Quarterly Program Performance Report






Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project

Fourth Quarter, 1995

(October - December 31, 1995)





Prepared For:

Cooperative Agreement No. 940-1008-A-00-3522-00







Issued By:

Organization of American States

Department of Regional Development and Environment

1889 F Street N.W.

Washington, DC 20011

January 31, 1996



A. Project Description

Based on exploratory work started in early 1991 by the USAID Offices of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) and Regional Housing and Urban Development Office of the Caribbean (RHUDO/CAR), and subsequent participation of the Housing and Urban Programs (PRE/H), the Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project (CDMP) was formulated, and the Organization of American States was selected as the lead international agency responsible for its implementation. In September 1993, the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States and the US Agency for International Development signed a $5.0 million OFDA-funded agreement to provide technical assistance for disaster mitigation in selected nations of the Wider Caribbean Region. The CDMP is scheduled to be implemented over a five-year period. The purpose of the project is to establish sustainable public/private sector mechanisms which measurably lessen loss of life, reduce the potential for physical and economic damage, and shorten the disaster recovery period in the project area. Participant nations include the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Belize and the Eastern Caribbean countries that are receiving ongoing assistance from USAID.

The CDMP is being implemented by the OAS Department of Regional Development and Environment (DRDE), in conjunction with RHUDO/CAR, located in the USAID/Jamaica Mission, and USAID missions in the region. A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) is providing policy guidance and periodic review of the project. This committee includes representatives from CARICOM, the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA), RHUDO, OFDA, the USAID Missions in the region, the OAS, and the last coordinator of the Pan-Caribbean Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Project (PCDPPP).

B. Problems Addressed by the Program/Project:

unsafe location and construction of the built environment;

limited ability to identify hazard-prone areas;

inadequate technology transfer and institutional development required for disaster mitigation;

insufficient preparedness and prevention in the non-governmental sectors and lack of coordination with the public sector;

inadequate insurance underwriting practices region-wide.

C. Project Objectives and Outcomes, and How They Will Be Achieved

The CDMP focuses on major issues in the disaster/development linkage in the Caribbean, which include:

achieving sustainable development by reducing natural hazard vulnerability in existing and planned development;

improving public awareness and development decision-making, by accurately mapping hazard-prone areas; and

better managing natural hazard risk and maintaining adequate catastrophe protection for the region.

The six project outputs are:

1. Community Preparedness -- or "community adoption of self-sustained preparedness practices"

2. Hazard Mapping -- or "providing improved information for risk management"

3. Risk Audits & Lifeline Loss Reduction -- or "reduction of vulnerability of basic infrastructure and critical public facilities"

4. Improved Building Standards and Practices -- or "establishment of appropriate safer building guidelines and applications"

5. Property Insurers' Risk Management -- or "linking insurance prices to risk and improving availability of coverage"

6. Post-Disaster Mitigation -- or "incorporating mitigation measures in reconstruction efforts"

Inputs to the project consist of:

* technical assistance

* technology transfer

* public information

* demonstrations

* training

* studies



A. Project Management and Administration Functions

1. Accomplishments in the current quarter

Comments were received from RHUDO/CAR on the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan. No other comments were received.

New Progress Bulletins were prepared and disseminated for the project components on Insurance, Belize storm hazard assessment, Housing Retrofitting, and Electrical Utility risk assessment.

Implementation of the Public Education, Information and Training Strategy continued, with as highlight the production of a project video on CDMP response to hurricanes LUIS and Marilyn.

2. Accomplishments to-date since program initiation

The CDMP has established a project management office at Headquarters, a regional coordinating office in Jamaica, and a project office in the Dominican Republic.

The project has convened three meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), established to provide policy guidance and periodic review of the project.

Pilot activities were initiated in all areas of the project, in accordance with the detailed workplan for October 93 - December 94.

Working with the Regional Coordinator and in consultation with RHUDO/CAR, the Project Director completed budgeting and program planning for the calendar year 1995.

An evaluation specialist has been contracted by OAS to design and implement a project monitoring and evaluation system. The specialist, working with CDMP and RHUDO/CAR staff and consultants, has produced a final draft of the performance "logframes", now called "monitoring and evaluation matrices".

CDMP staff and the project's evaluation specialist attended an OFDA reporting seminar and revised the project quarterly reporting format, as directed, to reflect the structure and content of these matrices.

CDMP reformatted its financial reporting to reflect recorded expenditures.

CDMP reported on its activities to the new OAS Secretary-General.

The 1995 CDMP project budget and rolling workplan were circulated to all TAC members in January 1995.

