ECUADOR, PERU, AND VENEZUELA
Review of the Implementation of the
Convention on the Prevention, Punishment,
Eradication of Violence against Women
June 21 and 22, 2001)
II. WORKING PROCEDURES
III. PRINCIPAL OBSTACLES
IDENTIFIED BY THE GROUP OF EXPERTS OF THE ANDEAN SUBREGION WITH RESPECT
TO MEASURES TO IMPLEMENT THE CONVENTION OF BELEM DO PARA.
IV. JOINT RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGIONAL
PRIORITY AREAS FOR THE NEXT BIENNIUM. THE GROUP OF EXPERTS OF THE ANDEAN
Conclusions and recommendations of the Ecuador working group
II: Call for Action of Symposium 2001 "Gender Violence,
Health and Rights
The Meeting of Experts of the Andean Subregion was
held in Quito, Ecuador on June 21 and 22, 2001, attended by delegates from
Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela.
The CIM invited each country’s Principal Delegate to
the CIM and two experts representing nongovernmental organizations in the
participating countries. The exception was Ecuador, whose Principal
Delegate to the CIM was accompanied by 11 representatives of organizations
specializing in the subject. Also attending were the Executive Secretary
of the CIM, Carmen Lomellin, and the Principal Specialist of the CIM,
The Principal Delegate of Ecuador invited
representatives from different sectors of the central government, local
authorities and nongovernmental organizations from all over the country to
form a working group to devote itself exclusively to examining the case of
Ecuador. This working group was composed of 36 participants.
The meeting was held at the Hotel Quito. It was
sponsored by the following international organizations: CIM/OAS, PAHO/WHO,
UNIFEM. It was also sponsored by the nongovernmental organizations Centro
de Investigación de los Movimientos Sociales del Ecuador (CEDIME)
[Research Center on the Social Movements of Ecuador] and Centro
Ecuatoriano para la Promoción y Acción de la Mujer (CEPAM)
[Ecuadorian Center for Women’s Advancement and Action]; the National
Council on Women (CONAMU), a government agency; and Coordinadora
Política de Mujeres Ecuatorianas [Ecuadorian Women’s Political
Coordinator] representing the women’s social movement.
Registration of foreign and national participants began
at 8:30 a.m. on June 21. Each participant was given a folder containing
the following documents:
- Schedule of the meeting
- Report on the CIM Project on National Programs to Prevent, Punish,
and Eradicate Violence against Women in the South-American Region.
- The Convention of Belém do Pará five years after. The Case of
- Report on the Meeting of Experts of the MERCOSUR Subregion,
Bolivia and Chile.
- The Inter-American Convention for the Prevention, Punishment, and
Eradication of Violence against Women "Convention of Belém do
- Violence against Women and Girls, Situation of Ecuador, 1995-1999,
- Women in the History of Ecuador, by Dr. Mercedes Jiménez de Vega.
- Intra-family Violence. Self-instruction courses for health
The Inauguration Ceremony was held at 9:30 a.m. in the
Simón Bolívar Room, with speeches given by Mrs. María Isabel Baquerizo
de Noboa, the First Lady of the Nation; Dr. Aasse Smedler, UN Resident
Coordinator in Ecuador; Ms. Carmen Lomellin, Executive Secretary of the
CIM; and Miryam Garcés Dávila, Principal Delegate of Ecuador to the CIM.
Accompanying the Presiding Officers were Dr. Mariana Yépez,
Attorney-General; Dr. Lucía Salamea, Director-in-Charge of UNIFEM, Andean
Regional Office, and Dr. Carlos María Ocampos Arbo, Director of the
Office of the General Secretariat of the OAS in Ecuador. Also attending
this ceremony were representatives of international organizations, the
diplomatic corps, and high-ranking central and local government officials.
- WORKING PROCEDURES
Two plenary sessions were held which were attended by
all the delegates. In addition three work sessions were held by the two
working groups that were formed: one composed of experts from the Andean
Subregion, and the other of participants from Ecuador only.
