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Annex 1. Mechanisms of the treaty for Amazonian cooperation
Annex 2. Operational structure of the binational programs
Annex 3. List of plans, programs, and projects identified

Annex 1. Mechanisms of the treaty for Amazonian cooperation

Mechanisms for implementing the Treaty for Amazonian Cooperation are the following:

- Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Contracting Parties, which are held whenever it is considered advisable or timely, to set basic guidelines for the common policy, to evaluate the overall progress of the Amazonian cooperation process, and to adopt decisions aimed at attaining the objectives set forth in the instrument (Article XX). As of the date of this report, four Meetings of Foreign Ministers have been held: in Belem, Brazil (October 1980); Cali, Colombia (December 1983); Quito, Ecuador (March 1989); and Santa Cruz, Bolivia (November 1991).

- Council on Amazonian Cooperation, composed of high-level diplomatic representatives of the contracting parties, whose function is to monitor fulfillment of the mandates and purposes of the treaty and of the decisions reached in the Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs. The Council considers initiatives presented by the countries and takes the appropriate decisions on studies and bilateral or multilateral projects to be executed by the Permanent National Commissions (Article XXI). Between the signing of the treaty and December 1990, the Council on Amazon Cooperation held four meetings: Lima, Peru (1983); La Paz, Bolivia (1986); Brasilia, Brazil (1988); and Bogota, Colombia (1990).

- Treaty Secretariat, whose functions are exercised pro tempore by the contracting party in whose territory the next regular meeting of the Council on Amazonian Cooperation is to be held (Article XXII). The Secretariat is responsible for carrying out the activities provided for in the Treaty as well as those mandated by the Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Council on Amazonian Cooperation. Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and now Ecuador have served as Secretariat pro tempore.

- Permanent National Commissions, created by the contracting parties are responsible for applying the provisions of the TAC in their individual territories and for executing the decisions adopted by the Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Council on Amazonian Cooperation, together with other activities that each state may assign them (Article XXIII).

- Special Commissions, formed by the contracting parties as necessary, study specific problems or issues relating to the purposes of the Treaty (Article XXIV). To date, Special Commissions on the Environment (CEMAA), Science and Technology (CECTA), Health (CESAM), Indian Affairs (CEAIA), Transport, Infrastructure, and Communications in the Amazon (CETICAM), and Tourism (CETURA) have been established. The Special Commissions receive support from international and regional technical and financial cooperation agencies such as the OAS in formulating and implementing their programs and projects.

- Meeting of Presidents of the Amazon Countries, which, while not a stated mechanism of the TAC, brings together the presidents of the signatory countries. They met for the first time on May 6, 1989, in Manaus, Brazil, to discuss their common interests in the Amazon region and, in particular, the future of cooperation for the development and protection of their individual Amazonian territories. The second meeting of presidents was held on February 10 and 11, 1992, to study the topics of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The presidents adopted a declaration reaffirming that "the imperative of economic and social development should be combined with conserving and protecting the environment, by means of the promotion of strategies for the sustainable use of natural resources and respect for the rights of citizens to a better quality of life". They also affirmed the right of Amazonian countries to "use their own resources to ensure their progress and well-being."

Annex 2. Operational structure of the binational programs

The general organizational plan followed in executing each binational plan or program is as follows:

- Joint Commission: The Joint Commission is composed of representatives from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and is the highest level for decisions on implementing and coordinating execution of the programs of common interest. The Joint Commission approves the operational mechanism as well as the terms of reference for preparation of the programs and projects. It also negotiates technical and/or financial support from international organizations.

- Executive Commission: This is the binational mechanism that supervises execution of the studies. It is made up of the permanent secretary of the Joint Commission, a representative from the Permanent Commission (or Subcommittee) of each country, the directors of the agencies to which the Technical Units of each country report, and the Director of the OAS Department of Regional Development and Environment or his representative. The functions of the Executive Commission are as follows:

* To coordinate and promote in the two countries the execution of the studies included in the various phases of the plan or programs;

* To approve the program of activities and the reports presented by the Technical Committee;

* To monitor the progress toward the goals of the plan or program of activities;

* To ensure that the national agencies of the individual countries accomplish their assigned work and provide the technical and logistical support required to stay on schedule and properly carry out the planned activities.

