okeechobee Systems Research Div.
Address: Department of Research, SFWMD, P.O. Box 24680, West Palm Beach, FL 33416
Tel: (407) 687-6601
Fax: (407) 687-6442

Name: Samir N. Banoob, M.D., Dr. P.H.
Title: Professor of Health Policy and International Health
Affiliation: University of South Florida, College of Public Health
Address: 13201 Bruce Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33618
Tel: (813) 974-6651
Fax: (813) 974-6356

Name: Dr. Patsy Yeates Baynard
Title: Director Research and Development
Affiliation: Florida Power Corporation
Address: P.O. Box 14042, St. Petersburg, FL 33731
Tel: (813) 866-4491
Fax: (813) 866-4990

Name: John Beldin-Quiñones
Title: Water Resources Engineer
Affiliation: CH2M Hill
Address: 800 Fairway Drive, Suite 350, Deerfield Beach, FL 33432
Tel: (305) 426-4008
Fax: (305) 698-6010

Name: S.R. Benton
Affiliation: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Address: 400 Fernandez Juncos Av., San Juan, PR 00901
Tel: (809) 729-6876
Fax: (809) 729-6879

Name: L.M. Buddy Blain
Title: President
Affiliation: Blain & Cone, P.A.
Address: Tampa, FL 33602
Tel: (813) 223-3888
Fax: (813) 228-6422

Name: Jim Boone
Title: Chief, Special Projects Office
Affiliation: US Army Corps of Engineers
Address: P.O. Box 4970, Attn. CESAJ-DP, Jacksonville, FL 32232-0019
Tel: (904) 323-2583
Fax: (904) 323-3920

Name: Louis E. Buck
Title: Senior Engineer
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 400 West Summit Hill Dr., Knoxville, TN 37032
Tel: (615) 632-6222
Fax: (615) 632-3247

Name: Hal Cardwell
Title: Post-Doctoral Fellow
Affiliation: Oak Ridge National Lab-Envt. Science Div.
Address: P.O. Box 2008, MS 6036, Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Tel: (615) 574-8143

Name: Peter Clark
Title: Principal Environmental Planner
Affiliation: Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council
Address: 9455 Koger Blvd., St. Petersburg, FL 33702
Tel: (813) 577-5151

Name: Joseph C. Clooney
Title: Senior Medical Entomologist, Vectors and Plant Management Program
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: Office Service Annex 1B-M TVA, Muscle Shoals, AL 35660
Tel: (205) 386-2277
Fax: (205) 386-2031

Name: Edwin J. Conklin
Title: Director of Marine Resources
Affiliation: Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Address: 3900 Commonwealth Blvd., Tallahassee, FL 32399
Tel: (904) 488-6058

Name: George G. Conner, Jr.
Title: Navigation Technical Specialist
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 400 West Summit Dr., WT 10C Knoxville, TN 37919
Tel: (615) 632-7157
Fax: (615) 632-6137

Name: Allen C. Culpepper
Title: Environmental Specialist III, WMD Liaison
Affiliation: Department of Environmental Protection
Address: Rte. 1. Box 3100, Havana, FL 32333
Tel: (904) 539-5999

Name: Joseph J. Delfino
Title: Professor and Chair
Affiliation: University of Florida
Address: A. P. Black Hall, P.O. Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450
Tel: (904) 392-0841
Fax: (904) 392-3076

Name: Richard D. Drew
Title: Bureau Chief
Affiliation: Department of Environmental Protection
Address: 2600 Blair Stone Rd., Tallahassee, FL 32399-2400
Tel: (904) 487-0563

Name: Patricia P. Eaton
Title: Executive Director
Affiliation: Oklahoma Water Resources Board
Address: P.O. Box 150, 600 N. Harvey, Oklahoma City, OK 73101-0150
Tel: (405) 231-2551
Fax: (405) 231-2600

Name: Mark D. Farrell
Title: Assistant Executive Director
Affiliation: Southwest Florida Water Management District
Address: 2379 Broad St., Brooksville, FL 34609
Tel: (904) 796-7211
Fax: (904) 754-6874

Name: Thomas C. Fisher, Jr.
Title: Technical Specialist, Navigation
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 400 West Summit Hill Dr., Knoxville, TN 37902-1499
Tel: (615) 632-6507
Fax: (615) 632-6137