The moderators were Mrs. Miriam Ernst of CEPAM at the
plenary sessions; Mrs. Gloria Mayra of Feministas por la Autonomía,
at the sessions of the Andean Subregion working group; and, at the
sessions of the Ecuador working group, Mrs. Nelly Jácome, National
Director of Special Police Offices for Women of the Ministry of the
Interior of Ecuador.
The first plenary session opened with a presentation by
the Principal Specialist of the CIM, Mercedes Kremenetzky, of the results
of the Project on Violence in the Americas, a regional analysis, including
a review of the implementation of the Inter-American Convention on the
Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women.
Next to take the floor was Dr. Lucía Salamea,
Director-in-Charge of UNIFEM, Andean Regional Office, who spoke about
programs on prevention of and response to violence against women in the
Following these two presentations, both governmental
and nongovernmental representatives of the countries gave presentations
outlining progress and problems connected with measures and programs
designed to respond to and prevent violence toward women and to implement
the Convention of Belém do Pará.
These presentations provided the general framework for
the ensuing activities of both the Andean Subregion and the Ecuador
The two groups began their work in the afternoon: the
delegates of the guest countries and the 11 representatives of Ecuador met
in the Simón Bolívar Room; and the representatives of governmental
sectors and civil society of Ecuador met in the Cayambe Room. In the
latter group, Dr. Rocío Salgado initiated activities with a presentation
of the case of Ecuador, since it was she who conducted the research for a
study that became one of a set of papers used by the CIM for its Violence
in the Americas project.
The activities of the two groups of experts centered on
the following thematic areas:
- Legal mechanisms to combat violence
- Public implementation of legal mechanisms
- Response to and prevention of violence in practice.
Activities on June 22 started at 7:30 a.m. with a
working breakfast to which representatives of the international press were
invited in order to interview the experts of the Andean Subregion and the
delegates to the CIM. Afterwards the working groups continued their
meetings in the morning and the afternoon.
After the exchange of views and proposals had
concluded, the Second Plenary Session was held at 16:30, at which the
meeting was informed of obstacles encountered in connection with the
implementation of the Convention of Belém do Pará and of recommendations
on priority areas for which a consensus had been achieved in each of the
Following are the conclusions and recommendations
prepared by the Andean Subregion working group. Those of the Ecuador
working group are attached in Annex I.
The Closing Session followed immediately thereafter,
with an address given by Dr. Carlos María Ocampos Arbo, Director of the
Office of the General Secretariat of the OAS in Ecuador, who underscored
the importance of this meeting of experts and the subsequent impact it
would have on the countries. Ms. Carmen Lomellin, Executive Secretary of
the CIM and the Principal Delegate of Ecuador to the CIM also took the
floor to thank the participants and those who helped to organize the
III. PRINCIPAL OBSTACLES IDENTIFIED BY THE GROUP OF
EXPERTS OF THE ANDEAN SUBREGION WITH RESPECT TO MEASURES TO IMPLEMENT THE
CONVENTION OF BELEM DO PARA.
The principal obstacle is the lack of genuine
commitment to application of the Convention on the part of the governments
of the majority of the countries. It was plain that progress had been made
in the region as regards recognition of violence against women and
inclusion of the issue on the agenda of states. Nevertheless, the
following obstacles were mentioned for continued progress in ensuring the
effective protection of women’s human rights in the Americas.
The meeting welcomed the Call for Action of Symposium
2001 "Gender Violence, health and Rights," held in
Cancun, Mexico on June 7, 2001 (Annex II)
1. INFORMATION AND RECORDS
- Nonexistence of statistical records on violence broken down by
gender and age.
- Lack of a national system of records on violence against women.
- Lack of a system for follow-up, monitoring and evaluation of the
- Lack of a prevalence baseline study to measure impact.
- Lack of statistical information broken down by gender on acts of
violence committed against women by officials
2. ERADICATION OF STEREOTYPES
3. COMMITMENT OF THE STATES TO THE ERADICATION OF VIOLENCE
The design and implementation of state policies for the eradication of
violence against women do not match the magnitude and seriousness of
Absence within the state of an inter-institutional, intersectoral, and
inter-disciplinary approach to tackling violence against women.
Lack of political will on the part of governments for the sustained
implementation of public policies to deal with violence against women.