A Public Education, Information and Training Strategy was adopted, based on a proposal developed by the RHUDO/CAR Regional Disaster Advisor, with inputs from CDMP and USAID.

The Monitoring and Evaluation Consultant prepared a new Monitoring and Evaluation Plan based on the "Managing for Results" methodology, which was distributed for comments to OAS and RHUDO/CAR,

B. Risk Audits and Lifeline/Critical Facility Loss Reduction

1. Accomplishments in the current quarter

CDMP delivered to CARILEC the Manual for Caribbean Electric Utilities addressing the Mitigation of Damage Caused by Natural hazards to Civil Works. CARILEC is making the Manual available to its members, and is preparing to incorporate it in its ongoing training programs. This effort to promote vulnerability reduction among its members is seen as complementary to a new project aimed at providing self-insurance for its member utilities. This venture is supported by IDB/CDB.

Applied Research Associates, a leading consulting firm in wind risk studies to T&D installations, was contracted to carry out a Hurricane Vulnerability Optimization Study for the T&D installations of the St. Vincent and Grenadines utility (VINLEC). The study is scheduled to be completed by April 1996.

2. Accomplishments to-date since program initiation

In the first quarter of 1994, CDMP and the Caribbean Electric Utility Services Corporation (CARILEC) agreed to collaborate on a pilot vulnerability assessment of an electrical utility.

The St. Lucia Electricity Services Ltd. (LUCELEC) was selected as a pilot site and, in February 1994, an OAS/USAID CDMP team undertook a programming mission to the site and prepared a scope of work for a vulnerability audit of the facilities owned and operated by LUCELEC.

To ensure that the study would be representative of all types of installation in the Caribbean, an assessment of the hydroelectric installations of the Dominica Electric Utility (DOMLEC) was included.

An inception report, including a preliminary assessment of the vulnerability of LUCELEC's facilities and recommendations for mitigation measures, was presented and discussed in a meeting with the consultants, CARILEC, LUCELEC and the CDMP team on Sept. 30.

Field work was completed on the hydroelectric installations in Dominica.

A project review meeting was held at the offices of CARILEC in February 1995, to review the work of all consultants (CEP Engineering: LUCELEC facility audit; McLean Engineering: LUCELEC T&D audit; USFS Jerry DeGraff: DOMLEC Hydroelectric audit)

A proposal was prepared to undertake a pilot wind risk study and produce recommendations for the entire region is under study. Applied Research Associates, the leader in wind risk studies to T&D installations, has been identified as consultant.

CEP Barbados completed the final report on the LUCELEC facilities vulnerability audit, and the Manual and Guidelines which incorporate elements from all vulnerability audits.

Following Hurricane LUIS, CARILEC and CDMP jointly undertook a lessons learned study of the impact of the hurricanes on the Antigua and Barbuda Electric Utility (APUA) and made recommendations for vulnerability reduction based on the LUCELEC pilot.

C. Risk Assessment/Hazard Mapping

1. Accomplishments in the current quarter

a) Jamaica: Montego Bay Coastal Flooding: CDMP organized a workshop on the storm surge maps prepared for Montego Bay in Kingston on November 15. The workshop was attended by over 30 participants from the public and private sectors, including the Mayor of Montego Bay and the Secretary of the St. James Parish Council. The workshop's primary objective was to demonstrate the proper interpretation and use of these maps and how they can be incorporated in the development process. Discussion in this area was led by Pauline McHardy, a planner and former member of the Town and Country Planning Authority. One of the conclusions of the group was that under the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act, it may be possible to have vulnerability assessments included as a part of the required Environment Impact Analysis. Other possible applications for improved coastal zone planning or building guidelines were also explored.

b) Jamaica: Kingston Multi-hazard Mapping. The contract for the first activity under this sub-component was signed in November 1995. Under this agreement, the Geology Department of the University of the West Indies will produce a series of GIS-based landslide potential maps for the Kingston/St. Andrew area. Work on this activity commenced in November and is tentatively scheduled for completion in October 1996.

The scope of work for the earthquake zonation component was reviewed and modified. This modification has now been completed and is acceptable to the Earthquake Unit. Contracting of Phase I of this component will take place in January 1996.

c) The Caribbean Meteorological Institute (CMI) CMI continued to develop its skills in using the TAOS model for various applications in the Caribbean. CDMP provided financing for a CMI staff person to present the model and its application at a Workshop on the Need of Meteorological and Hydrological Data for the Insurance Industry, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Oct. 26-27. CMI also participated in the installation of the model in Belize.

d) Belize: Flood Hazard Assessment. CDMP presented the results of the coastal flood hazard assessment for Belize, in the form of maps with maximum envelopes of water (MEOW) for various storm categories. A half day presentation of the model and the resulting coastal hazard maps was organized with the participation of the Cabinet Secretary, who is also coordinator of the National Disaster Committee, and approximately thirty persons representing key government agencies, the engineering community, the insurance industry, and the NGO community.