Name: Gary R. Flarence
Title: Director, Resource Data Dept.
Affiliation: Southwest Florida Water Management District
Address: 2379 Broad St., Brooksville, FL 34609-6899
Tel: (904) 796-7211
Fax: (904) 754-6885

Name: David M. Freeman
Title: Professor and Chairman
Affiliation: Department of Sociology
Address: Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523
Tel: (303) 491-6045
Fax: (303) 491-2191

Name: Patrick M. Frost
Title: Director, Orlando Field Office
Affiliation: St. John's River Water Management District
Address: 618 E. South Street, Orlando, FL 32801
Tel: (407) 897-4300
Fax: (407) 897-4354

Name: David H. Getches
Title: Professor
Affiliation: University of Colorado School of Law
Address: Campus Box 401, Boulder, CO 80309
Tel: (303) 492-7377
Fax: (303) 492-1200

Name: Dr. Peter H. Gleick
Title: Director, Global Environmental Program
Affiliation: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security
Address: 1204 Preservation Parkway, Oakland CA 94612
Tel: (510) 251-1600
Fax: (510) 251-2203

Name: Raquel S. Gomes
Title: Assistant to Executive Scientist
Affiliation: Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research
Address: 1100 Wayne Av., Suite 1225, Silver Spring, MD 20910
Tel: (301) 589-5747
Fax: (301) 589-5711

Name: Alberto G. Gomez
Title: Principal Engineer
Affiliation: Interamerican Development Bank
Address: 1300 New York Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20577
Tel: (202) 623-1866
Fax: (202) 623-1315

Name: Cesar A. Gomez
Title: Water Resource Engineer
Affiliation: Office of Environmental Services
Address: Broward Co. OES/WMD, 2555 W. Copans Rd. Pompano, FL 33069
Tel: (305) 831-0763
Fax: (305) 831-0708

Name: Neil S. Grigg
Title: Head, Department of Civil Engineering
Affiliation: Colorado State University
Address: Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523
Tel: (303) 491-5048
Fax: (303) 491-7727

Name: Lance H. Gunderson
Title: Assistant in Zoology
Affiliation: University of Florida Department of Zoology
Address: P.O. Box 118525, Gainesville, FL 32611-8525
Tel: (904) 329-6914
Fax: (904) 329-3704

Name: Richard M. Hailer
Title: Executive Director
Affiliation: Florida House Foundation. Inc.
Address: P.O. Box 21583. Sarasota, FL 34276
Tel: (813) 922-5277
Fax: (813) 955-0413

Name: Clinton W. Hall
Title: Director, Kerr Research Laboratory
Affiliation: Environmental Protection Agency
Address: P.O. Box 1198, Ada, OK 74820
Tel: (405) 436-8510
Fax: (405) 436-8529

Name: Elaine D. Hall
Title: Management Assistant
Affiliation: Everglades National Park
Address: 40001 State Road, Homestead, FL 9336
Tel: (305) 242-7710
Fax: (305) 242-7711

Name: William Hammond
Title: Member, Governing Board SFWMD
Address: 5456 Parker Drive, Fort Myers, FL 33919
Tel: (813) 481-4676
Fax: (813) 482-5456

Name: Robert B. Hardy
Title: Utilities Engineer
Affiliation: Lee County DNRM
Address: 2012 Altamont Av., Fort Myers, FL 33912
Tel: (813) 335-2791
Fax: (813) 335-2792

Name: Michael S. Harrell, P.E.
Title: Environmental Engineer Supervisor
Affiliation: Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality
Address: 1000 NE 10th St.. Oklahoma City, OK 73117-1212
Tel: (405) 271-5205
Fax: (405) 271-7339

Name: Dr. John H. Hartig
Title: Associate Professor
Affiliation: Wayne State University
Address: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, MI 48202
Tel: (313) 577-3608
Fax: (313) 577-3881

Name: J. Chris Herin
Title: Regional Office Manager
Affiliation: ERM South Inc.
Address: 777 Yamato Rd. #130. Boca Raton, FL 33431
Tel: (407) 241-1752
Fax: (407) 241-2380