High turnover of officials and institutional weakness, which undermine
the sustainability and continuity of programs on prevention of and
response to violence against women.
Insufficient knowledge, application and observance of the principles
contained in the Convention of Belém do Pará in the region.
Inadequate treatment of violence against women both at the community
level and on the part of government officials.
Predominance of an approach to the issue that fails adequately to
connect violence against women with their integral development.
4. BUDGET ALLOCATION ON THE PART OF STATES AND OF THE
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION COMMUNITY
Insufficient allocation of budgetary resources that prevents ensuring
the sustained implementation of state policies and programs to combat
violence in a systematic, planned and horizontal manner.
Inadequate budgets for implementation of policies and programs for
women and a tendency to cut those resources even further in times of
Absence of an analysis of the cost of violence against women on their
economy and on the economy of the countries.
Scant funding by international organizations and cooperation agencies
of measures aimed at the prevention and eradication of violence.
- Lack of systematic and standing state policies to encourage the mass
media to conduct campaigns to promote prevention and eradication of
violence against women and equality between women and men in society.
- Lack of mechanisms to monitor and regulate programs for mass audiences
whose messages contain or reinforce stereotyped patterns of sexist or
- Reproduction through the mass media of gender and social and cultural
stereotypes that legitimize subordination of and violence against women.
- Prioritization of family ties over the rights of women, thus promoting
impunity for violence against women.
- Permanence of the traditional concept of family, obscuring the
existence of other forms of family organization and of the violence that
occurs within it.
- Persistence of socialization processes that keep women in
5. EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR ADDRESSING THE ISSUE OF
6. CARE AND COMPREHENSIVE PROTECTION FOR WOMEN VICTIMS OF
Absence of a model system of comprehensive care to deal with the
different forms of violence against women.
Nonexistence or lack of programs on response to violence that take
account of women’s diversity in terms of race, age, socioeconomic
background, and sexual orientation.
Lack of evaluation and monitoring of quality of attention in state and
Problems with addressing the issue of psychological violence against
women in prevention, care, and rehabilitation.
Lack of attention paid to the effects that violence against women has
on care providers.
- Existence of stereotypes and practices among justice workers and
civil servants in general (teachers, health care personnel, municipal
officials, etc.) that tolerate violence against women.
- Inadequate training of officials in different sectors (judges and
technical staff and officials of the judiciary, the police, health
officials, teaching staff at all levels, and communicators) on the
incorporation of the gender perspective and on the issue of violence.
- Failure to include the issue of violence against women in course
programs at higher and technical education establishments.
- Lack of awareness and knowledge of national and international laws
on violence against women on the part of justice administrators and
- Shortage of professionals trained in providing care for women
victims of violence.
7. ACCESS TO JUSTICE
- Difficulty for women to ensure the effective exercise of their
rights due to ignorance of those rights and insufficient free and
adequate legal protection.
- Insufficient measures to protect and safeguard the rights of women
victims of violence.
- Problems with interpretation and application of legal frameworks on
violence against women.
- Insufficient knowledge and awareness on the part of justice workers
and administrators, which hinders effective use of existing legal,
political and social resources.
- Trivialization and tolerance of violence against women by justice
- Masking of the harm that violence causes to victims and difficulty
of ensuring just reparation or compensation.
- Existence of mediation or conciliation in cases of violence against
- Existence of discriminatory mechanisms for taking evidence that
impede effective access to justice and real exercise of rights for
- Insufficient attention paid by the states to solving problems of
access to the justice administration and to comprehensive care
services for women victims of violence in rural and impoverished urban
8. ADAPTATION OF NATIONAL LAWS TO THE PROVISIONS AND
CONTENT OF THE CONVENTION
- Persistence of discriminatory concepts in the legal orders of
countries that perpetuate the various manifestations of violence,
particularly in provisions that classify sexual offences and in those
that protect decency, public morals, and the family.
- Failure to classify as crimes marital rape, sexual abuse within the
family, persecution and sexual harassment, child pornography,
trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation, forced
prostitution, and violence against women.
- Continued existence of domestic laws that contradict the Convention.