The TAOS RFS model was installed in the National Meteorological Office and the National Hydrological Office, and staff persons from each office were trained. Part of the training consisted in a simulation of a class 3 hurricane hitting Belize City, and determining how many hours prior to the storm the two roads leading out of the city would be cut off by flooding, or become impassable due to wind, factors that needs to be taken into account when planning evacuation. Several other applications were discussed

e) Dominican Republic. The CDMP Coordination and Communication team presented the storm hazard maps for the D.R. to interested private sector agencies and public sector land use and planning agencies. As a result, the Military Cartographic Institute agreed to prepare a flood risk map for the southern coast of the country to allow public and private sector organizations to identify what is at risk and prepare accordingly. Three hurricane simulations were conducted with participation from all sectors in Haina (the D.R.'s most important port), Barahona and Higuey/Punta Cana (both developed tourist areas in the traditional pathway of hurricanes); these activities emphasized the need for each region to prepare a coordinated and comprehensive plan.

2. Accomplishments to-date since program initiation

CDMP developed a PC-based numerical storm hazard assessment model (TAOS), and conducted a quantitative assessment of the tropical storm hazards affecting Jamaica.

A Technical Working Group (TWG) was formed from among the agencies directly interested in the hazard mapping and its applications. CDMP made available a GIS software package and GIS training to members of the TWG.

Coastal flooding hazard maps of the Montego Bay area were completed in late May. The maps were presented to the Mayor of the City of Montego Bay, and to the public at a seminar attended by 48 professionals, held on June 2, 1994, in Kingston.

The Montego Bay hazard maps are available to be used by the local Parish Council to identify safe evacuation routes and to sensitize residents in the identified risk areas, and by the Greater Montego Bay Development Company to identify vulnerable locations and the hazards which would threaten potential development sites.

The Portland Parish Disaster Committee received copies of these maps and requested that the coastline and river valleys of their parish also be mapped for natural hazards. The CDMP determined that requests like these would be best answered by Technical Working Group members once they have assimilated the training and have developed the capacity to operate the model.

The staff meteorologist of the Jamaica Broadcast Corporation (JBC - Television) was invited to participate in the storm hazard modelling training activities.

The TAOS Storm Hazard Assessment Model was installed at the Jamaica Office of Disaster Preparedness (ODP) and staff members of ODP, the Meteorological Office, and a representative of the Jamaica Broadcast Corporation (JBC) were trained in its use.

CDMP co-sponsored a Regional Floodplain Hazard Mapping Workshop in collaboration with the Hydrological Support Unit of the Underground Water Authority, a member-institution of the Jamaica TWG.

A meeting was held with the Jamaican Institute of Engineers on May 15-16 to review the first set of Montego Bay flood maps. CDMP followed-up by preparing a series of hazard maps for Montego Bay showing the entire range of maximum surge lines corresponding to different storm categories and angles of approach.

The National Land Policy Committee at the Office of the Prime Minister has accepted CDMP recommendations on the incorporation of various disaster management policies and techniques in Land Policy.

The Regional Forecasting (RFS) application of the TAOS storm hazard assessment model was installed in the Caribbean Meteorological Institute (CMI), Barbados, and staff of CMI, the National Meteorological Service and CDERA were trained in its application.

A one-week GIS training course in IDRISI was held at the Jamaica College of Arts and Sciences (CAST), attended by 16 participants selected by CDMP from institutions participating in the project's technical working group.

CDMP project staff of OAS and RHUDO/CAR visited Belize in January 1995 at government's invitation to program a storm surge and flood hazard assessment for the country.

CDMP prepared wind and storm surge hazard maps for Hispaniola

Prior to Hurricane Luis striking Antigua, CMI used TAOS to produce a projected storm surge, and sent a warning to the Antigua Meteorological Office regarding possible surge values that could accompany Hurricane Luis. After Luis, CMI collected actual storm surge information in Antigua and Barbuda and in Dominica.

D. Improved Building Standards, Codes and Practices

1. Joint UNCHS/CDMP Building Code Strengthening Exercise for OECS Countries

a) Accomplishments in the current quarter:

The completed Antigua/Barbuda building code was adopted and used by the government to guide rehabilitation/reconstruction activities. Legislation necessary for the enforcement was also passed and promulgated. The Development Control Authority (DCA) expressed an interest in support from CDMP for a training workshop on code enforcement procedures for building officers.