Name: Janet Herrin
Title: Manager, Reservoir Operations, Planning, and Development
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 400 West Summit Hill Dr., Knoxville, TN 37902
Tel: (615) 632-2221

Name: Gary D. Hickman
Title: Senior Fisheries Ecologist
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: Aquatic Biology Laboratory, Norris, TN 37828-2017
Tel: (615) 632-1791
Fax: (615) 632-1693

Name: Michael D. Hudlow
Title: Director, Office of Hydrology
Affiliation: Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather Service
Address: Office of Hydrology, 1325 East West Highway, SSMC2, Silver Spring, MD
Tel: (301) 713-1658
Fax: (301) 713-0963

Name: Phillip Z. Kirpich
Title: Consulting Engineer-Water Resources
Affiliation: World Bank (Retired)
Address: 20 Island Avenue #1418, Miami Beach, FL 33139-1315
Tel: (305) 673-1336

Name: Dean Kleinschmidt
Title: President
Affiliation: Kleinschmidt and Associates, Inc.
Address: 005 Cicero Lane, Brandon, FL 33511
Tel: (813) 685-4170

Name: Robert W. Klemans
Title: Environmental Engineer
Affiliation: Florida Power Corporation
Address: P.O. Box 14042 - MAC H26, St. Petersburg, FL 33733
Tel: (813) 866-280
Fax: (813) 866-926

Name: Roy R. “Robin” Lewis III, C.E.P.
Title: President
Affiliation: Lewis Environmental Services, Inc.
Address: P.O. Box 20005, Tampa, FL 33622-0005
Tel: (813) 889-9684
Fax: (813) 881-1586

Name: Janet G. Llewellyn
Title: Chief, Bureau of Wetland Resource Management
Affiliation: Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Address: 2600 Blair Stone Rd., Tallahassee, FL 32301
Tel: (904) 488-0130

Name: John O. de Lorge
Title: Board Member
Affiliation: Northwest Florida Water Management District
Address: 486 Citation Dr., Cantonment, FL 32533
Tel: (904) 478-2581
Fax: (904) 452-4479

Name: Joseph R. Makuch, Ph.D
Title: Coordinator
Affiliation: National Agricultural Library, Water Quality Information Library
Address: 10301 Baltimore Rd., Beltsville, MD 20705
Tel: (301) 504-6077
Fax: (301) 504-7098

Name: Douglas P. Manson
Title: Attorney
Affiliation: Carey, O'Malley, Whitaker and Lins, P.A.
Address: P.O. Box 499, Tampa, FL 33601-0499
Tel: (813) 221-8210
Fax: (813) 221-1430

Name: Charles G. Marvin
Title: Executive Vice President
Affiliation: The Refractories Institute
Address: 500 Wood Street, Suite 326, Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Tel: (412) 281-6787
Fax: (412) 281-6881

Name: Olen Paul Matthews
Title: Associate Dean/Director of Environmental Institute
Affiliation: Oklahoma State University
Address: 002 LSE, O.S.U., Stillwater, OK 74078
Tel: (405) 744-9201
Fax: (405) 744-7673
E-Mail: opm@osuvmi

Name: Richard Maxey
Title: Government Analyst III
Affiliation: Office of the Governor, State of Florida
Address: Office of the Governor, The Capitol, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0001
Tel: (904) 488-8686

Name: Ted W. McKim, P.E.
Title: Manager, Water and Waste Resources
Affiliation: Reedy Creek Energy Services. Inc.
Address: P.O. Box 10,000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830
Tel: (407) 824-7447
Fax: (407) 824-5868

Name: Pamela P. McVery
Title: Chief, Intergovernmental Programs
Affiliation: Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Address: 3900 Commonwealth Blvd., Tallahassee, FL 32301
Tel: (904) 488-7454

Name: Allan Milledge
Title: Governing Board Member
Affiliation: South Florida Water Management District
Address: 2100 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 600, Miami, FL 33134
Tel: (305) 445-1500

Name: Barbara Miller
Title: Manager, Flood Risk Reduction
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 400 West Summit Hill Dr., Knoxville, TN 37902
Tel: (615) 632-7179
Fax: (615) 632-3247

