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A process made up of activities leading to the use, improvement, or conservation of natural and economic goods and services in order to maintain and improve human life quality.


The study of the interrelationships of organisms to one another and to their environments. The study of the structure and function of ecosystems.


A unit of space defined by an interacting, interdependent complex of physical and biotic components and processes that have created characteristic energy flows and material cycling or movement.

Environment (Human)

The aggregate of all conditions and influences affecting the behavior and development of humans as individuals and as societies.

Environmental Management

The mobilization of resources and the use of government to control the use, improvement or conservation of both natural and economic goods and services in such a way that conflicts created by that use, improvement or conservation are minimized.

Environmental Quality

The relative capability of an environment to satisfy the needs and wants of an individual or society.

Environmentally Sound Development

A process wherein ecosystem structure and function are manipulated to appropriate the goods and services offered by the ecosystem in question while minimizing any conflict inherent in the appropriation of these goods and services.


Refers to the nature of any environment in which the various factors of that environment act as an interacting, integrated system.

Negative Environmental Impact

The destruction, impoverisment, or enforced non-use of natural and economic goods and services whether the result of human activity or of natural hazardous events.


Used in several ways: economically as the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors; spatially; and topically to indicate any division of human activity (or any interest group) that provides for the protection or promulgation of its interests. This last usage is the most frequent in this volume.

Spontaneous Migration

Unauthorized and unplanned movement to sparsely populated areas for relatively short periods by landless peasants for the purpose of subsistance agriculture or by land speculators who hope to turn a profit with the later sale of title or usary rights.

Systems Goods and Services

Specific components and processes of ecosystem structure and function that are of interest to, or have value for, an individual or group of individuals. They may be natural or economic.

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