A lead consultant acceptable to the UNDP/UNCHS has been identified to undertake preparation of the Dominica and St. Lucia building codes, paving the way for work to commence in these two countries.


b) Accomplishments to-date since program initiation

Following CDMP participation in a workshop held in Barbados, January 1994, on harmonization of building code legislation (organized by UNDP/UNCHS and the OECS - Natural Resources Management Unit), a joint effort between UNCHS and USAID/OAS CDMP was planned in improving building standards and codes in the region.

A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the General Secretariat of the OAS, the United Nations Development Program, and the UN Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) which commits the signatories to a joint pilot project for Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, and St. Lucia.

Antigua & Barbuda and Dominica commented on a model building code prepared under a UNCHS-sponsored program for the OECS countries, and thus qualified for assistance.

Public consultations on the draft code were initiated in Antigua and Barbuda in April 1995.

Antigua and Barbuda adopted the building code shortly after hurricanes Luis and Marilyn struck the island.

2. St. Lucia and Dominica Low-Income Housing Retrofit Pilot Projects

a) Accomplishments in the current quarter:

1) Saint Lucia: Ten houses were retrofitted over the period October to December. This brought to 17 the number of houses retrofitted by CARITAS. Twenty-five additional applications were processed, of which 15 have been approved by the Committee. Plans were prepared for the restructuring of the existing training course. Plans include a one-week visit by an external trainer to work with CARITAS to review and upgrade the present training course.

2) Dominica: Builders trained under the project in Dominica have formed a coop to undertake retrofit work at the national level. Four of the trained builders were recruited by the Caribbean Conference of Churches to undertake reconstruction/rehabilitation activities in Antigua. The team built one unit and retrofitted four other houses, incorporating all the safety features. The CCC will be awarding a certificate of appreciation to these builders.

A one-day consultation was organized by the NDFD to introduce the concept of retrofit to the insurance industry and building contractors. This consultation was supported by the national Government and resulted in tentative promises by the insurance sector to reduce premiums if safe construction/mitigation measures are employed by homeowners.

NDFD started a survey of builders trained under the project, to identify the total number of buildings retrofitted outside of the loan programme. Results of this should be available during the 1st quarter of 1996.

3) Antigua and Barbuda, and St. Kitts and Nevis: The CDMP Regional Coordinator met with Dr. Carl Walter of the Antigua National Development Foundation in December to discuss the possible replication of the retrofit program in Antigua. A proposal was subsequently received from the Antigua NDF. The proposal includes a request for loan support from CHF.

Two CDMP trainers visited St. Kitts and Nevis to advise government on post disaster reconstruction and participate in training and public information activities. The National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) is organizing follow-up activities.

b) Accomplishments to date since program initiation

CDMP, in association with the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) and USAID's Caribbean Regional Housing & Urban Development Office (RHUDO/CAR) conducted a region-wide inventory of NGOs and private sector institutions which could be effective agents in the promotion of hurricane vulnerability reduction for low income housing. Based on the analysis of this inventory, St. Lucia and Dominica were selected as pilot project countries.

The Cooperative Housing Foundation (CHF) was contracted by the OAS to work with these NGOs to advance this process and to negotiate the terms by which they will extend credit to seed a revolving loan fund over a three-year period.

In April 1994, representatives of each of the selected countries attended a one-week Regional Workshop in Jamaica, where they focused on the design, development and funding of National Hurricane Vulnerability Retrofitting and Safe Construction Programs.

In June 1994, a CDMP team travelled to these countries to facilitate formation of National Project Advisory Committees (NPAC) and selection of non-governmental lead agencies for the programs.

In August 1994, the lead NGOs were contracted for each country (CARITAS in St. Lucia, and the National Development Foundation of Dominica in Dominica) to develop and institutionalize the retrofit and safe construction programs, and to design and implement technical training programs, small revolving loan programs and publicity programs to promote retrofitting and safer construction practices.

In St. Lucia, CARITAS and the National Research and Development Foundation (NRDF) surveyed five communities and selected two (Dennery, Gros Islet) for intensive outreach campaigns and selection of participating households. Fourteen households were selected in Dennery, and 10 in Gros Islet.

The Sir Arthur Lewis Community College (SALCC) was contracted by CARITAS to train artisans and builders. Fifteen artisans of the participating communities were trained in time to start retrofitting activities in early January 1995.

NRDF prepared loan approval criteria and loan application questionnaires, and decided to place its own capital into the revolving loan fund to supplement CHF's contribution of approximately US$ 30,000, at the target level of 1 EC Dollar to every US Dollar invested.