- Technical Committee: This is a bilateral mechanism for direction and administration. It has a secretariat responsible for executing the analysis and integration of the work produced by the technical agencies of both countries and the OAS consultants. The Technical Committee is to:

* Organize and program execution of the activities to be carried out by the Technical Units, in accordance with the approved work plan;

* Direct and evaluate the work assigned to the Technical Units;

* Harmonize the reports presented by the Technical Units before submitting them to the Executive Commission for consideration;

* Through the Permanent Secretariat: receive, review, and integrate all the documents prepared; and,

* Organize work and research, if necessary, to carry out the activities called for in the plan or program.

The Permanent Secretariat, for its part, has an executive function with respect to the evaluation and review of reports and studies produced by the Technical Units and to the preparation of the final documents.

- Technical Units operate in each country. Consist of a unit chief designated by the Government, a group of national experts from the participating agencies, international consultants, and administrative staff. Their principal functions are:

* To execute the studies and activities contained in the terms of reference;

* To evaluate and review studies; and,

* To identify and formulate programs and projects in the priority areas selected.

Annex 3. List of plans, programs, and projects identified




Plan for the Physical Planning and Management of the San Miguel and Putumayo River Basins (Colombia-Ecuador)


Pilot project for sustainable management of natural resources

Environmental research

Environmental education

Forestry, wildlands, and wildlife

Attention to Indian Communities

Community development


Aspects of production

Education and culture

Legal aspects

Reorientation of the Agricultural Sector

Amazonian agricultural production units (UPAAZ)

Agroindustrial and commercial crops

Fisheries development



Technical assistance

Land tenure

Agricultural Inputs

Phosphate fertilizers

Agricultural lime


Health and Basic Sanitation

Infrastructure and equipment

Supporting services

Health education

Research in traditional medicine

Training and Organization

Community organization

Development of rural women

Job training

Colombian-Brazilian Model Plan for the Integrated Development of the Border Communities of the Tabatinga-Apaporis Axis (Colombia-Brazil)

Tourism Development


Construction/remodeling of basic infrastructure

Purchase of equipment for land and river transport

Intra- and intersectoral repercussions

Environmental education

Promotion of international tourism

Development of Fish Farming (Leticia Regional Center)

Fish farming development

Construction/refitting of Regional Aquaculture Center at Leticia

Establishment of fish-breeding units

Provision of laboratory and research equipment at the Center

Establishment of production and marketing units

Basic surveys on areas of biology, limnology, economy, and technology

Establishment of demonstration unit for rural development and extension programs

Technical Assistance and Rural Extension

Training in farm management practices for indigenous people and settlers

Promotion of poultry and small livestock production

Technical advisory services for resumption of traditional "chagra" farming

Distribution of improved seeds and support to horticulture and various crops

Economic Utilization of Forest Resources

Regionwide botanical studies

Introduction of appropriate technologies

Health Plan

Organization and development of health services; manpower; network of laboratories; information system; community participation; physical infrastructure

Comprehensive maternal and child care

Prevention and control of communicable diseases

Control of vector-borne diseases

Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases

Oral health program

Environmental sanitation

Care of indigenous communities

Epidemiological surveillance

Basic sanitation

Expansion and improvement of the Leticia water treatment plant

New water intake, treatment, and distribution system at Tabatinga; sewage service for

Tabatinga and integration into the Leticia system; construction of sewage outfalls

Collection and final disposal of solid wastes (sanitary landfills) for Leticia, Tabatinga, and other towns under the Plan

Abattoirs and marketplaces for Leticia, Tabatinga, and other towns under the Plan

Tabatinga-Leticia Urban Transport

Transit engineering solutions; signs, parkings; pedestrian, loading and unloading areas

Coordination and harmonization of urban transport measures with urban development

Long-term project guidelines in the light of urban planning and uses of space

Organization of a binational cooperative or similar enterprise

Renewal of rolling stock

Ecological and Economic Zoning

Creation of data base

Mapping with standardized parameters for the two countries

Demarcation of homogeneous areas for agricultural development, extraction, and the creation of conservation units.