Name: Philip MicKlim
Title: Professor
Affiliation: Department of Geography, Western Michigan University
Address: Room 327, Wood Hall, Kalamazoo, MI 49008
Tel: (616) 387-3407
Fax: (616) 387-0958

Name: Richard Miessau
Title: Senior Technical Supervisor-Engineering
Affiliation: South Florida Water Management District, 3301 Gun Club Road, West Palm Beach, FL 33416
E-Mail: rmiessau

Name: John C. Moden
Title: Manager
Affiliation: PCCSC
Address: 14 Office Park Drive, Suite 4, Palm Coast, FL 32137
Tel: (904) 445-0866

Name: David Moore
Title: Deputy Executive Director
Affiliation: Southwest Florida Water Management District
Address: 2309 Broad St., Brooksville, FL 34609-6899
Tel: (904) 796-7211

Name: Steven P. Mumme
Title: Professor
Affiliation: Department of Political Science
Address: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
Tel: (303) 491-7428
Fax: (303) 491-2490

Name: James F. Murley
Title: Executive Director
Affiliation: 1000 Friends of Florida
Address: P.O. Box 5948, 296 E. Park Avenue, Tallahassee, FL 32314
Tel: (904) 222-6277
Fax: (904) 222-1117

Name: Marshall Ted Nelson
Title: Manager, Navigation
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 400 West Summit Hill Dr.. Knoxville, TN 37902
Tel: (615) 632-7184
Fax: (615) 632-6137

Name: George A. O'Connor
Title: Professor and Chair
Affiliation: University of Florida
Address: Soil and Water Science Department, Box 110510, Gainesville, FL 32611-0510
Tel: (904) 392-1804
Fax: (904) 392-3399

Name: Carolyn Hardy Olsen, P.E.
Title: Vice President, Water Program
Affiliation: Brown and Caldwell
Address: 53 Perimeter Center East, Suite 500, Atlanta, GA 30346-1905
Tel: (404) 394-2997
Fax: (404) 396-9495

Name: Jose Maria Otero
Title: Staff Civil Engineer
Affiliation: American Society of Civil Engineers
Address: 2002 Timberlane Circle, Greenacres, FL 33463
Tel: (407) 642-1420

Name: Roland E. Ottolini
Title: Professional Engineer III
Affiliation: Lee County Division of Natural Resources Management
Address: P.O. Box 398, Fort Myers, FL 33902
Tel: (813) 335-2791
Fax: (813) 335-2792

Name: Francois-Marie Patorni
Title: Principal Water Resource Management Specialist
Affiliation: World Bank
Address: 1818 H Street NW. Room M-7043, Washington, DC 20433
Tel: (202) 473-6265
Fax: (202) 676-0978

Name: Jean Payen
Title: Specialist
Affiliation: Interamerican Development Bank
Address: 1300 New York Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20577
Tel: (202) 623-1415
Fax: (202) 623-1315

Name: Maria Victoria Peelea
Title: Permit Coordination Unit Supervisor
Affiliation: Washington State Department of Ecology
Address: P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600
Tel: (206) 407-6917
Fax: (206) 407-6904

Name: Ernesto Perez, P.E.
Title: Technology Transfer Chief
Affiliation: Environmental Protection Agency
Address: 345 Courtland St. NE, Atlanta, GA 30365
Tel: (404) 347-3633

Name: Carl D. Pfaffenberger, PH.D
Title: Chief. Environmental Monitoring Division
Affiliation: Environmental Resources Management, Dade County
Address: 33 S.W. 2nd Avenue, Suite 900, Miami, FL 33130
Tel: (305) 372-6936
Fax: (305) 372-6954

Name: William A.J. Pitt, P.E., P.H.
Title: Principal Engineer
Affiliation: Post, Buckley, Schuh, & Jerrigan, Inc.
Address: 2001 NW 107 Avenue, Miami, FL 33172-2507
Tel: (305) 592-7275
Fax: (305) 594-9574

Name: Wayne L. Poppe
Title: Senior Fisheries Biologist
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 1101 Market St., Chattanooga, TN 37402
Tel: (615) 751-7333
Fax: (615) 751-7479

Name: Sandra Postel
Title: Vice President for Research
Affiliation: Worldwatch Institute
Address: 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202) 452-1999
Fax: (202) 296-7365