NRDF was successful in attracting substantial local funding for a revolving loan, and to start its own housing improvement program with a safety upgrade/retrofit component.

CARITAS and NRDF discontinued their partnership and started independent versions of the original retrofit program, with CARITAS following the original design and NRDF focusing on home improvement with a safety upgrade/retrofitting component.

During the 3rd quarter 1995, CDMP and CHF provided further assistance to CARITAS in expanding and streamlining its activities and the preparation of a business plan focusing on a self sufficient operation after CDMP. The CDMP evaluator also made a follow-up visit to carry out an interim review.

In Dominica, the National Development Foundation of Dominica (NDFD) completed community surveys and credit studies in 12 villages, and held outreach programs in 3 communities.

The Safe Shelter Initiative (SSI) was contracted to design training workshops and train estimators and builders in the selected communities.

A project management committee consisting of NDFD, SSI and the National Disaster Coordinator was set up.

Loan criteria were established and promotion efforts coordinated with the hurricane season.

Houses retrofitted by NDFD served as hurricane shelter during the passage of hurricane Luis in September 1995.

E. Property Insurers' Risk Management

1. Accomplishments in the current quarter

a) In Jamaica, the local committee did not take any action despite repeated telephone calls and letters from the CDMP regional coordinator urging the committee to meet and develop a programme of activities. to date, nothing has happened in this area. Based on this, it would seem appropriate to abandon this activity.

b) CDMP consultant Arthur Evans participated in 2 more meetings of the CARICOM working party on Insurance and Reinsurance, assisted the Working party in preparing a report for the heads of Government, and completed a final draft of the "Working Paper on Catastrophe Protection in the Caribbean"

b) In Belize, the Organization of Insurance Companies of Belize (ORINCO) has requested assistance from the CDMP in organizing a two day national seminar on critical insurance issues, including the role of the industry in disaster mitigation. The seminar is scheduled for March 1996.

c) CDMP continued its assistance to the CARICOM Working Party on Insurance and Reinsurance. CDMP consultant Evans participated in a meeting of the Party, and helped prepare their draft report.

2. Accomplishments to date since program initiation

Attempts were made to initiate collaboration between the CDMP and the Barbados-based Insurance Association of the Caribbean (IAC) in preparing a risk management strategy and workplan addressing issues of regional insurance. A proposal was made to facilitate the establishment of a data bank for the Caribbean insurance industry, to formulate policy and technical orientation, to develop training materials that might improve property risk underwriting practices, and to assist with a probable maximum loss assessment for the region.

CDMP began discussions with a variety of insurance groups based in the United States who could act as technical resources in assisting the Caribbean insurance industry. Included were the recently-created Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction (IIPLR), the Applied Insurance Institute, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners and the American Institute of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters of the United States. The Boston-based IIPLR was selected as the lead resource since its mission is strongly related to the objectives of CDMP.

In association with the Insurance College of Jamaica (ICOJ) and the Jamaica Association of General Insurance Companies (JAGIC), CDMP convened a two-day seminar for Senior Insurance Management Executives on "Sector Initiatives in Underwriting and Probable Maximum Loss Calculation for Improved Reinsurance Availability", held in Kingston, November 17-18, 1995. The conference featured presentations by the Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction (IIPLR) and by experts from the region, and was attended by approximately 60 participants from seven countries (Jamaica, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, Belize and the USA) representing individual insurance companies, brokers, industry associations and training institutions, government officials, and the directors of CDERA and the Insurance Association of the Caribbean (IAC).

In May 1995 CDMP and the Camera de Aseguradoras de la Republica Dominicana (CADOAR) held a two day workshop on Probable Maximum Loss (PML) calculation with participation of five US based risk management firms.

CDMP started the preparation of a "Working Paper on Catastrophe Protection in the Caribbean" in support of a CARICOM initiative to address critical insurance issues. The work is carried out in consultation with the Chairman of the CARICOM working party on insurance and reinsurance. At the invitation of the OAS, the World Bank has joined the effort. Consultants from CDMP and the World Bank visited Trinidad during the IAC Annual General Meeting, and Jamaica to consult with the chairman of the CARICOM working party.


F. Community Disaster Preparedness:

1. Dominican Republic

a) Accomplishments in the current quarter

1. Training the Trainers: The TT Team carried out the first national course on Damage Assessment and Needs Evaluation, attended by 29 participants representing top public, private and NGO organizations most likely to participate in a formal evaluation of a disaster. Later in November the team prepared and gave another 5 day CPI - Training Methodology Course which was attended by 28 participants. Both courses were coordinated and financed jointly with the UNDP/Public Works Disaster Project.