Complementary studies of biotic and abiotic matters

Expansion and consolidation of the Amacayacu National Nature Reserve

Environmental Education

Support for classroom education; adaptation of curricula of classroom education

Environmental education for the community

Program for the Development of Border Communities of Iñapari-Assis, Brazil (Peru-Brazil)

Utilization of Forest Resources

Typology of crop, forest, and grazing production systems and their distribution

Evaluation of economic, social, and environmental behavior of the systems detected.

Proposal of new productivity-raising technologies

Management of wildlands for conservation as national parks, reserves and sanctuaries, protected forests, etc.

Description of principal faunal populations of the area

Management and utilization of secondary forests

Fishery Development

Establisment of a community fishery center

Establishment of control, supervision, and technological support units

Health Development

Integrated preventive health project

Training of technical and professional staff

Expansion and improvement of the health services network

Binational coordination

Environmental Zoning

Inventory and evaluation of natural resources

Cadastral survey

Demarcation and establishment of protected natural areas

Environmental planning

Management of production systems and ecological surveillance

Management of Binational Program

Inventory of public and private institutions in the region

Analysis of organizational structure and operation of institutions

Review of experiences in project execution

Design of mechanisms for promotion, conduct, and management of the program

Improvement of Road between San Lorenzo and Brasilea

Plan for the Integral Development of the Putumayo River Basin (Peru-Colombia)

Natural Parks

National natural parks; Putumayo-Sabaloyacu Conservation Unit

Binational parks

Integrated and Sustainable Forest Management

Integrated Small Farms

Integrated Attention to Indian/Native Communities

Education and training

Health and basic sanitation

Agricultural consolidation Marketing

General Soil Survey

Integrated Fishery Management

Management and development of ornamental fish species

Management and development of artisanal fishing

Training and promotion for development of artisanal fishing and aquaculture

Aquaculture research and development

Research on hydrobiological resources in Colombia-Peru border zone

Management and development of fishing for consumption


Supply program in the border zone

Marketing on the Putumayo River

Integral Health Project

Health project for the Putumayo River basin

Border plan for health actions

Program for medical care

Infrastructure and river-borne medical care


Construction, expansion, and equipping of educational centers

Teacher education and training

Construction of I.S.T. El Estrecho

Construction of agricultural schools

Expansion of boarding schools

Geologic Evaluation

Geologic evaluation of the Putumayo and Napo river basins

Preliminary evaluation of coal deposits

Geologic exploration of the Putumayo River basin

Prospecting for construction materials

Preliminary geologic exploration in the highlands of Traira

Hydromorphologic Studies

Scientific Expedition

Documentation Center for the Amazon

Amazonian documentation center (Colombia)

Amazonian documentation center (Peru)

Center for Appropriate Technology

Center for appropriate technology

Research and training center

Program for the Development of the Bolivian-Brazilian Border Communities (Brazil-Bolivia)a

Basic Services Infrastructure

Water and sanitation

Electrical equipment


Production Activities

Forest development

Mining development

Agricultural development

Fishery development

Natural Resources

Preservation and conservation

Transportation Infrastructure

Road transport

River transport

Air transport

Multimodal transport

Border Cooperation

Facilitation and exchange of goods and services

Indian Communities



a The studies on the different areas of the Brazil-Bolivia Binational Project have not yet been completed. The projects and subprojects presented are deduced from the policies and strategies selected in the process of border cooperation. 2

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