Name: Mark Purvis
Title: Governmental Analyst
Affiliation: Governor's Office
Address: 1501 Capitol, Tallahassee, FL 32311
Tel: (904) 488-8686
Fax: (904) 922-6200

Name: Garth W. Redfield
Title: Division Director, Research Appraisal
Affiliation: Research Department, South Florida Water Management District
Address: P.O. Box 24680, West Palm Beach, FL 33416
Tel: (407) 687-6611
Fax: (407) 687-6442

Name: Alton F. Robertson
Title: Principal Hydrologist/Vice President
Affiliation: Law Environmental, Inc.
Address: 6365 N.W. 6th Way, Cypress Plaza, Suite 320, Port Lauderdale, FL 33309
Tel: (305) 771-2147
Fax: (305) 938-8294

Name: Jorge S. Rodriguez
Title: Deputy Director
Affiliation: Miami - Dade Water and Sewer Dept.
Address: 3575 South Lejeune Rd., Miami, FL 33146
Tel: (305) 669-7602
Fax: (305) 669-7746

Name: Jose M. Rosado
Title: Civil Engineer
Affiliation: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Address: P.O. Box 7825, Ponce, PR 00731
Tel: (809) 841-3181
Fax: (809) 841-3164

Name: Eugene A. Schiller
Title: Deputy Executive Director-Management Services
Affiliation: Southwest Florida Management District
Address: 2379 Broad Street, Brooksville, FL 34609-6874
Tel: (904) 796-7211
Fax: (904) 754-6874

Name: Larry Schwartz
Title: Environmental Planner
Affiliation: Grand Strand Water and Sewer Authority
Address: P.O. Box 1537, Conway, SC 29526
Tel: (803) 347-4641

Name: Gerald E. Seaburn, Ph.D, P.E.
Title: Corporate Water Resources Consultant/V.P.
Affiliation: Law Environmental, Inc.
Address: 112 Townpark Drive, Kennesaw, GA 30144
Tel: (404) 421-3578
Fax: (404) 421-3580

Name: Carol Ann Senne
Title: Director, Division of Policy and Planning
Affiliation: St. John's River Water Management District
Address: P.O. Box 1429, Palatka, FL 32177
Tel: (904) 329-4379
Fax: (904) 329-4125

Name: George William Sherk
Title: Visiting Scholar
Affiliation: University of Wyoming College of Law
Address: P.O. Box 3952, University Station, Laramie, WY 82071-3952
Tel: (307) 766-6107
Fax: (307) 766-4044

Name: Fred H. Sklar
Title: Ph.D
Affiliation: South Florida Water Management District
Address: Everglades Systems Research Division, 3301 Gun Club Road, West Palm Beach, FL 33416
Tel: (407) 687-6504

Name: Kathleen L. Small
Title: Environmental Project Manager
Affiliation: Florida Power Corporation
Address: P.O. Box 14042, St. Petersburg, FL 33733
Tel: (813) 866-5529

Name: David J. Smith
Title: State Climatologist
Affiliation: SC Water Resources Commission
Address: 1201 Main Street, Suite 1100, Columbia, SC 29201
Tel: (803) 737-0811

Name: Rick Smith
Title: Government Analyst
Affiliation: Florida Governor's Office
Address: Rm. 1501, The Capitol, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0001
Tel: (904) 488-8686
Fax: (904) 922-6200

Name: Glenn E. Stout
Title: Executive Director
Affiliation: International Water Resources Association
Address: 205 North Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801
Tel: (217) 333-6275
Fax: (217) 244-6633

Name: W. Patrick McSweeney
Title: Public Awareness Coordinator
Affiliation: St. John's River Water Management District
Address: P.O. Box 1429, Palatka, FL 32178-1429
Tel: (904) 329-4295
Fax: (904) 329-4103

Name: Richard D. Urban
Title: Senior Wetlands Ecologist
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 311 Broad St., Chattanooga, TN 37402
Tel: (615) 751-7301
Fax: (615) 751-7479

Name: Jane Lee Valentine
Title: Associate Professor
Affiliation: UCLA, School of Public Health
Address: 10833 Le Conte Av., Los Angeles, CA 90024-1772
Tel: (310) 825-8751
Fax: (310) 825-8440