2 Coordination and Communication: Several presentations made during this period, including two prime-time television programs. CDMP was also invited by the UNDP to present at INSTRAW on October 11 for the International Decade of Disaster Reduction; The CDMP concluded 1995 by holding an Annual Meeting of CDMP activity alumni and community members to review this year's activities, announce programming for 1996, and to determine the impact of the CDMP's activities to date in terms of educating alumni/community members in preparing for disaster.

3. Information: The second informational Bulletin was distributed and received positive feedback. The team obtained a CODETEL produced CD-ROM which allows sorting, classification and identification of all private, public and other entities listed in the white and yellow pages, resulting in a very economical alternative to the inventory of private enterprises and NGOs nationwide. The T-shirts for instructors of the Community Disaster Preparedness Workshops were printed, as well as the Hurricane Season Calendar/Posters for 1996, and the Brochures providing a graphic and textual explanation of what to do before, during and after a hurricane and an earthquake.

4. Community Education: The leadership of this element was passed to Mr. Santiago Rodríguez of World Vision. Programming of 110 Community Disaster Preparedness Workshops was agreed upon and World Vision turned in its formal proposal to coordinate the 110 workshops among a group of 10 NGOs at a pace of one Workshop per NGO per month. During the fourth quarter, the CDMP financed 11 Community Disaster Preparedness Workshops and several others were financed by NGOs such as CARE and SSID and the Dominican Red Cross. An estimated 17-20 workshops were held in 1995, and as many as 600 people were trained.

5. Community Initiatives: The C.I. Team reviewed and approved a proposal to complete the procedural documentation required by the element, which was received in December and will be reviewed by the Team in January. A dozen applicants were interviewed for the Accountant and Facilitator positions, although the actual hiring was later postponed until May 1996.

b) Accomplishments to date since program initiation

Following the project start-up workshop in February 1994, a temporary project advisory committee of 11 institutions was established.

The committee identified as a first priority for the project the establishment of a coordination and communication mechanism for effective involvement of the NGO and private sector communities in disaster management in the country.

Systematic interviews were held with interested NGOs and private companies to establish an inventory of their skills and resources and to identify focal points for emergency management.

On September 1, at the request of the committee, OAS contracted a local project officer for one year to support the committee and coordinate project activities. The project officer operates from the local OAS Office.

Several public awareness and information campaigns were organized.

A Permanent Advisory Committee was constituted for the project with five NGO members, five private sector members, and two representatives of public sector agencies.

The Committee held a major public seminar on November 10 to present the project strategy to more than 175 representatives of the private sector, the public sector and NGO community.

CDMP, CARE-Dominicana and USAID/OFDA-Costa Rica co-sponsored the first of five training courses in disaster management attended by 28 people, representing member organization of the CDMP Advisory Committee such as the Red Cross, Civil Defense, and several national NGOs and private companies.

Media presentations were initiated to inform the private sector and NGOs and to generate interest in CDMP objectives and activities.

The Permanent Advisory Committee established working groups for each strategic element of the project (Training, Coordination/Communication, Information, Public Education, Community

Initiatives) to prepare detailed workplans and budgets for implementation.

Public information and education campaigns, and specialized training courses in disaster preparedness are being scheduled on a regular basis.

Several graduates of the CDMP training courses are instrumental in setting up disaster preparedness committees in their communities, Several more communities are requesting information on disaster risk and on the activities of the project.

Final legal work on the incorporation process was completed and the new NGO, the Dominican Committee of Disaster Mitigation, awaits the Dominican President's signature by the end of December to conclude the procedure. The new NGO will be contracted by the OAS as local implementing agency for the project, starting in 1996.

2. Haiti

1. Accomplishments in the current quarter

Following parliamentary elections in October 1995, the Commission de Prevention et de Gestion de Desastres 1995 (C.P.G.D.95), which was the Committee that had approved the CDMP proposal, was disbanded. Clarification was therefore sought from the government. The OAS Director met with the Minister of Environment, who informed the Director that the CDMP project would fall under the control of his Ministry, and would be executed within his Ministry's Plan d' Action. This development coincided with the news from PFDA that new funding for CDMP was uncertain. Consultations were held with RHUDO/CAR and the local USAID Office, and it was decided to put the CDMP Haiti project on hold until further news regarding funding, and the new government assuming power in February 1996.

2. Accomplishments to date since program initiation

Several programming missions were undertaken by RHUDO/CAR and OAS. CDMP prepared a proposal for project activities in Haiti which reflected government priorities and areas of interest by the Haiti USAID Mission.