9. PROTECTION OF WOMEN AT RISK
- Inadequate laws or state policies on trafficking in women and
children, forced prostitution, child pornography, and sexual tourism.
- Inadequate public policies and programs on response to and
prevention of violence for women who are migrants, displaced,
indigenous, black, or live in rural or remote areas.
- Masking of violence against women and violation of their human
rights in situations of armed conflict.
10. PROMOTION OF WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND PREVENTION OF
VIOLENCE ON THE PART OF STATES
- Lack of sustainability in programs on dissemination of women’s
- Limited violence-prevention measures.
- Absence of programs designed to change sexist and discriminatory
cultural patterns of conduct.
11. CIVIL SOCIETY
- Inadequate participation by civil society in democratic negotiations
with states, international organizations and cooperation agencies for
defining policies and programs on violence against women.
- Limited use of the Convention of Belém do Pará to enforce respect
for women’s rights.
IV. JOINT RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGIONAL PRIORITY AREAS
FOR THE NEXT BIENNIUM. THE GROUP OF EXPERTS OF THE ANDEAN SUBREGION
1. STATISTICAL RECORDS
- Support the recommendation of the broadened MERCOSUR meeting with
respect to a joint regional project sponsored by UNIFEM to collect and
systematize information received by the various sectors that deal with
situations of violence against women, thus enabling the compilation of
accurate, comparative, and timely data.
- Recommend to the states the adoption at all levels of a system to
record and construct statistical information broken down by gender.
2. ERADICATION OF DISCRIMINATORY SOCIAL AND CULTURAL
PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR
3. ERADICATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Encourage the prioritization of violence against women in the public
agenda of the state.
- Regulation of the content of programs for mass audiences in order to
move forward in the eradication of social and cultural behavior
patterns that tolerate or perpetuate violence against women in the
4. BUDGET ALLOCATION
Incorporate the component of prevention and eradication of violence as
a criterion for the approval of the budget items for different state
5. EDUCATION AND TRAINING ON PREVENTION AND RESPONSE TO VIOLENCE
That training in gender and violence be regarded as a requirement for
the accreditation of justice workers and public officials involved in
6. ACCESS TO CARE AND COMPREHENSIVE PROTECTION FOR WOMEN VICTIMS
Draw up regional minimum standards of care for women victims of
violence with a view to accreditation, monitoring and evaluation of care
programs and services.
- Specific efforts to investigate, take a stand on, and adopt measures
to curb sexual violence and other forms of violence against women in
- Draw up and develop plans and programs on response to violence
against women that take account of women’s diversity in terms of
race, age, socioeconomic background, and sexual orientation.
7. ACCESS TO JUSTICE
Accord priority to rural and impoverished urban areas in the
installation of services for responding to violence against women.
- Pay particular attention to the psychological dimension of violence
and address the effects that it has on service providers.
- Encourage production of audiovisual material for mass broadcast on
state policies and services designed to ensure justice for women
victims of violence.
- Assess at the regional level the application of laws on violence
against women and recommend to the states reforms that might better
ensure respect for human rights and justice for women.
- Eliminate conciliation, mediation and arbitration in cases of
violence against women.
- Urge judicial review organs to ensure that justice workers adhere to
international conventions in proceedings and decisions.
8. ADAPTATION OF NATIONAL LAWS PROVISIONS AND CONTENT OF THE
Abolition of provisions contrary to the Convention and classification
as crimes of all forms of sexual violence.
9. PROTECTION OF WOMEN AT RISK
Introduce legislation and design state policies on trafficking in
women and children, forced prostitution, child pornography and sexual
- Ensure the ethical and professional competence of coroners and legal
experts responsible for certifying violence against women.
- Design public policies and programs on response to and prevention of
violence for women who are migrants, displaced, indigenous, black, or
live in rural or remote areas.
- Draw attention to violence against women and the violation of their
human rights in situations of armed conflict.
10. PROMOTION OF WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE
Carry out mass information campaigns that might help to change
cultural patterns of behavior that encourage the subordination of women.
11. CIVIL SOCIETY
Create forums to monitor compliance with the Convention.
- Recommend ratification of the Statute of the International Criminal
Quito-Ecuador June 21 and 22, 2001