Name: Evan Vlachos
Title: Professor
Affiliation: International School for Water Resources
Address: Weber Bldg, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
Tel: (303) 491-6089
Fax: (303) 491-6787

Name: Cathleen C. Vogel
Title: Director, Office of Government and Public Affairs
Affiliation: South Florida Water Management District
Address: 3301 Gun Club Rd., West Palm Beach, FL 33406
Tel: (407) 686-8800
Fax: (407) 687-6010

Name: Jeff Wade
Affiliation: Center for Governmental Responsibility
Address: University of Florida College of Law, Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel: (904) 392-2237
Fax: (904) 392-1457

Name: William H. Wadsworth
Title: Senior Vice President
Affiliation: HDR Engineering, Inc.
Address: 5100 W. Kennedy Blvd., Suite 300, Tampa, FL 33609
Tel: (813) 287-1960
Fax: (813) 282-2349

Name: Leslie A. Wedderburn
Title: Department Director, Water Resources Evaluation
Affiliation: South Florida Water Management District
Address: 3301 Gun Club Rd., P.O. Box 24680, West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680
Tel: (407) 687-6653
Fax: (407) 687-6442

Name: Estus D. Whitfield
Title: Policy Coordinator
Affiliation: Executive Office of the Governor
Address: The Capitol-Room 1501, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0001
Tel: (904) 488-5551
Fax: (904) 922-6200

Name: Arland W. Whitlock
Title: Operations Specialist
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: 400 W. Summit Hill Dr., WT-10B, Knoxville, TN 37938
Tel: (615) 632-6962
Fax: (615) 632-4670

Name: William B. Wrenn
Title: Senior Fisheries Biologist
Affiliation: Tennessee Valley Authority
Address: Office Service Annex, Muscle Shoals, AL 35660-1010
Tel: (205) 386-3656
Fax: (205) 386-2031


South American Respondents

Group Name: Asociación Interamericana de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental (AIDIS)
Address: Argentina

Group Name: American Geophysical Union
Address: 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009

Group Name: American Water Resources Association
Address: 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 220 Bethesda, MD 20814

Group Name: American Water Works Association
Address: 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235

Group Name: Asociación Chileña de Ingenieria Hidraulica
Address: Santiago, Chile

Group Name: Asociación Colombiana de Ciencias Hídricas
Address: Apartado Aereo #35720, Santa Fé de Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Tel: 341-3735

Group Name: Asociación Costarricense de Recursos Hídricos
Address: Colegio Federado de Ingenieros y Arquitectos, Curridabat, San José, Costa Rica

Group Name: Asociación Interamericana de Ingenieria Sanitaria
Address: San Martin 352, Santiago, RIA-AIDIS, Chile
Tel: 696-9712
Fax: 696-9712

Group Name: Asociación Internacional de Hidrologia
Address: The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344

Group Name: Asociación Latinoamericana de Hidrologia Subterranea para el Desarrollo
Address: Moneda #673, Piso 7, Santiago, Chile
Fax: 639-5866

Group Name: Asociación Mexicana de Hidraulica
Address: Camino de Santa Teresa 187, Col. Parques del Peoregal, Mexico City, Mexico 14010
Tel: (91)(5) 666-0835
Fax: (91)(5) 606-2323 ext. 31

Group Name: Asociación Mexicana de Hidraulica
Address: Camino de Santa Teresa 187, Tlalpau, Mexico City, Mexico 14010
Tel: (5) 606-4798

Group Name: Asociación Nacional Nicaraguense de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ambiental
Address: Reparto Miraflores 134, Managua, Nicaragua
Tel: 661-361/667-910
Fax: 667-911

Group Name: Asociación de Recursos Hídricos y Sanitarios
Address: Colegio Federado de Ingenieros y Arquitectos San José, Costa Rica

Group Name: Associacao Brasileira de Recursos Hidricos (ABRH)
Address: Av. Profesor Lucio Martins Rodrigues 120, Caixa Postal 11142, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 05499
Fax: (011) 813-5217

Group Name: Associazione Italiana Idrotecnica
Address: Rome, Italy

Group Name: Brasilian Water Resource Engineering Association
Address: 216 - BEIRAMAR - Ave 13th Floor, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Tel: (021) 220-3412