During the 3rd quarter of 1995, the Government of Haiti established a high level national committee for disaster preparedness: the "Commission de Prevention et de Gestion de Desastres 1995 (C.P.G.D.95)" which approved the CDMP proposal for activities in Haiti.

With the approval of the Haitian Disaster Committee, CDMP started recruiting candidates for local project coordinator.

G. Post-Disaster Mitigation Missions

1. Accomplishments in the current quarter

The latter half of 1995 will be remembered for the numerous hurricanes and tropical storms which affected the Caribbean region. Over the period August to September 1995, tropical storms/hurricanes Iris (August 27), Luis (September 4-5) and Marilyn (September 14-15) passed through the region. Trough participation in the donor meetings organized by UNDP in Barbados, OECS in Dominica, and the World Bank for the CGCED in Washington, CDMP activated its response mechanism and implemented activities in Antigua/Barbuda, Dominica and St. Kitts/Nevis.

Antigua and Barbuda: Over the period September 30 to October 12, 1995, the CDMP provided three trainers in safe construction techniques and training material to the Government of Antigua/Barbuda. The trainers worked with counterparts from the Development Control Authority, the Central Housing and Planning Authority, National Office of Disaster Services and UNCHS. In all, 12 training workshops were conducted. Some training sessions were held at night to facilitate attendance. The Development Control Authority in Antigua/Barbuda has appointed an engineer to continue the training activities begun by the CDMP. To support this effort, an additional 900 copies of the training manuals were sent to the D.C.A.

The National Development Foundation (NDF) in Antigua/Barbuda has also expressed an interest in working with the CDMP to expand their existing home improvement project. The NDF is seeking assistance from CDMP in setting standards for these improvements and in locating qualified builders, and is seeking a contribution from CHF to its loan fund.

St. Kitts/Nevis: Over the period November 19 to 25, two CDMP consultants visited St. Kitts/Nevis who assessed Government's post hurricane reconstruction activities, provided advice and instruction to local contractors involved in reconstruction and repair activities, participated in a public information campaign, and prepared a summary report of findings, e.g., commonly found problems and suggested improvements. The National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) is seeking to identify an organization to continue their training activity. St. Kitts/Nevis also expressed interest in establishing a Housing Retrofit activity similar to St. Lucia and Dominica.

Dominica: Hurricanes Luis and Marilyn created substantial damages to coastal infrastructure in Dominica. During this quarter, USAID and CDB made arrangements for providing grant and loan funding, respectively, for rehabilitation work. Both agencies are requesting that disaster mitigation be included in the reconstruction effort. Meetings were held with CDB, USAID Barbados, RHUDO/CAR and OAS which led to the agreement that CDMP would carry out a detailed storm surge and wave action assessment as a basis for setting design criteria for all coastal construction, and would provide the necessary "check consultancy" services to ensure proper implementation of the criteria. Contractual and other arrangements for this activity will be worked out during the next quarter.

2. Accomplishments to date since program initiation

The Post-Disaster Mitigation activity was added to the set of CDMP program activities following the March 1994 meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee, which was held in New Orleans concurrently with the US National Hurricane Symposium. The activity was designed and budgeted prior to onset of the 1994 hurricane season.

CDMP has made provisions to assist countries affected by disasters in incorporating mitigation activities into reconstruction projects. These provisions have included contacting disaster focal point officers within the multilateral reconstruction/disaster relief donor/technical assistance community for the purpose of coordinating efforts.

Following Tropical Storm Debby, which caused approximately $37 million in damage to St. Lucia, the CDMP located specialists in hydrology and landslide hazards who are able to assess these damages and provide mitigation recommendations to the reconstruction effort.

A CDMP post-disaster team of two experts (a US Forest Service landslide specialist and a geotechnical engineering consultant) was dispatched to St. Lucia to carry out an inventory and analysis of the impacts of the landslides caused by the storm. The team worked closely with a World Bank Mission studying a loan application for reconstruction.

An updated landslide hazard map and recommendations for landslide-resistant design of roads and infrastructure, landslide avoidance through land use controls, and farm practices that ensure greater hillside stability were submitted to the Government of St. Lucia and the World Bank.

The World Bank has incorporated the recommendations of the CDMP post-Debby landslide hazard assessment in their reconstruction loan program for St. Lucia, approved in July.

Following hurricane LUIS, CDMP participated in various donor coordination meetings and offered to assist affected countries with intensive training for homeowners and artisans in safe rebuilding and retrofitting.


H. Regional Workshops

1. Accomplishments in the current quarter

CDMP sponsored the participation of CMI in a Workshop on the Need of Meteorological and Hydrological Data for the Insurance Industry, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Oct. 26-27. The CMI Meteorologist presented information on applications of the TAOS storm model installed at CMI.