Group Name: Comisión Nacional Proyecto Hidrológico Internacional
Address: Shifting
Tel: 698-5341

Group Name: Comité da Bacia do Rio Paraiba do Sul
Address: Rua Padre Joao Manoel 755, 3rd Floor, Sao Paulo, Brazil 01411-900
Tel: (011) 282-4065

Group Name: Comité Chileño para el Programa Hidrologico Internacional
Address: Manuel Montt #1164, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 274-8946
Fax: 209-6407

Group Name: Comité Executivo de Estudos Integrados da Bacia Hidrografica do Rio Sao Francisco-CEEIVASF.
Address: Av. Sussuarana, 485 -Ed. DNOCS- S/309, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil 41-200
Fax: (071) 231-2000

Group Name: Comité Executivo de Estudos Integrados da Bacia Hidrografica do Rio Grande
Address: Rua Real Grandeza 219 -Bloco C- Sala 1.404, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 22.283

Group Name: Comité Inter Inst. Agua, Saneamiento, Medio Ambiente
Address: Panama City, Panama

Group Name: Comité Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos
Address: Departamento de Estudios Basicos, Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San José, Costa Rica
Tel: 207-309
Fax: 314-737

Group Name: E.S.B.
Address: S.C.S. -Quadra C- Bl A, #18119 Ed. Hermes, 1o Andar, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
Tel: (065) 226-3292

Group Name: Grupo Y'Guazu
Address: Av. Americo Carlos da Costa 320, Campo Grande, Brazil 79080-170
Tel: (55) 067 742-1891
Fax: (55) 067 742-3388

Group Name: Institution of Water and Environmental Management
Address: 15 John Street, London, WC1N 2EB, England
Tel: (071) 831-3110
Fax: (071) 405-4967

Group Name: Instituto de Derecho de Minas y Aguas
Address: Moneda 673, 8o Piso, Casilla Postal 3004, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 632-8290
Fax: 638-3452

Group Name: Instituto Argentino de Recursos Hídricos (IARH)
Address: Moreno 1257, 2do Piso, Capital Federal, Argentina, 1091
Tel: (01) 814-3689

Group Name: International Association of Hydrologists
Address: IAH Secretariat, P.O. Box 9, Kenilworth, UK CV8 1J9

Group Name: IPTRID
Address: HR Wallingford Ltd., Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxon, England, OX10 8BA
Fax: (44) (491) 832-233

Group Name: Mexican Academy of Engineering
Address: Mexico City, Mexico

Group Name: Mexican Association of Hydraulics
Address: Camino de Santa Teresa 187, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico

Group Name: Mexican Committee for the International Hydrologic Program
Address: Paseo Cuauhuahuac 8532, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, 62550

Group Name: Programa Hídrologico Internacional (PHI)
Address: Santiago, Chile

Group Name: Red de Gestion en Recursos Hídricos
Address: ECLAC (CEPAL) Santiago, Chile

Group Name: Red Latinoamericana de Cooperacion Técnica en Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas de FAO
Address: Sede Regional de FAO, Santiago, Chile
Tel: 218-5323

Group Name: Red Nacional de Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas (REDNAMAC)
Address: Calle Diecisiete #355, Urb. El Palomar, San Isidro, Lima, Peru 27
Tel: (5114) 410-425
Fax: (5114) 414-606

Group Name: Sociedad Chileña de Ingenieria Hidraulica
Address: San Martin 350 Santiago, Chile

Group Name: Sociedad Chileña de Ingenieria Hidraulica
Address: Santiago, Chile

Group Name: Sociedad Venezuelana de Ingenieria Hidraulica
Address: Colegio de Ingenieria de Venezuela, Parque los Caobos, Caracas, Districto Federal, Venezuela

North American Respondents

Group Name: American Bar Association
Address: 750 N. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60611
Tel: (312) 988-5724
Fax: (312) 988-5572

Group Name: American Fisheries Society
Address: 5410 Grosvenor Ln., Suite 10, Bethesda, MD 20814
Tel: (301) 530-8502
Fax: (301) 897-8616

Group Name: American Geophysical Union
Address: 2000 Florida Avenue N.W., Washington, DC 20009
Tel: (202) 462-6900
Fax: (202) 328-0566

Group Name: American Institute of Hydrology
Address: 3416 University Avenue S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55414-3328
Tel: (612) 379-1030
Fax: (612) 379-0169

Group Name: American Mosquito Control Association
Address: P.O. Box 5416, Lake Charles, LA
Tel: (318) 474-2723

Group Name: American Public Works Association
Address: 106 W. 11th Street, Suite 1800, Kansas City, MO 64105
Tel: (816) 472-6100
Fax: (816) 472-1610

Group Name: American Society of Civil Engineers
Address: 345 E. 47th St.. New York, NY 10017-2398
Tel: (800) 548-2723
Fax: (212) 980-4618

Group Name: American Water Resources Association
Contact: Nancy Lopez, President
Address: 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 220, Bethesda, MD 20814
Tel: (703) 648-5014
Fax: 301-493-5844

Group Name: American Water Works Association/Conservation Committee
Address: 6666 W. Quincy Ave., Denver, CO 80235
Tel: (303) 794-7711

Group Name: Association of American Geographers
Address: 1710 16th St.. N.W., Washington, DC 20009
Tel: (202) 234-1450

Group Name: Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers

Group Name: Association of State Wetlands Managers
Address: P.O. Box 2463. Berne, NY 12023

Group Name: Bream Fishermen Association
Address: Pensacola, FL

Group Name: Florida Engineering Society
Group Name: Florida Water Well Association

Group Name: International Association for Great Lakes Research
Address: University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Tel: (313) 498-2007

Group Name: International Association of Hydrogeologists
Address: 2614 Checkerberry Court, Reston, VA 22091
Fax: (703) 648-5295

Group Name: International Irrigation Management Institute
Address: P.O. Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Tel: (94-1) 867-404
Fax: (94-1) 866-854
E-Mail: iimi 1571cgil29

Group Name: International Water Resources Association
Address: 205 North Mathews Drive, Urbana, IL 61801
Tel: (217) 333-0536
Fax: (217) 244-6633

Group Name: Interstate Council on Water Policy
Address: 415 Hamm Building, 408 St. Peter Street, St. Paul, MN 55102
Tel: (612) 223-5828
Fax: (612) 223-5815

Group Name: Irrigation Management Network
Address: c/o The Overseas Development Network, 94 Victoria Street, London, SW1 E5JL, England

Group Name: Miami Geological Society

Group Name: Mississippi Water Resources Association
Address: P.O. Box 1393, Ridgeland, MS 39258
Tel: (601) 957-6536
Fax: (601) 957-6536

Group Name: National Ground Water Association
Address: 6375 Riverside Dr., Dublin, OH 43017
Tel: (614) 761-1711
Fax: (641) 761-3446

Group Name: National Society of Professional Engineers

Group Name: National Water Well Association

Group Name: North American Benthological Society
Address: Dept. of Research, SFWMD, P.O. Box 24680, West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680
Tel: (407) 687-6601
Fax: (407) 687-6442

Group Name: North American Lake Management Society
Address: 1 Progress Blvd., Box 27, Alachua, FL 32615-9536
Tel: (904) 462-2554

Group Name: Ohio River Consortium For Research and Education
Address: 6978 Presidio Court, Cincinnati, OH 45244
Tel: (513) 232-3511

Group Name: Salt Water Conservation Society
Address: 7515 N.E. Ankeny Rd., Ankeny, IA 50021
Tel: (515) 289-233

Group Name: Southwest Florida Water Management District
Address: 2379 Broad Street, Brooksville, FL 34609-6899
Tel: (813) 920-5392

Group Name: Tennesee Valley Authority
Address: P.O. Box 1745, Decatur, AL 35602
Tel: (205) 355-4660
Fax: (205) 351-8257

Group Name: U.S. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (USCID)
Address: 1616 Seventeenth Street, Suite 483, Denver, CO 80202
Tel: (303) 628-5430
Fax: (303) 628-5431

Group Name: Universities Council on Water Resources
Address: c/o UCOWR Headquarters, 4543 Faner Hall, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901
Fax: (618) 453-2671

Group Name: Water Quality 2000
Address: 601 Wythe St. Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
Tel: (800) 666-0206

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