RHUDO/CAR continued with the preparations for the regional workshop on the housing retrofit program, scheduled for Dominica in early 1996.

CDMP consultant Charles Watson presented the TAOS model and Caribbean storm hazard assessment applications to the Conference on Environmental Computing and Information Technology, Washington D.C. October 11 to 13, 1995.



2. Accomplishments to date since program initiation

CDMP collaborated with PAHO and the University of the West Indies in sponsoring a regional workshop on "Disaster Mitigation for Medium-Sized Institutional Buildings" in Port of Spain, March 1995.

The CDMP project director and GIS consultant participated, by invitation, in a NOAA sponsored workshop on Atlantic Hurricane Vulnerability on Decadal Time Scales: Nature, Causes and Socio-Economic Impact, held in Coral Gables, February 1995.

The CDMP project director presented a paper on "Engaging Planners and Investors in the Assessment of Storm Risk in Jamaica" at the Ninth Applied Climatology Conference of the American Meteorological Society, in Dallas, January 1995.

The CDMP regional coordinator participated in the French sponsored ICAROS workshop in Dominica, March 1995.

The CDMP was invited to present the TAOS storm hazard assessment model and its applications at the 17th Session of the RAIV Hurricane Committee of the World Meteorological Organization in Guadeloupe, April 4 - 8, 1995.

From July 24 to 26, CDMP organized a training course for staff of the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) on Incorporating Natural Hazard Considerations in the Project Preparation Process.

CDMP consultant Tony Gibbs reported on the findings of the vulnerability audit of the St. Lucia electrical utility in a regional seminar on Reduction of the Effects of Natural Hazards on the Energy Infrastructure, held in Costa Rica from August 28 to September 1, 1995.


This quarter built on the progress made during last quarter in terms of acceptance of disaster mitigation and loss reduction by the development financing agencies. The CDB incorporated significant disaster mitigation aspects in their loan to Dominica for rehabilitation of the coastal infrastructure. CDB made the loan conditional to a detailed coastal surge and wave hazard study as a basis for setting the design standards for any coastal construction. In negotiations with CDB and USAID, who also contribute to the rehabilitation with a $500,000 grant, it was agreed that CDMP would execute the study within its existing project budget, and would contract the necessary additional technical services for setting standards and proper construction methods with resources to be provided from the USAID grant to CDB.

CDB also requested CDMP to repeat the training course on incorporating disaster mitigation in project formulation. A second course is scheduled for July 1996.

The CDMP response to the hurricanes that affected Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica and St. Kitts/Nevis has been instrumental in creating a demand for interventions similar to the safe roof campaigns ongoing in Dominica and St. Lucia. The National Development Foundation of Antigua and Barbuda submitted a proposal for joining this CDMP activity, and the National Emergency Management Agency is in St. Kitts/Nevis is identifying a local NGO to do the same. In the ongoing pilots in Dominica and St. Lucia, questions are being raised about the extent to which housing retrofit programs should be self supporting, i.e. financed by a revolving loan fund, with administrative expenses covered by fees and the loan-spread. This would make participation in the program impossible for the lowest income groups. An example is the downturn in Dominica's economy after the recent hurricanes, and the number of families who had signed up for the program but can no longer afford to contract loans. The next TAC meeting should address the issue of subsidizing the safe roof program for the lowest income households.

Substantial progress was made in the Dominican Republic towards the establishment of an independent non-governmental organization that will act as coordinator for the CDMP activities in that country. A Presidential Decree creating the NGO is expected during January 1996. This is seen as an important step in making the CDMP activities in the Dominican Republic more self-sustaining. The new NGO has among its members most of the existing NGO's and private sector companies that have provided active support to the CDMP since the beginning of its activities in the Dominican Republic. A detailed workplan and budget for the NGO were prepared, including the level of financial and technical support it will require from CDMP.

In summary, it can be said that upon nearing the halfway mark, the CDMP is starting to show definite signs of impact in the area of replication of its activities. The Project's message is getting around, and national and regional groups and agencies are taking initiatives to inquire about CDMP, and to put forward specific proposals aimed at duplicating some CDMP activity. In each of the cases observed so far -- safe roof campaigns in Antigua and Barbuda and St. Kitts and Nevis, training at CDB, vulnerability audits with CARILEC, insurance workshop in Belize -- the agencies requesting CDMP assistance are fully prepared to share in the costs of the initiatives. This is indeed a promising and important step towards a long term commitment of development planning, - financing and - implementing agencies to incorporate disaster mitigation in their own operations.